Introduction to Computers and Computing Systems

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Introduction to Computers and Computing Systems

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Characteristics of each Computer Generation Apart from developments on the computer hardware front, there were other developments in each of the generations. A summary of the major developments and characteristics of each generation is presented below. First Generation (1951—1959) o Computers powered by vacuum tubes o The use of magnetic tape for external storage o The use of punch cards for input and output o Machine and assembly languages coming on the scene Second Generation (1959—1965) O o o o The use of transistors in computers The use of magnetic tape and disks for external storage The use of punch cards and magnetic tape for 1/0 High-level languages ( FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, etc.) coming on the programming scene

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Third Generation (1965—1971 ) O O o O o The use Of integrated circuits (ICs) in cornputers The use Of roonitors and keyboards for input and output More high—level languages developed Operating systerns appearing on the scene Minicornputers beginning to n•ake an irnpact cornrnercially chip Fourth Generation (1971—Present) o Cornputers using chips based on LSI and VLSI o Introduction Of rnicrocornputer o Introduction of fourth—generation languages (4GLs) Fifth Generation (Future) o Sophisticated applications and application developrnent tools o More advanced, powerful and • intelligent • cornputers o Increasing rniniaturization Of IC chips

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Classification of Digital Computers

Type: The majority of digital computers on the market are general-purpose computers. Modern general-purpose digital computers can further be classified into microcomputers (of which there are two main types: personal computers [PCsl and Macintoshes), minicomputers, mainframe computers and supercomputers. Excepting the microcomputers, all the others are multi-user computer systems; meaning they can accommodate more than one user at a time. The processing capacity or power of a given computer is directly linked to the type of computer. For example, a mainframe computer has a higher processing power than a minicomputer or a microcomputer. Types of Dlgltal Computers num- computer mainframe computer micro- computer Increasing Processing Power

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What Is a Computer? The information processing cycle is... Input Process Output Storage Communication

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The Components of a Computer An input device is... Hardware used to enter data and instructions 1-3

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The Components of a Computer An output device is... Hardware that conveys information to one or more people

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The Components of a Computer The system unit is... Case containing electronic components used to process data 1-3

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The Components of a Computer A floppy disk is a... Thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell

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The Components of a Computer A USB nash drive... Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip@disk Small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket

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The Components of a Computer A compact disc... Flat, round, portable metal disc CD-ROM p 9%1-5 ntiVirus

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Networks and the Internet A server... manages the resources on a network Clients access the resources on the server 14

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Networks and the Internet What is the Internet? Worldwide collection or networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals 12Fg. 1-7

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Networks and the Internet Why do users access the Internet? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Communications Information Shopping Banking and Investing Classes Entertainment 12-13%.1-8

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Computer Software A graphical Inser interface (GUI)... Allows you to interact with the software using graphics and icons Controls how you enter data and how the screen displays information 1-10

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Computer Software Application software include... Programs that perform specific tasks for users W'Yd Gr*ics 1-11

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Personal Computers A desktop computer is... Designed so all or the components nt entirely on or under a desk or table IS-ZOFg. I-IS

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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Mobile devices are... Small enough to carry in a pocket Internet-enabled telephone is a "smart phone" 21 I-Z

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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What are smart phones and smart watches? A smart phone is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually provides PDA capabilities 1-21—1-2 A smart watch is an Internet-enabled watch that automatically adjusts to time zone changes and stores personal information

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Servers Types of servers include... Midrange server: Powerful, large computer that supports up to a few thousand computers Mainframe: Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thmlsands of computers Supercomputer: 'Ihe fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations

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Computer Applications in Society Some examples of computer applications in society include: Education Finance Government Healthcare Science Publishing Travel Industry