World war ii… …the biggest powerpoint ever

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[Audio] • In response to political turmoil and economic crises, Italy, Germany, and Japan turn to totalitarian dictators. Beginnings/ Fascism Rises in Europe • Most devastating war in human history • 55 million dead • 1 trillion dollar damage • Began in 1939 as strictly a European Conflict, ended in 1945. • Widened to include most of the world.

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[Audio] Fascism Rises • Fascism is a new, militant political movement • Extreme nationalism and loyalty to authoritarian leader • Italians want a leader who will take action • Fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, promises to rescue Italy • Italian king puts Mussolini in charge.

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[Audio] Fascism Rises • Adolf Hitler—obscure political figure in 1920s Germany • Nazism— German brand of fascism 1923 BEER HALL PUTSCH  Hitler tries—but FAILS—to seize power from the democratically elected, but troubled, Weimar Government MEIN KAMPF ( My Struggle) : written in jail, Hitler's book outlines his plan for a Nazi Germany.

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[Audio] Adolf Hitler •Rise to Power. . . Adolf Hitler.

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[Audio] Overall Purpose: The overall purpose of this blurb on Hitler is to explain how this little boy on the left became the man on the right who was ultimately responsible for the death of over 50 million people all over the world!! " One people, one empire, one leader!".

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[Audio] Background  Father may have been Jewish – Alois Shickelgruber Hitler. He dies when Adolf is 14. Mother dies when he is 18.  Moves to Vienna  Originally wants to be an artist but fails to get in to Vienna Fine Arts Academy  Hears many anti-Semitic speeches by Vienna mayor. Ultimately enlists in German army for WWI.  Becomes interested in Conservative German Workers Party in Munich after war. Joins and becomes popular after he gives speeches about his experiences in the war..

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[Audio] 1 2 3 1- Painting 2- Speaking in Munich 3- Swastika – Nazi Party Flag. Nazi is NSDAP or National Socialist German Workers Party..

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. . . . .

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[Audio] MEIN KAMPF 1. Superiority of German ( Aryan) race; all others inferior 2. Jews were the reason for all of Germany's problems (also Communists) 3. Treaty of Versailles must be overturned 4. Lebensraum: Germany needed " Living Space" for its people; room to EXPAND.

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[Audio] MEIN KAMPF 5. FURHER Principal: One leader should have supreme power and rule Connector: Do you believe Mein Kampf should be sold in Germany today? Results:  Bad economic conditions get Nazi Party elected in growing #'s  1933 Ger. President appoints Hitler Chancellor  Burning of Reichstag gives Nazis majority in elections.

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[Audio] Postwar Europe  Unstable New Democracies  German Inflation  American Great Depression has worldwide impact  Worldwide Unemployment.

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[Audio] (don't write this down) Children using bundles of German marks as blocks  During and after WWI, Germany just printed more money to pay for the war and reparations. This lead to severe inflation. In 1923, a loaf of bread cost 200 billion marks!.

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[Audio] Brownshirts •Q. How did Adolf Hitler accomplish such popularity or hardly any resistance? 1. Fear – Brownshirts Or SA – Stormtroopers – Threatened and beat up Jews and anti-Nazi voters ( Comm, democrats) –Numbered almost 400,000 by 1932 2. Propaganda by Joseph Goebbels – Ph.D. in Literature 3. Economic crisis and need for strong leadership 4. Indoctrination and education of young – Hitler Youth.

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[Audio] Comparing Fascism to Communism COMMUNISM FASCISM Ruled by: STRICT GOV'T DICTATOR Political Parties ONE ONE Individual Rights Denied Denied Societal Classes None! (A classless society) Many • Aristocrats • Industrialist • Military •Lower middle class • Workers World View Internationalism -unite workers worldwide National issues take precedence.

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[Audio] • Germans grateful • Violation • Factories designed as schools Hitler orders a program of rearming Germany in Secret.

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[Audio] • Germany, Italy, and Japan conquer other countries; the rest of the world does nothing to stop them. Why? • They don't want to risk World War II Aggressors Invade Nations.

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[Audio] Aggressors March ( 1933- 1936)  Japan invades Manchuria ( NE China), later takes major cities like Beijing.  Chinese Nationalists and Communists fight back (remember…?)  Mussolini ( Italy) takes Ethiopia. Why?  Hitler ( Ger) takes Rhineland ( border land between FR and GER).

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. . Aggression in Africa, 1935-1939 Aggression in Asia, 1931-1937 ) Miles LBA 39) Italy Italian colony C] Invaded by Italy L'fy 1 Kilometers MANCHURIA Phranean Sea LIBYA EGY ANGLO- EGYPTIAN SUDAN (1931) JEHOL (1933) •jancer ERITREA Japan invades China;.- NIGERIA Miles FRENCH EQUATORIAL ETHIOPIA AFRICA I (1935) KENY BELGIAN CONGO CHINA Japan and its colonies Invaded by Japan K9R Yellow Sea MALIA Equator INDIAN OCEAN Sea of Japan AP PACIFIC OCEAN TAIWAN Trucic of Cancer Kilometers ATLANTIC OCEAN GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER: Interpreting Maps 1. Location On these maps, which countries are the aggressors? 2. Movement On what two continents did the aggression occur?.

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[Audio] Major Violations of Versailles ( R.A.S.C.P.) 1 2 3 4.

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[Audio] Taking Sides  Britain and France follow appeasement, a policy of giving in to aggression to keep peace elsewhere  Germany, Italy, and Japan—the Axis Powers— form an alliance  United States follows an isolationist policy (political ties with other countries should be avoided).

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[Audio] Finally… Chamberlain meets Hitler to talk appeasement "If ever that silly old man comes interfering here again with his umbrella, I'll kick him downstairs and jump on his stomach in front of the photographers". -- Adolf Hitler to Neville Chamberlain.

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[Audio] Axis Aggression  Hitler takes Sudetenland ( Czech- Ger border), and later rest of Czechoslovakia  GB and FR give in; think Hitler will be satisfied • Mussolini takes Albania; Hitler demands part of Poland  GB and FR continue appeasement • Nazis and Soviets secretly sign Nonaggression Pact  Stalin and Hitler pledge never to attack one another  Germans get Western Poland; Soviets get Eastern Poland and spheres – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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[Audio] Nazi-Soviet Pact ( Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact_.

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[Audio] War!  Germany uses blitzkrieg, a new military strategy using airplanes, tanks, and MASSIVE infantry forces to SURPRISE and OVERWHELM the enemy.  Takes west Poland, Denmark, Norway  Stalin expands the USSR  Takes Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and eventually Finland.

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[Audio] France Falls  May 1940, Germany moved quickly into Belgium and France  Cornered Allied BR troops (had to be rescued by boat)  Captured Paris by June 14  FR surrenders a week later  GER controls northern FR, sets up a " puppet gov't" in Vichy for southern FR  Charles de Gaulle, FR general, leads the resistance from exile in London.

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. . World War II: German Advances, 1939-1941 INTERACTIVE FINLAND NORWAY S EDEN. grad GREAT BRITAI @ndo English DENM North Baltic ts Sea IA s Sea Berlin. Dunki GERMANY Warsaw Lei 1941 Moscow SOVIET UNION Stalingrad Parise NCE VICHY FRANCE (Uno"i ALGERIA 1938 POLAND CZECHOSLOVAKIA NGARY ROMANIA SPAIN o AL TU ISIA BUL ARIA Black sea TURKEY SKILLBUILDER: Interpreting Maps I. Region Which countries did Germany invade? 2. Location In what way was Germany's geographic location an advantage when it was on the offensive in the war? Crete Mediterranean Sea LEBANO PALESTINE SYRIA IRAQ Axis-controlled, 1941 Allies Neutral nations German advances LIBYA TRANS. JORDAN EGYPT Miles SAUDI ARABIA 1.0m Kilometers.

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[Audio] Battle of Britain  German air force ( Luftwaffe) bombarded British cities, especially London  RAF ( Royal Air Force) fights back  They have radar and a German decoders!  Better dogfighters; 3: 1 kill ratio  Germany switches to night raids and blitzes ( bombs) London at night  Germany eventually backs out of England  Considered a British victory!.

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[Audio] ... What General Weygand has called The Battle of France is over. The battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilisation. Upon it depends our own British life and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of a perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, "This was their finest hour". - Winston Churchill, 1940.

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. . . . . .

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[Audio] Winston Churchill "…We shall never surrender".

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[Audio] Other fronts… Africa  Italy and BR armies compete for oil-rich land  Fights go back and forth for years; GER has advantage Eastern Europe  Hitler attacks and controls Balkans  SURPRISE! In June 1941, Hitler invades the Soviet Union  Soviet troops retreat!  GER wants Leningrad and Moscow—spends 2 winters trying….

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[Audio] Pacific Front  America stays isolationist until early 1941—then sells arms to the Allies  Japan is gaining land for empire and has its eyes on the Philippines – an American island  Roosevelt makes decision to embargo (not trade) oil, steel, and rubber to Japanese.  Reasoning is because Japan is an island nation and must import oil.  December 7, 1941—Japan attacks the American naval base at Pearl Harbor  Significant damage and loss of life  America declares war on Japan and its allies  Japan attacks other BR and AM colonies at the same time or soon after  Guam, Hong Kong, Philippines.

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. . World War II in Asia and the Pacific, 1941— INTERACTIVE S VIET 'N MONGOLIA CHINA khalin arafüto 1945 Attu Mav 1943 Aleutian PACIFIC OCEAN Midway Island June 1942 Alaska (U.s.) .AT/o iiing eking) Nanki% Hong K MANCHURIA Hokkaido KOREA "Shu Tokyo Shikoku Shanghai agasaki. Aug. Kyushu Iwo Jima Feb.-Mar. 1945 Okinawa • Apr.—My 1945 INDIA Ot {cuator Mariana Islands Saipan Wake Island Dec. 1941 P A!LAND FRE CH INDOCHINr MALAYA inga Ö Borneb ILIPPINES Minonao June-July 1944 Guam July-Auw.1944 Caroline Islands Marshall' • . Islands Tarawa Nov. •Gilbert Isla n Solomon Islands uadaléanal ug. 1942-Feb.1943 Coral Pearl Harbor % Dec. Japanese empire, 1931 Japanese gains by 1942 Extent of Japanese expansion Allies Neutral nations Allied advances Battle INDIAN OCEAN GUINE & EAST/ Sea May 1942 Ellice . Islands Miles.

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[Audio] " East Asia for the Asiatics" not a term to be used now—used in the 1940's to generally mean people from Asia  Japan wants to convince the 150 million people they conquered that Asia should be ruled by other Asians, NOT COLONIALISTS  Takes control of over 1 million square miles of land  Often treats prisoners with extreme cruelty Japanese culture: shameful to surrender..

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[Audio] Prisoner of War "…They took me outside and I was forced to watch as they buried six of my Scouts alive. They made the men dig their own graves, and then had them kneel down in a pit. The guards hit them over the head with shovels to stun them and piled earth on top.".

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[Audio] Allies Fight Back by Sea  Beginning: Doolittle Raid on Tokyo  Not too damaging, but inspiring to Americans!  Upsetting to dominant Japanese!  High point: Battle of Midway  AM code breakers know where Japan is headed. US Navy waits to attack at JUST the right time. It works!  Savvy move: Island hopping  AM and AUS forces target important islands instead of fighting for every single one  Want go get closer to Japan.

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[Audio] Battle of Guadalcanal ( Japan-controlled Pacific Island that AM and AUS forces attacked) "Hell was red furry spiders as big as your fist,…enormous rats and bats everywhere, and rivers with waiting crocodiles. Hell was the sour, foul smell of the squishy jungle, humidity that rotted a body within hours…Hell was an enemy…so fanatic that it used its own dead as booby traps.".

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[Audio] Holocaust  A mass genocide of races Hitler considered inferior  Jews were targeted at the greatest rate (remember Mein Kampf)  Roma, disabled, homosexuals, incurably ill, and others were also targeted  Hitler called it the Final Solution  over six million killed, most in concentration camps.

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[Audio] Turning Points North Africa Stalingrad  Germans in control after earlier victories  Allies send in two different forces (planned by Dwight D. Eisenhower) to trap the Germans  GER forces in Africa defeated in May 1943  Major industrial city in the Caucus Mtns area of USSR  Hitler wanted total control  Both leaders (Hitler and Stalin) refuse to back down  Enormous loss of life on both sides (over 1 million Soviets!)  Begins Aug 1942, GER surrenders in Feb 1943.

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[Audio] D-Day Invasion  Allies from GB, invade at Normandy in Northern France on June 6, 1944  Largest land and sea (amphibious) attack in history  Allies take heavy losses but push on  Over one million troops land in one month  By September, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg are liberated.

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[Audio] End of War in Europe  Battle of the Bulge— December 1944— Germans break through weak American lines but are eventually forced to retreat  April 1945— Allies invade Germany from East ( Soviets) and West (AM, BR, others). Surround Berlin.  April 1945— Hitler and his new wife take their own lives  April and May 1945— Concentration camps are liberated  May 7, 1945— General Eisenhower accepts the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich. Victory in Europe!.

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[Audio] Victory in the Pacific  Guadalcanal had stopped any other Japanese advances; now retreating  Battle of Leyte Gulf— October 1944— Allies take back the Philippines and destroy the Japanese naval fleet  More successful (but bloody) island hopping  Iwo Jima, Okinawa, others. Thousands die..

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[Audio] Japanese Surrender  Possible invasion  Could cost million Allied lives or more  Could take 10 years  POW's and treatment is horrible  Atomic Bombs • first tested July 16, 1945. Japan was warned. • August 6, atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima • August 9, bomb dropped on Nagasaki • Over 140,000 killed immediately, more of radiation  September 2, 1945—Japan surrenders.

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[Audio] Harry S Truman taking the oath of office after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt, April 12, 1945. The following day, Truman spoke to reporters and said, "...I don't know whether you fellows ever had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me.".

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[Audio] Red army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the Reichstag ( German Parliament) in Berlin, Germany..

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[Audio] V-E Day Celebrations in New York City, May 8, 1945..

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[Audio] For millions of Americans, Alfred Eisenstaedt's 1945 LIFE photograph of a sailor stamping a masterly kiss on a nurse symbolized the cathartic joy of V-J Day..