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World Heritage in Georgia. Levan Kharatishvili , Creative Strategies Lab.

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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization •SO N 10 41(-41/ World Heritage Convention.

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There are 70 Intangible Cultural Heritage elements, 4221 movable listed properties, 7577 immovable listed properties, inter alia single standing monuments, complexes, historical settlements, archaeological sites, etc., 3 of international significance (World Heritage Properties) and 986 of national significance in Georgia. In 2020, there were 249 museums and museum-reserves in Georgia, out of which 100 are memorial museums, 70 - historical, 24 - art, 12 - museum-reserve, 2 - literary, and 41 - other museums. In 2020, the number of visitors to museums decreased by 86.2 percent compared to the previous year and amounted to 309.9 thousand people . On average , 1,245 visitors come to one museum. In 2020, the number of museum excursions decreased by 85.3 percent to 9,849, while the number of exhibitions decreased by 59.4 percent to 436..

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1. 3. Georgia joined the WH Convention in 1992 3 cultural and 1 natural sites inscribed: - Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (1994) - Gelati Monastery (1994) - Upper Svaneti (1996) - Colchic Rainforests and Wetlands (2021) 2 cultural sites nominations deferred: - Historical Centre of Tbilisi (1999) - Vardzia-Khertvisi (1999) 14 cultural sites on Tentative list 1 World Heritage Cultural Property has been granted the status of the Enhanced Protection under the Hague Convention - Mtsketa Historic Monuments (2016).

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Historical Monuments of Mtskheta World Cultural Heritage inscribed in 1994.

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Mtskheta was the ancient capital of Kartli , the East Georgian Kingdom from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD, and was also the location where Christianity was proclaimed as the official religion of Georgia in 337. To date, it still remains the headquarters of the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church. The Historical Monuments of Mtskheta contain archaeological remains of great significance that testify to the high culture in the art of building, masonry crafts, pottery, as well as metal casting and processing, and the social, political, and economic evolution of this mountain kingdom for some four millennia. They also represent associative values with religious figures, such as Saint Nino, whose deeds are documented by Georgian, Armenian, Greek and Roman historians, and the 6th-century church in Jvari Monastery remains the most sacred place in Georgia. The historic churches of Mtskheta, including Jvari Monastery , Svetitskhoveli Cathedral and Samtavro Monastery , are outstanding examples of medieval ecclesiastical architecture in the Caucasus region, and represent different phases of the development of this building typology, ranging from the 4th to the 18th centuries..

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Gelati Monastery World Cultural Heritage inscribed in 1994.

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€.4. On the lower southern slopes of the mountains of the Northern Caucasus, Gelati Monastery reflects the 'golden age' of medieval Georgia, a period of political strength and economic growth between the reigns of King David IV 'the Builder' (1089-1125) and Queen Tamar (1184-1213). It was David who, in 1106 began building the monastery near his capital Kutaisi on a wooded hill above the river Tskaltsitela . The main church was completed in 1130 in the reign of his son and successor Demetré . Further churches were added to the monastery throughout the 13th and early 14th centuries. The monastery is richly decorated with mural paintings from the 12th to 17th centuries, as well as a 12th century mosaic in the apse of the main church, depicting the Virgin with Child flanked by archangels. Gelati Monastery is the masterpiece of the architecture of the “Golden Age” of Georgia and the best representative of its architectural style, characterized by the full facing of smoothly hewn large blocks, perfectly balanced proportions, and the exterior decoration of blind arches. The main church of the monastery is one of the most important examples of the cross-in-square architectural type that had a crucial role in the East Christian church architecture from the 7th century onwards. Gelati is one of the largest Medieval Orthodox monasteries , distinguished for its harmony with its natural setting and a well thought-out overall planning concept. The main church of the Gelati Monastery is the only Medieval monument in the larger historic region of Eastern Asia Minor and the Caucasus that still has well-preserved mosaic decoration, comparable with the best Byzantine mosaics , as well as having the largest ensemble of paintings of the middle Byzantine, late Byzantine, and post-Byzantine periods in Georgia, including more than 40 portraits of kings, queens, and high clerics and the earliest depiction of the seven Ecumenical Councils..

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Upper Svaneti World Cultural Heritage inscribed in 1996.

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The village of Chazhashi in Ushguli community, situated at the confluence of the lnguri and Black Rivers, has preserved more than 200 medieval tower houses, churches and castles. The land use and settlement structure reveal the continued dwelling and building traditions of local Svan people living in harmony with the surrounding natural environment. The origins of Svaneti tower houses go back to prehistory. Its features reflect the traditional economic mode and social organization of Svan communities. These towers usually have three to five floors , and the thickness of the walls decreases, giving the towers a slender, tapering profile. The houses themselves are usually two-storeyed ; the ground floor is a single hall with an open hearth and accommodation for both people and domestic animals, the latter being separated by a wooden partition, which is often lavishly decorated. A corridor annex helped the thermal insulation of the building. The upper floor was used by the human occupants during summer, and also served as a store for fodder and tools. A door at this level provided access to the tower, which was also connected with the corridor that protected the entrance. The houses were used both as dwellings and as defence posts against the invaders who plagued the region. The property is also notable for the monumental and minor arts. The mural paintings are outstanding examples of Renaissance painting in Georgia..

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Colchic Rainforests and Wetlands World Natural Heritage inscribed in 2021.

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The property is situated in Georgia, within the Autonomous Republic of Adjara as well as the regions of Guria and Samegrelo- Zemo Svaneti . It comprises a series of seven component parts , which are located close to each other within an 80 km long corridor along the warm-temperate and extremely humid eastern coast of the Black Sea. They provide an almost complete altitudinal series of the most typical Colchic ecosystems running from sea level to more than 2,500 m above sea level . The main ecosystems are ancient deciduous Colchic rainforests and wetlands – particularly percolation bogs and other mire types of the Colchic mire region, a distinct mire region within Europe and Eurasia. The Colchic rainforests are highly humid temperate deciduous rainforests, and among the oldest nemoral broad-leaved forests globally. While they are distinguished from other temperate forests by their rich evergreen understoreys, they also display a remarkably dense mosaic of forest types, with 23 forest associations co-existing within an area of only about 200 km 2 . Together with the Hyrcanian Forests, they are the most important relicts of Arcto-Tertiary forests in western Eurasia. This peculiar and diverse community, which has survived the Pleistocene glacial cycles, includes a multitude of relict and endemic species. It reflects exceptionally constant climatic conditions and is an invaluable example of the manifold long-term evolutionary processes of forest biota over at least 10-15 million years..

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Alaverdi Cathedral (2007) Ananuri (2007) David Gareji Monasteries and Hermitage (2007) Dmanisi Hominid Archaeological Site (2007) Gremi Church of Archangels and Royal Tower (2007) Kvetera Church (2007) Mta-Tusheti (2007).

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a P!n9 lanejl. Alaverdi Cathedral. Alaverdi Cathedral was in use since construction began and has been a subject of several modifications: restoration (part of the walls and the entire dome with the drum) in 15th and in 18th centuries; in the 19th century, the church lost its chapels on the north and south sides. However, its overall authenticity and integrity is preserved..

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Ananuri. The authenticity of monument is preserved in architectural forms, materials, location and other necessary attributes. However, the visual perception of the ensemble has been changed following the construction of the Zhinvali reservoir in the vicinity of Ananuri . The physical condition of buildings can be characterised as good. The wall painting needs conservation..

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David Gareji Monasteries and Hermitage. David Gareji area as a distinguished sacred site and a prominent monument of cultural heritage has never lost its importance. The historical value of David Gareji deserts monastic complex as well as uniqueness of biodiversity of its site still remains a reason for the urgent need for their care. In 2018, Europa Nostra has named David Gareji as most threatened heritage sites in Europe..

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Dmanisi Hominid Archaeological Site. The palaeoarchaeological site of Dmanisi is completely authentic: several hominid individuals along with abundant remains of fossil animals and stone artefacts are well-preserved and there is no evidence of erosion and minimal weathering of hominid and artefact-bearing deposits surface. Dmanisi discoveries are most ancient in whole Eurasia and are dated to 1.75 million years ago. There is the great potential for further finds as well..

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•Kqden. Gremi Church of Archangels and Royal Tower.

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Kvetera Church. The authenticity of monument is completely preserved in architectural forms, materials, location and other necessary attributes. The physical condition of building can be characterised as good. Conservation works have been regularly conducted on the Kvetera Church during past decades..

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Mta-Tusheti. At national level, Mta-Tusheti might be compared with Upper Svaneti World Heritage site. Both properties, due to their isolation, make it unique in the region. The only direct comparisons at wider extent that might be made would be with isolated communities in the Himalayan massif, but these stem from a completely different cultural tradition..

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/hål. Nicortsminda Cathedral. The authenticity of monument is completely preserved in architectural forms, materials, location and other necessary attributes. The physical condition of building can be characterised as good, while the part of wall painting is demolished. Conservation works have been regularly conducted on the Nicortsminda Cathedral during past decades..

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Travel Guide com. Samtavisi Cathedral. The authenticity of monument is preserved in architectural forms, materials, location and other necessary attributes. The physical condition of building can be characterised as relatively good, while the part of wall painting is demolished. Conservation works have been regularly conducted on the Samtavisi Cathedral during past decades..

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-91. Shatili. The authenticity of Shatili is completely preserved in architectural forms, materials, location and other necessary attributes. The physical condition of buildings can be characterised as good..

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{iiüåilijiiiü: V .nmr'. Tbilisi Historic District.

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Uplistsikhe Cave Town. The authenticity of monument is completely preserved in architectural forms, materials, location and other necessary attributes. The present state of conservation can be characterised as patchy. Conservation works have been regularly conducted in Uplistsikhe during past decades..

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Vani. Vani is best known for the extensive archaeological excavations that have taken place there during the past 100 years. Although only a third of the site has been studied, it has produced an astonishing number of artefacts: Colchis pottery, exquisite golden jewellery unique to Colchis, imported Greek luxury items, graceful bronze sculptures and a vast array of funerary pieces. A.

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—..eeavs:.. Vardzia-Khertvisi. Landscape of the nominated area is a distinguished monument of nature and human activity. Villages and their arable lands located in the deep canyon of the gorge are situated on the terraces following topography of the gorge. Fortresses and churches erected on high mountains and hills are perceived as distinguished vertical accents in such a horizontally developed setting. They terminate and emphasise natural verticals, being in perfect harmony with the latter. They introduce great emotional impulse imparting specific grandeur to the whole environment. The same artistic affect is created by rock-cut monasteries and villages arranged in several tiers on high rocky mountain slopes..

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Georgian Polyphonic Singing. Georgian polyphonic singing was recognized by UNESCO as a Human masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage in 2001. After the accession of Georgia to the Convention for Safeguarding of Intangible Heritage, Georgian polyphonic singing was inscribed on its Representative List in 2008..

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Popular singing has a highly valued place in Georgian culture. Polyphonic singing, in the Georgian language, is a secular tradition in a country whose language and culture have often been oppressed by invaders. There are three types of polyphony in Georgia: complex polyphony, which is common in Svaneti ; polyphonic dialogue over a bass background, prevalent in the Kakheti region in Eastern Georgia; and contrasted polyphony with three partially improvised sung parts , characteristic of western Georgia. The Chakrulo song, which is sung at ceremonies and festivals and belongs to the first category, is distinguished by its use of metaphor and its yodel, the krimanchuli and a “cockerel’s crow”, performed by a male falsetto singer. Some of these songs are linked to the cult of the grapevine and many date back to the eighth century. The songs traditionally pervaded all areas of everyday life, ranging from work in the fields (the Naduri , which incorporates the sounds of physical effort into the music) to songs to curing of illnesses and to Christmas Carols ( Alilo ). Byzantine liturgical hymns also incorporated the Georgian polyphonic tradition to such an extent that they became a significant expression of it..

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The Ancient Georgian Traditional Qvevri Wine-Making Method.

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Qvevri wine-making is practised throughout Georgia, particularly in village communities where unique varieties of grapes are grown. The Qvevri (also called a Churi in western Georgia ) is an egg-shaped earthenware vessel used for making, ageing and storing the wine. Knowledge and experience of Qvevri manufacture and wine-making are passed down by families, neighbours, friends and relatives, all of whom join in communal harvesting and wine-making activities. Children learn how to tend the vines, press grapes, ferment wine, collect clay and make and fire Qvevris through observing their elders. Wine plays a vital role in everyday life and in the celebration of secular and religious events and rituals. Wine cellars are still considered the holiest place in the family home. The tradition of Qvevri wine-making defines the lifestyle of local communities and forms an inseparable part of their cultural identity and inheritance, with wine and vines frequently evoked in Georgian oral traditions and songs. In 2021 qvevri were granted Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) status. Qvevri is the first non-food item to be added to the State Register of Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications of Goods. This PGI status legally establishes Georgia as the place of origin of qvevri , as well as codifies their shape, capacity, raw material and production method..

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Letter Name run N uskl i Mkhedruli Value un ..@r Letter Nuskhtri Mkhedruii" Num"ical Value Letter Name d'Asorntavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedrüli Numerical Value 3 60 chin ban 5 .70 tsan p'ar u, •u 3 80 - dzil zhcv•' g 90 tsa o rao 6 100 ch•ar g 3 Lxan' • qar vlo 3 400 Jah tan tutt hae k"an .20 kan , gas 30 700 fi man 40 q'qe• 800 Shva nar so Soo iomo.

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diClJ1,• -cst:qqu. (iC.'fflliC. The evolution of Georgia’s written language has produced three alphabets – Mrgvlovani , Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli – which all remain in use today. Mrgvlovani was the first alphabet from which Nuskhuri was derived and then Mkhedruli. The alphabets coexist thanks to their different cultural and social functions, reflecting an aspect of Georgia’s diversity and identity. Their ongoing use in a cultural sense, also gives communities a feeling of continuity. The alphabets Mrgvlovani and Nuskhuri are practised and taught informally predominately by the community of the Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church. For example, the alphabets feature in texts used by church worshippers such as the psalms and hymns and on inscriptions of display items used in the church, like the icons. Traditional craftspeople (goldsmiths, embroiderers, icon-painters and sculptors) who create pieces for the church can also be considered as practitioners and transmitters of the alphabets, as well as some theological schools, tertiary institutions, linguists, scholars and historians. Georgia’s educational system, however, is based on the Mkhedruli alphabet. Taught in primary and high school, the Mkhedruli alphabet is also transmitted informally in the home from older to younger generations. The Mrgvlovani and Nuskhuri alphabets are taught in schools in Georgia but at a basic level..

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Chidaoba , wrestling in Georgia. Chidaoba , wrestling in Georgia was inscribed by UNESCO in its Representative List in 2018. Chidaoba has been a cult sport among the populace throughout Georgia for centuries, particularly in central parts of the country, called Shida (Inner) Kartli , roughly encompassing Gori, Khashuri , Kareli, Kaspi and Mtskheta municipalities. Many decorated Georgian wrestlers who won numerous medals in Olympic, World and European championships took their first steps in the world of wrestling by training in Chidaoba ..

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Chidaoba (wrestling) is an ancient form of martial art practised by a large proportion of the male population throughout all the regions, villages and communities of Georgia. Bearers of the tradition include young people, city residents, sports clubs, educational institutions and amateur organizations. The practice is a complex phenomenon that combines elements of wrestling, music, dance and special garments (‘ chokha ’). Having had a combat function until the late Middle Ages, Chidaoba gradually became a spectacular sport. Tournaments take place in an open-air arena, surrounded by a large audience, accompanied by a wind instrument (‘zurna’) and Georgian drum (‘ doli ’) music, which marks the beginning. Wrestlers attempt to defeat each other through special holds, and vibrant music enhances the dynamics of the contest. The code of conduct is chivalric, and occasionally the wrestlers leave the arena with a Georgian folk dance. Chidaoba uses an important number of special wrestling holds: there are an estimated 200 such holds and counter-holds, the combination of which speaks to the wrestlers’ creativity. The practice encourages a healthy lifestyle and plays an important role in intercultural dialogue. From early spring to autumn, young people practise wrestling outdoors, mastering skills previously acquired by watching matches, and there are wrestling sections in almost every village and city of Georgia..

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Georgian Wheat Culture. Georgian wheat culture nomination has been submitted for placement on the UNESCO Safeguarding – Intangible Heritage List. Georgia is the oldest place of agriculture. Georgians planted wheat in the periods of Neolithic and Eneolithic. 14 cultural wheat varieties are revealed in Georgia, of them 4 belong to the endemic species. Georgia shows the highest number of wheat endemic species in the world. Apart of this over 150 local wheat varieties are described. The study of the genetic nature of Georgian endemic wheat species by determining species interconnection allowed to outline the evolution process development and identify their role in soft wheat originating in Georgia. Earlier, archaeological studies confirmed that it dates back 800 years..

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Tradition of Georgian Supra (feast). The Georgian Supra/traditional feast has been submitted for placement on the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage. The Intergovernmental Committee of Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection of UNESCO considers applications submitted by the member states on an annual basis. If accepted, the Georgian Supra will enjoy guarantees of future protection, which implies preservation, protection and development of the tradition..

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