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New Teacher Induction

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

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Introduction to Questioning Length: 30 minutes

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[Audio] Okay, so what are our aims for this session? Today? We want to answer these two questions. Why do we ask questions? And what do excellent questions look like? So by the end of this session, you should have some nice clear answers to these two questions.

Aims for the Session

Session Aims: to answer the questions: Why do we ask questions? What do excellent questions look like?

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

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[Audio] So, I would like you to begin by ranking these questions in order of challenge. Okay, so these are currently not in the correct order. I'd like you to read through them and put them in order with the easiest questions at the bottom. And the most difficult questions at the top. take as long as you like to do this, and do not move to the next slide until you have got these in the right order. So write them down in a notebook. Pause this the slides, press escape so that the slides don't keep moving on. When I click through, and then you can click on manually when he has finished

Rank these questions in order of challenge.

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

What does each section of Blooms taxonomy stand for? How does each level of Blooms taxonomy affect the other? Why do they need each other for learning to happen? How many levels of Blooms Taxonomy are there? Is ‘create’ at the top of Blooms Taxonomy? How far can we argue that this is a hierarchy and not a circle? If we created a level after ‘create’ what would we call it?

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[Audio] So I would now like to introduce you to some pedagogical theory, which is Bloom's taxonomy. Bloom's Taxonomy is the backbone to everything we do we as teachers, is the backbone to thinking and understanding. You can see this pyramid here shows the order of thinking skills on Bloom's taxonomy, I'd like to draw your attention to the very shape of the pyramid shows that, obviously, the easiest skills are at the bottom. And as the pyramid goes up, the skills get harder. But of course, if you took the skills from the bottom out, the whole thing would collapse and fall down. So each part of the pyramid is important. But you need to see the bottom skills. So remember, and understand and even apply as many stepping stones to help us to get to the higher end of the pyramid. So during any lesson, we would want to move students to at least analyze and beyond in order to ensure that we are developing higher order thinking skills. So you'll see here on the right hand side, I've put the questions that you've just been looking at, in the correct order of how difficult they are. And I hope you can see that when reading them, that this actually directly correlates with the order of Bloom's taxonomy. And hopefully, you can now start to see how Bloom's Taxonomy is a really useful way of us gauging which gauging where to pitch our questions and helping us to frame questions that move students up in their thinking. So let's just go through this one by one, you can see here right at the bottom, the question is create at the top of Bloom's taxonomy, you can see that is a very simple fact, find question. So you just need to understand and remember so to answer that question, you just look at the pyramid. And you can say, No, it's not, it's not the top, does it mean really that you have to think very deeply, you're just looking at the diagram, and you can tell me create is at the top, not at the bottom. Okay, and again, with the next question, how many levels of Bloom's Taxonomy are there, you can count them? 123456 very easily. And really, that's just showing understanding, remember, like you understand, and you can recall that there are six levels of Bloom's taxonomy. But as you can probably see, you've not really thought about it in any great detail. When you then move up to the next question, What does each section of Bloom's Taxonomy stand for? You can see that we are starting to apply an understanding to Bloom's taxonomy. So you're understanding the diagram and you're starting to apply and label things. So often when we're asking students to label diagrams or to point out things that they've just been taught in a in a diagram or an experiment, we're asking them to apply something that they've just learned. When we then move up to the next question, how does each level of Bloom's Taxonomy affect the other? And why do they need each other for learning to happen, we're starting to ask the students to understand the relationship between each of these elements and how they affect each other. And when we start to look at the moving parts of anything, and how they each have an effect on each other. We are analyzing just much like an English lesson, how you might analyze the effects of a word and how it affects the meanings of our overall understanding of a text or a sentence. Or you might understand in a geography lesson, how certain processes in nature might have an overall effects on the environment. The next question then is how far can we argue that this is a hierarchy and not a circle? This kind of question is very much in the evaluate section of Bloom's taxonomy. And you can see here, this is quite an advanced thinking question, because it doesn't necessarily have a right or wrong answer. Now, when we are evaluating, what we're doing is we're weighing up more than one perspective. And often these could be with quite philosophical questions where there's not necessarily a hard and fast right or wrong answer, and whereby we have to intelligibly weigh out different perspectives in order to come to some sort of conclusion. Now, if you can pair that, with the understanding, remember questions, we know that understanding remember questions, there is a very hard and fast rule right answer. And that it doesn't necessarily take much to work out and prove that answer by simply Recalling facts. Now with evaluate, those answers become much more complicated and much more deep thinking. And can be excellent types of questions when we want our class to debate something at length, and to really chew over an idea. And then we see the top question, if we created a level after create, what would we call it? Now, this is asking students to come up with a new idea. And you can see here that this question cannot be answered, until you've really really analyzed and evaluated and understood the whole structure of the pyramid in order to then come up with and create an idea for what would be another level of Bloom's taxonomy. So create, to create, we have to have a very, very deep understanding of something and how it works much in the way that if you were to ask somebody to make a car from scratch, they would have to have a deep understanding of how a core engine works, they would have had to analyze how all of the parts of the engine have an effect on each other and evaluated the best way of going about putting that car together before they would then be able to design and create one of their own

Pedagogical Theory:

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

Bloom's Taxonomy | Center for Teaching | Vanderbilt University

If we created a level after ‘create’ what would we call it? How far can we argue that this is a hierarchy and not a circle? How does each level of Blooms taxonomy affect the other? Why do they need each other for learning to happen? What does each section of Blooms taxonomy stand for? How many levels of Blooms Taxonomy are there? Is ‘create’ at the top of Blooms Taxonomy?

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[Audio] So, why are questions important? Based on what we've talked about so far and any of your own ideas? Just take a moment now to think about why we ask students questions and write down at least two ideas. In order to make sure that you have enough time to do this, I recommend that you press Escape to make sure that this PowerPoint does not continue to play when you're still thinking and then you can come back into the PowerPoint and press play when you're ready. So you can see that the ideas on the next slide

Why are questions so important?

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

Pause Why do you think we ask students questions? Write down at least 2 ideas

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[Audio] So why have questions important? Questions are important to check people understanding. They help students to receive and process information to move students up Bloom's Taxonomy and to model to students how to think and how to enquire. Bloom's Taxonomy itself is a great way of showing students how to think and how to inquire. And as I've already shown you Bloom's Taxonomy should be the core structure you're using when planning the questioning in your lessons.

Why are questions important?

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

Check pupil understanding Helps students to receive and process information To move students up Blooms Taxonomy To model to students how to think and how to enquire

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[Audio] o let's have a look now at what excellent questioning looks like. I want you to use this YouTube clip here. And I want you to make some notes about what the teacher does well, so if you are unable to click on the hyperlink, please just copy and paste this into an internet browser and watch it and just make some notes as you watch about what you think the teacher does well when they're questioning. And, as before, just press escape from out of this PowerPoint so that you can do this in your own time.

What does excellent questioning look like?

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

Watch this clip: Make some notes about what the teacher does well: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktRuN54CE1I

Watch this clip: Make some notes about what the teacher does well: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktRuN54CE1I

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[Audio] Okay, now I would like you to re watch the clip. And this time, I would like you to write down every question the teacher asks. And then you can look at all of these questions when the video is finished. And you can look for patterns. What patterns do you notice about the questioning? So write down every single question so that it looks like a script. And then you can analyze that script and see what pattern do you notice about my questioning? Again, come out of this PowerPoint, press escape so you can do this in your own time.

Re-watch the clip

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

Write down every question the teacher asks. What patterns do you notice about their questioning? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktRuN54CE1I

Write down every question the teacher asks. What patterns do you notice about their questioning? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktRuN54CE1I

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[Audio] So, what does the teacher do in the clip? He uses, and you may well have already noticed this when you're looking at your own notes. He uses a structure when questioning, which is what do you think? Why do you think that? And how did you get there? So he never just asked him a question and moves on to the next student. He asks further questions to really dig deep to help the student understand themselves and explain to the others about why they think that and how they got there. You may also notice that after students have answered the teacher, the teacher paraphrases or summarizes what they've just said, for the class. Sometimes she does speak quietly, or maybe not. So clearly. It's really, really important to fully involve the whole class in a discussion that the teacher nice and loudly and clearly summarizes what she has just said to involve the whole class in the conversation. And then because you've made that so clear to the whole group, it then becomes easy for the teacher to ask another student a question to build on the ideas of that shaded

What he does in the clip

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

What do you think? Why do you think that? How did you get there? Teacher paraphrases and summarises for the class. Teacher asks students to build on each others’ ideas.

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[Audio] So if we were to put this into a success criteria, then for what excellent questioning looks like, it could look a little bit like this. excellent questions take students up Bloom's taxonomy, they guide students thinking towards problem solving. They model investigative thinking, and they are differentiated. So questions are posed to specific levels of ability. So, in the clip that you watch, the questions were being differentiated, but you wouldn't see that because you weren't looking at the data of the students in that class. But that teacher would have a deep knowledge of the students in his class and he would have been making sure that the questions he was asking, were pitch at the level of ability of those students.

Success Criteria:

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

Takes students up Blooms Guides student thinking towards problem solving Model investigative thinking Differentiated (questions posed to specific levels of ability)

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[Audio] o now, I would like you to pause and reflect on what you've learned today. And I would like you to answer these questions. So you're reflecting on your own practice. I want you to think about what kinds of questions you currently use, where you think you teach students up to one Bloom's, which parts of the success criteria you already apply and how, what might your next steps be in developing your questioning skills? take as long as you like, thinking about this, remembering that reflection is one of our most powerful tools for improvement.

Pause and Reflect (plenary)

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

What kinds of questions do you currently use? Where do you think you take students up to on Blooms? Which parts of this success criteria do you already apply and how? What might your next steps be in developing your questioning skills? .

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[Audio] And I will now draw this session to a close and draw your attention again to the questions we posed to ourselves at the beginning of this session. At the beginning of the session, we asked ourselves, why do we ask questions and what do excellent questions look like? So just to consolidate everything that you've thought about today, I'd like you to write down in bullet points, the key takeaways you've had from this session and how they've helped you to answer these two questions.

Aims for the Session

Session Aims: to answer the questions: Why do we ask questions? What do excellent questions look like?

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

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[Audio] Next Step Suggestions: Observe a lesson and write down all of the questions the teacher asks and then track these against Blooms Taxonomy Video yourself teaching and self-assess using Blooms Taxonomy and the success criteria on this Power Point Recommended reading: - How to use Questioning in the Classroom by Mike Ghershon - Hands Up by Stephen Lockyer

Next Step Suggestions:

Anneka Reece Senior Teaching and Learning Coach WSS

Observe a lesson and write down all of the questions the teacher asks and then track these against Blooms Taxonomy Video yourself teaching and self-assess using Blooms Taxonomy and the success criteria on this Power Point Recommended reading: - How to use Questioning in the Classroom by Mike Ghershon - Hands Up by Stephen Lockyer