Unconscious Bias: The neurobiology and social psychology of human behaviour

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Mediclinic E-learning Academy

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Our members - Hospital Association of South Africa

Unconscious Bias: The neurobiology and social psychology of human behaviour

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abstract

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Human behaviour and specifically diversity relations have from earliest times been regarded as a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma!!!

While we have solved so many complex issues within the natural sciences, as humanity (and within the social sciences) we are still struggling to understand the intricacies of being human. This programme will help you to explore some of the dynamics that inform human thought, attitudes and behaviour.

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Each day we act and interact with hundreds, if not thousands of people in both social settings and professional work environments. What informs our interactions in these engagements?

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Why do we relate differently to some people, than to other people? Is our behaviour overtly or covertly informed, are we conscious or unconscious of the factors driving our responses, do we react rationally and objectively or are we swayed by our personal life stories and subjectively lived experiences? Where does our stereotypes, prejudice and unconscious biases come from? Why do we, willingly and unwillingly discriminate against people? Are the above aspects all random or are there logical explanations for such dynamics? These are some of the pertinent questions that will be explored in this e-leaning module

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UNCONSCIOUS BIAS: THE NEUROBIOLOGY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

Video clip to be inserted Script below to be read by a senior Mediclinic Manager introducing the programme: Welcome to the Unconscious Bias e-learning module. This module will deepen your understanding of unconscious biases, how they influence behaviour, and how they impact us all. You'll also learn numerous individual and organisational strategies to help counter bias in your own work environment. The module will help to explain some of your thoughts, attitudes and behaviour when engaging with colleagues or interacting with patients. This is especially important given the multicultural and extremely diverse environment of the medical profession. The module will demonstrate how human interaction and meaning making is guided by our entrenched mental models, cultural conditioning and life experiences. It confirms the slogan that ' We do not see things as they are , we see things as we are'. The module sets out to create awareness of our blind spots and thereby to enable us to see one another for who we truly are.

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PROGRAMME OUTLINE

Introduction: What is Unconscious Bias? The psychology and neurobiology of unconscious bias Types of Unconscious Bias Awakening and awareness of my Unconscious Biases? Impact: Why is learning about Unconscious Bias Important? Mediclinic Unconscious Bias Case Studies Practical steps to minimize & overcome Unconscious Bias

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Plush question mark headband interrogation mark Network expression Doubt puzzled face Funny toys|Clothing & Accessories for Plush Stuff| - AliExpress

I don’t have stereotypes.

Free Puzzled Smiley Face, Download Free Clip Art, Free Clip Art on Clipart Library

I don’t discriminate

Likert Scale: What it is and How to Use it? | Customer Success Blog | Emojics

I treat everybody the same

Likert Scale: What it is and How to Use it? | Customer Success Blog | Emojics

Likert Scale: What it is and How to Use it? | Customer Success Blog | Emojics

Likert Scale: What it is and How to Use it? | Customer Success Blog | Emojics

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YOU ARE BIASED. (So am I.) IT MATTERS.

FACT: ALL PEOPLE ARE BIASED PERCEIVING ONE'S PERCEPTIONS, JUDGMENTS AND BEHAVIOUR AS OBJECTIVE AND UNBIASED, RAISES MANY QUESTIONS !!!

It's important to understand that we all have flawed perceptions of reality, selected attention & unconscious biases. Neurobiologically it's our brains' way of dealing with an overload of information. Brain researchers estimate the human mind takes in 11 million pieces of information per second through our senses, whilst our brain consciously can only consider about 40 pieces of information per second.

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YOU ARE BIASED. (So am I.) IT MATTERS.

The implication: +99% of your everyday decisions and snap judgements are made by your unconscious is Read - The half‐second delay: what follows? Read - Mysteries of the mind and snap judgements While we think we are being deliberate, rational, and thoughtful, our conscious thinking is actually a very small part of what drives our actions and judgments. No matter how well-meaning we are, we are all susceptible to bias. It's our brains' way of making sense of the flood of information that is coming at us constantly.

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Traditional perspectives assume that discrimination point to conscious acts. Recent revelations however point out that more times than not, people make choices that discriminate against one group and in favour of another, without even realising that they are doing it. These hard-wired unconscious biased decisions are based on familiar, safe and conditioned responses. Unconscious biases are social stereotypes about certain groups of people that individuals form outside their own conscious awareness. Everyone holds unconscious beliefs about various social and identity groups, and these biases stem from one's tendency to organize social worlds by categorizing. Biases are automatic, mental shortcut used to process information & make snap decisions. It categorises people and things without being aware of it. Our biases are guided by our past experiences, culture, socialization, media portrayals and other external influences.

What is unconscious bias?

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Video clip to be inserted - Scripts to be read by Mediclinic personnel Unconscious bias is a quick and often inaccurate judgment based on limited facts and our own life experiences. These judgments can give individuals and groups both unearned advantage and unearned disadvantage in the workplace. Unconscious bias distorts our lenses through which we see the world ... negatively impacting how we think , feel and behave towards others. It keeps us from seeing the talents, motivations and potential of people clearly ... also impacting the way we interact with them. _____________________________________________________________ Unconscious Bias is a bias that we are unaware of, and which happens outside of our control. It is a bias that happens automatically and is triggered by our brain making quick judgments and assessments of people and situations, influenced by our background, cultural environment, and personal experiences. When faced with decisions, our mind often leap to these automatic associations. Not surprisingly, our perceptions and assumptions based on these automatic associations are often incorrect.

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Employers Network for Equality & Inclusion ( enei ) on unconscious bias https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbe5D3Yh43o

Employers Network for Equality & Inclusion ( enei ) on unconscious bias https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbe5D3Yh43o

What is Unconscious Bias?.mp4

Understanding Unconscious Bias A neuroscientific and social psychology perspective

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FOUR FACTORS THAT CAN MAKE A SITUATION PRONE TO BIAS: 1. TASK 2. NUMBERS 3. CLARITY 4. PERCEIVER

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TYPES OF UNCONSCIOUS BIAS

Affinity: Preference for people who share qualities with you / someone you like Anchoring: Tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information offered when you are making decisions Attribution: Tendency to attribute other people's successes to luck or help from others and attribute their failures to lack of skill or personal shortcomings Confirmation: Selective focus on information that supports your initial opinion(s) Conformity: Tendency to be swayed too much by the views of other people Contrast: Assessment of two or more similar things by comparing them with one another rather than looking at their individual merits Halo: Focus on one particularly positive feature about a person that clouds your judgement Horns: Focus on one particularly negative feature about a person that clouds your judgement

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Unconscious Bias Focus Areas

Over 150 types of Unconscious Biases: Ageism, Name bias Racism, Ethnicity & Culture bias Gender and gender identification bias Socio-economic bias Religious bias Sexism and Sexual orientation bias, Beauty bias, Height bias ...

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A QUICK UNCONSCIOUS BIAS DIPSTICK: TEST 1

Four Candidate – 1 Position as Nurse Who will be appointed?

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A Quick Unconscious Bias Dipstick: Test 1

Four Candidates: Who is the most competent? Rate them from most competent (1) to least competent (4)

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Cornell's first black female CS Ph.D. blazed her own trail | Cornell Chronicle

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A Quick Unconscious Bias Dipstick: Test 2

Nobel Prize - Nobel Week Dialogue: Who do you trust most? | Facebook

Nobel Prize - Nobel Week Dialogue: Who do you trust most? | Facebook

The trusted 10: Write down the names of the 10 people in your life you trust the most?

Nobel Prize - Nobel Week Dialogue: Who do you trust most? | Facebook

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The Trusted 10 Activity

Name Gender Race/ ethnicity Language Age Sexual orientation Disability Yes or No Marital Status

© TDCI

Once you have written down the names of the 10 people you trust the most, complete the rest of table below

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The Trusted 10 Activity

© TDCI

What stands out when you look at the table? How diverse were the names you have written down? In which circle do you have the most and least diversity? What can you take from the activity?

Acquaintances Causal relationships Trusting relationships

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Exercise Inattentional Blindness

Taking an Implicit Association Test Test 3

For many years, scientists have been working on instruments to assess unconscious bias (also known as implicit associations). Of the various tools that are available, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is one of the most popular and well-studied. The IAT was developed as part of a project to detect unconscious bias based on several factors including race, gender, sexual orientation and national origin (Harvard University, the University of Washington and the University of Virginia). To take one of the Implicit Association Tests (IAT) click here (Race/Gender/sexual orientation...)

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IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST

The IAT measures the relative strength of associations between pairs of concepts. It is designed as a sorting task in which individuals are asked to sort images or words that appear on a computer screen into one of two categories. The IAT is relatively resistant to social desirability concern, and the reliability and validity have been rigorously tested. The IAT is powerful instrument, which has been used to explore the impact of unconscious bias on behaviour. Here are some examples highlighting the use of the IAT in healthcare.

A greater pro-White bias (measured using the IAT) among physicians resulted in an increased likelihood of prescribing thrombolytics for White patients compared to Blacks presenting with acute coronary syndrome (Green, 2007). A greater pro-White bias (measured using the IAT) was associated with a greater inclination to prescribe pain medications for White versus Black children (Sabin, 2012). Greater pro-White bias (measured using the IAT) was associated with poorer ratings of interpersonal care among Black patients (Cooper, 2012).

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Categorising is a natural process of our brain to make sense of all incoming stimuli and to give order to life - we thus group people and objects into categories based on social and other characteristics. This fundamental ability of the human mind to quickly and automatically categorize people helped early humans to survive by distinguishing friends from foes. Whilst not as applicable today, the same (unconscious) processes take place in our minds. The above dynamics serve as the foundation of stereotypes, prejudice and, ultimately, discrimination.

UNCONSCIOUS BIAS IN CONTEXT