بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

﴿علم الإنسان ما لم يعلم﴾

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Learning

The ability to acquire knowledge and new experience which cause relative permanent changes in the behavior

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Approaches to learning

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Classical conditioning

Pavlov experiment: food…………… salivation (UCS)…………………. (UCR) Red light (natural stimulus)……….. no response Food + red light…… salivation Repetition: Red light alone…… salivation (CS)…………… (CR)

abstract

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Classical conditioning

It is a type of learning in which an originally natural stimulus comes to evoke a new response after having been paired( associated) with another stimulus that reflexively evoke the same response

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Laws characterize classical conditioning

1. (Acquisition) 2. ( High-order conditioning) 3. ( Predictability)

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Laws characterize classical conditioning

4. Decrease of the strength of the CS-CR relation that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without being paired with the UCS. (Extinction) 5. Return of the CR (salivation) after extinction. After a period of rest the dog salivates again if being presented with CS. ( Spontaneous recovery)

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Laws characterize classical conditioning

6. Transformation of the CS-CR relation to another stimulus similar to the original CS. (Generalization) 7. Presentation of different stimuli and pairing the UCS (food) with only one of them, the one CS that the dog will salivate to it. (Discrimination) or (selective conditioning) Whereas generalization is a reaction to similarities, discrimination is a reaction to differences.

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Operant conditioning

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Operant conditioning

The law of Effect.

abstract

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Laws characterize operant conditioning

the establishment of a connection between a stimulus and a response. (Reinforcement) Reinforcers are stimuli that increase the rate of the responses that follow them. Reinforcers can be positive or negative. Punishment.

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Laws characterize operant conditioning

Schedules of reinforcement :

continuous

Fixed (No. &/or interval)

Variable (No. &/or interval)

The most Rapid & the most resistant to extinction

The least resistant to extinction

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Laws characterize operant conditioning

2. Production of a new behavior by reinforcement of natural responses which approximate to the desired one. (Shaping) 3. Teaching a complex behavior by breaking them into simple components. ( Chaining) 4. Acquisition, Extinction and spontaneous recovery

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Cognitive Concepts of learning

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Give me an example

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Application of learning in medicine

Systemic desensitization . Aversion therapy . Flooding . Token economy. Biofeedback . Others.

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Based on Pavlov's experiment, the more presentation of the light and the food together to the dog, the more the dog will salivate in response to the light if it presented alone. this is called: Acquisition. Generalization. Extinction. Discrimination.

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Based on Pavlov's experiment, if pink light and red light both provoke salivation , this will be called: Acquisition. Generalization. Extinction. Discrimination.

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Learning psychology by Pharmacy students is ……… learning: a conditioned. an operant . a model. a latent.

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Establishment of a connection between stimulus and a response is: a. extinction. b. reinforcement. c. generalization. d. spontaneous recovery. The schedule of reinforcement least resistant to extinction is: a. continuous. b. fixed time and no. c. variable time and no.

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Teaching a complex behavior by breaking them into simple components is: a. chaining. b. shaping. c. flooding. d. systemic desensytization.

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جزاكم الله خيرا

اللهم اجعلنا من المتحلين بمكارم الأخلاق، محسني استغلال إبداعاتهم، المتوازنين في معاملاتهم، و معينين إخواننا على ذلك. اللهم اجعلنا ممن يستمعون القول فيتبعون أحسنه ؛ واجعلنا من أحسن الناس قولا ؛ واجعلنا من القليل ؛ ولا تجعلنا من أهل ”وقد قيل“ ؛ ولا تجعلنا ممن يأمرون الناس بالبر وينسون أنفسهم وهم يتلون الكتاب. وما أريد أن أخالفكم إلى ما أنهاكم عنه؛ إن أريد إلا الإصلاح ما استطعت، وما توفيقي إلا بالله؛ عليه توكلت وإليه أنيب. سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك، أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت، أستغفرك وأتوب إليك.