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[Audio] L I J I N G O L D E N What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

L I J I N G O L D E N

What is Democracy?

Why Democracy?

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[Audio] Background (previous chapter)  Some stories related with Democracy  Difference- Democratic and Non Democratic  This Chapter- What is Democracy? And its features.  After that we can distinguish- Democratic and Non Democratic country  Democracy- is the most prevalent form of Govt, and expanding more cuntries.  What are the reasons behind this?

Background (previous chapter)

 Some stories related with Democracy

 Difference- Democratic and Non Democratic

 This Chapter- What is Democracy? And its features.

 After that we can distinguish- Democratic and Non

Democratic country

 Democracy- is the most prevalent form of Govt, and

expanding more cuntries.

 What are the reasons behind this?

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[Audio] Major Aspects  Where did the word Democracy originate?  What is Democracy?- Meaning and Definition.  Features of Democracy  Merits and Demerits of Democracy  Difference between Democratic and Non Democratic form government.  Democracy- Direct & Indirect Democracy

Major Aspects

 Where did the word Democracy originate?

 What is Democracy?- Meaning and Definition.

 Features of Democracy

 Merits and Demerits of Democracy

 Difference between Democratic and Non Democratic

form government.

 Democracy- Direct & Indirect Democracy

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[Audio] Case Studies about different nations. Myanmar Army rule Chile Pinochet Nepal & Saudi Monarchy Pakistan Military ( Parvez Musharraf) Poland &IraqUSSR & USA (external) ChinaCommunist party ( One party) Mexico PRI( Insti- Revo-party) (,,) Zimbabwe Mugabe ( president)

Case Studies about different nations.

Myanmar - Army rule

Chile Pinochet

Nepal & Saudi - Monarchy

Pakistan - Military (Parvez Musharraf)

Poland &Iraq- USSR & USA (external)

China- Communist party (One party)

Mexico - PRI(Insti- Revo-party) (,,)

Zimbabwe - Mugabe (president)

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[Audio] Broader meaning of Democracy  Minimum understanding- we can identify Democratic or Non Democratic country  But – Democracy and good Democracy  Features of good Democracy  Conclusion  Consolidation

Broader meaning of Democracy

 Minimum understanding- we can identify

Democratic or Non Democratic country

 But – Democracy and good Democracy

 Features of good Democracy

 Conclusion

 Consolidation

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[Audio] From where the word democracy is derived  The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos- People Kratos- Power or rule

From where the word democracy is

derived

 The word democracy is derived from the Greek word

Demos- People Kratos- Power or rule

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[Audio] Meaning of Democracy  Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.  Who are the rulers?  What kind of election?  Who are the people?  What kind of form of government?  Abraham Linkon- Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people.

Meaning of Democracy

 Democracy is a form of government in which the

rulers are elected by the people.

 Who are the rulers?

 What kind of election?

 Who are the people?

 What kind of form of government?

 Abraham Linkon- Democracy is a government of the

people, by the people and for the people.

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[Audio] Features of Democracy  In a democracy the final decision making power must rest with those who elected by the people.  A democracy must be based on a free and fair election where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing.  In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.  A democratic government rules within limits sets by constitutional law and citizen's right.  The opposition parties are allowed to function freely before and after the elections.  The democratic governments are based on fundamental principles of political equality.

Features of Democracy

 In a democracy the final decision making power must rest

with those who elected by the people.

 A democracy must be based on a free and fair election

where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing.

 In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote

and each vote must have one value.

 A democratic government rules within limits sets by

constitutional law and citizen’s right.

 The opposition parties are allowed to function freely

before and after the elections.

 The democratic governments are based on fundamental

principles of political equality.

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[Audio] Merits of Democracy  A democratic government is a better government because it is a more accountable form of government.  Democracy improves the quality of decision making.  Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts. It is suitable the countries like India. India having diversity of language, religion and cultures. Democracy in India made it possible to keep unity in diversity.  In a democracy no one is a permanent winner or loser.

Merits of Democracy

 A democratic government is a better government because

it is a more accountable form of government.

 Democracy improves the quality of decision making.

 Democracy provides a method to deal with differences

and conflicts. It is suitable the countries like India. India having diversity of language, religion and cultures. Democracy in India made it possible to keep unity in diversity.

 In a democracy no one is a permanent winner or loser.

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[Audio]  Democracy is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct its own mistakes.  Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens, because it is based on the principle of political equality, on recognizing that the poorest and least educated have the same status as the rich and the educated.

 Democracy is better than other forms of government

because it allows us to correct its own mistakes.

 Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens, because

it is based on the principle of political equality, on recognizing that the poorest and least educated have the same status as the rich and the educated.

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[Audio] Demerits or Drawbacks of Democracy  Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to instability.  Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality.  Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people. It leads to bad decisions.  Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on electoral competition.  Ordinary people don't know what is good for them; they should not decide anything.

Demerits or Drawbacks of Democracy

 Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to

instability.

 Democracy is all about political competition and

power play. There is no scope for morality.

 Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the

people. It leads to bad decisions.

 Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on

electoral competition.

 Ordinary people don’t know what is good for them;

they should not decide anything.

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[Audio] Democratic Govt Non Democratic Govt  Democracy is the best form of government as the rulers are accountable to the people and have to fulfill their needs.  The rulers are not accountable to the people and their needs. Distinguish between Democratic and Non Democratic government

Democratic Govt

Non Democratic Govt

 Democracy is the best

form of government as the rulers are accountable to the people and have to fulfill their needs.

 The rulers are not

accountable to the people and their needs.

Distinguish between Democratic and

Non Democratic government

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[Audio] Democratic Non Democratic  In democratic govt people elect their rulers and have right in decision making.  The parliament is a separate body and has no interference of army.  People don not elect their rulers and have no right in decision making.  The parliament cannot pass a law about the army without the consent of the chief of army. Comparison

Democratic

Non Democratic

 In democratic govt

people elect their rulers and have right in decision making.

 The parliament is a

separate body and has no interference of army.

 People don not elect

their rulers and have no right in decision making.

 The parliament cannot

pass a law about the army without the consent of the chief of army.

Comparison

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[Audio] Democartic Non Democratic  Any citizen can aspire to contest election for any post irrespective of his or her caste, religion, socioeconomic and educational background which means the right of vote is available to all citizens.  The citizens of the country have no right to vote. Comaparison

Democartic

Non Democratic

 Any citizen can aspire to

contest election for any post irrespective of his or her caste, religion, socio- economic and educational background which means the right of vote is available to all citizens.

 The citizens of the

country have no right to vote.

Comaparison

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[Audio] Democratic Non Demcratic  Democracy is based on consultation and in democratic govt people enjoy their right of discussion.  There are free and fair elections. Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.  Non democratic govt is based on dictatorship. The ruler does what he wishes.  In a democratic government elections are either not held and if held they are not fair enough rather they are imposing. Comparison

Democratic

Non Demcratic

 Democracy is based on

consultation and in democratic govt people enjoy their right of discussion.

 There are free and fair

elections. Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.

 Non democratic govt is

based on dictatorship. The ruler does what he wishes.

 In a democratic

government elections are either not held and if held they are not fair enough rather they are imposing.

Comparison

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[Audio] Democratic Non Democratic  There is a freedom of expression and people enjoy their fundamental rights.  Example- India  There is no freedom of expression and people do not enjoy their fundamental rights.  Example- Saudi Arabia, Zimbabwe. Comparison

Democratic

Non Democratic

 There is a freedom of

expression and people enjoy their fundamental rights.

 Example- India

 There is no freedom of

expression and people do not enjoy their fundamental rights.

 Example- Saudi

Arabia, Zimbabwe.

Comparison

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[Audio] Two Types of Democracy- Direct &Indirect Direct Democracy It is a political setup, where the people themselves makes the laws and parliament directly in the functioning of the govt. Decisions are taken on the base of the majority of opinion. It is suitable for the geographically small countries with less population. Eg : Ancient Greek/ Rome and India Modern period- Switzerland

Two Types of Democracy- Direct &Indirect

Direct Democracy

It is a political setup, where the people themselves

makes the laws and parliament directly in the functioning of the govt.

Decisions are taken on the base of the majority of

opinion.

It is suitable for the geographically small countries with

less population.

Eg : Ancient Greek/ Rome and India Modern period- Switzerland

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[Audio] In Direct Democracy  In the modern world most of the countries are following the in direct democracy.  It is system, in which the representatives are elected by the people and they act on behalf of the people.  They are so sensitive to cater the needs and opinion of the people. Eg ; India/ France/ USA

In Direct Democracy

 In the modern world most of the countries are

following the in direct democracy.

 It is system, in which the representatives are

elected by the people and they act on behalf of the people.

 They are so sensitive to cater the needs and opinion of

the people.

Eg ; India/ France/ USA

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[Audio] CASE STUDIES PAKISTAN SAUDI ARABIA CHINA ESTONIA MEXICO FIJI ZIMBABWE SRI LANKA

CASE STUDIES

PAKISTAN SAUDI ARABIA

CHINA ESTONIA

MEXICO FIJI

ZIMBABWE SRI LANKA

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[Audio] PAKISTAN  General Parvez Mushraff led a military coup in oct 1999.  He overthrew the democratically elected govt.  He declared the chief executive of the country.  In 2002 he changed his position to president  Then held a referendum- five years extension  Media, Human right organisations and democratic activist said- referendum was based on malpractices and fraud.  In Aug 2002- he issued Legal Frame Work order amended the constitution of Pakistan.  According to this order- president can dismiss the national or provisional assemblies.

PAKISTAN

 General Parvez Mushraff led a military coup in oct

1999.

 He overthrew the democratically elected govt.

 He declared the chief executive of the country.

 In 2002 he changed his position to president

 Then held a referendum- five years extension

 Media, Human right organisations and democratic

activist said- referendum was based on malpractices and fraud.

 In Aug 2002- he issued Legal Frame Work order-

amended the constitution of Pakistan.

 According to this order- president can dismiss the

national or provisional assemblies.

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[Audio]  The work of civilian cabinet supervised by national Security Council dominated by military officers.  After passing this law the election held to the national and state assemblies.  The elected representatives have some powers.  But final power rest with military officers and General Parvez Mushrraf (Check this incidents along with the features of Democracy and find out which aspects violated)

 The work of civilian cabinet supervised by national

Security Council dominated by military officers.

 After passing this law the election held to the national

and state assemblies.

 The elected representatives have some powers.

 But final power rest with military officers and General

Parvez Mushrraf

(Check this incidents along with the features of Democracy

and find out which aspects violated)

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[Audio] CHINA  In China elections are regularly held after every five years for electing the Country's parliament- Quanguo Renmin Diabiao Dahui (National peoples congress)  They have the power to appoint the president  It have nearly 3ooo peoples elected from all parts  Some members are elected by the army  Before contesting the elections the candidates needs the approval of Chinese Communist party.  Only those who member in communist party or eight smaller parties allied to it were allowed to contest election held in 2002- 2003.  The government is always formed by the communist party (Check this incidents along with the features of Democracy and find out which aspects violated)

CHINA

 In China elections are regularly held after every five years

for electing the Country’s parliament- Quanguo Renmin Diabiao Dahui (National peoples congress)

 They have the power to appoint the president

 It have nearly 3ooo peoples elected from all parts

 Some members are elected by the army

 Before contesting the elections the candidates needs the

approval of Chinese Communist party.

 Only those who member in communist party or eight

smaller parties allied to it were allowed to contest election held in 2002-2003.

 The government is always formed by the communist party

(Check this incidents along with the features of Democracy and

find out which aspects violated)

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[Audio] MEXICO  Since its independence in 1930, Mexico holds elections after every six tears to elect its president.  The country has never been under military rule or dictator rule.  But until 2000 all election was won by a party called PRI ( Institutional Revolutionary Party)  Opposition parties did contest the elections but never win the election  The PRI use many dirty tricks to win the election  All those who employed in govt offices had to attend its party meetings.  Teachers of govt school forced parents to vote PRI

MEXICO

 Since its independence in 1930, Mexico holds

elections after every six tears to elect its president.

 The country has never been under military rule or

dictator rule.

 But until 2000 all election was won by a party called

PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party)

 Opposition parties did contest the elections but

never win the election

 The PRI use many dirty tricks to win the election

 All those who employed in govt offices had to attend

its party meetings.

 Teachers of govt school forced parents to vote PRI

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[Audio]  Media ignored the activities of opposition parties except to criticise them.  Some times the polling booths were shifted from one place to another place in the last minutes, which made difficult to the people cast their votes.  The PRI spent a large sum of money in the campaign for its candidates (Check this incidents along with the features of Democracy and find out which aspects violated)

 Media ignored the activities of opposition parties

except to criticise them.

 Some times the polling booths were shifted from one

place to another place in the last minutes, which made difficult to the people cast their votes.

 The PRI spent a large sum of money in the campaign

for its candidates

(Check this incidents along with the features of Democracy and find out which aspects violated)

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[Audio] Saudi Arabia/ Estonia/ Fiji  Saudi Arabia women do not have the right to vote.  Estonia made its citizenship rules in such a way that people belonging to Russian minority find it difficult to get the right to vote.  In Fiji, the electoral system such that the vote of an indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian Fijian (Check this incidents along with the features of Democracy and find out which aspects violated)

Saudi Arabia/ Estonia/ Fiji

 Saudi Arabia women do not have the right to vote.

 Estonia made its citizenship rules in such a way that

people belonging to Russian minority find it difficult to get the right to vote.

 In Fiji, the electoral system such that the vote of an

indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian Fijian

(Check this incidents along with the features of

Democracy and find out which aspects violated)

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[Audio] Zimbabwe  Attained independence from white minority- 1980  Since then the country has been ruled by ZANU-PF, the party led the freedom struggle.  Leader- Robert Mugabe, has been ruling the country since independence.  Elections have been held regularly- always won- ZANU  President is popular- but uses unfair practices in election  Changed the constitution and increased the power of president and makes him less accountable.  Opposition party workers harassed and disrupted.  There is a law that limits the right to criticise the president

Zimbabwe

 Attained independence from white minority- 1980

 Since then the country has been ruled by ZANU-PF, the

party led the freedom struggle.

 Leader- Robert Mugabe, has been ruling the country since

independence.

 Elections have been held regularly- always won- ZANU

 President is popular- but uses unfair practices in election

 Changed the constitution and increased the power of

president and makes him less accountable.

 Opposition party workers harassed and disrupted.

 There is a law that limits the right to criticise the president

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[Audio]  T V and radio were controlled by govt and give only ruling party version.  There are independent news papers but the govt harasses those journalists who go against this.  The govt has ignored some court judgments and went against it and has pressurised judges. (Check this incidents along with the features of Democracy and find out which aspects violated)

 T V and radio were controlled by govt and give only

ruling party version.

 There are independent news papers but the govt

harasses those journalists who go against this.

 The govt has ignored some court judgments and went

against it and has pressurised judges.

(Check this incidents along with the features of

Democracy and find out which aspects violated)

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[Audio] Try to find out on which aspects are violated in Democracy and which are preserved  Bhutan- King declared that in future he will be guided by the advice given to him by elected representatives.  Sri Lanka- Many Tamil workers migrated from India were not given to the right to vote.  Nepal- King imposed a ban on political gatherings, demonstrations and rallies.

Try to find out on which aspects are violated

in Democracy and which are preserved

 Bhutan- King declared that in future he will be guided

by the advice given to him by elected representatives.

 Sri Lanka- Many Tamil workers migrated from India

were not given to the right to vote.

 Nepal- King imposed a ban on political gatherings,

demonstrations and rallies.

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[Audio]  Bihar- The Indian Supreme Court held that the dissolution of Bihar assembly was unconstitutional  Bangladesh- Political parties agreed that a neutral govt should rule the country at the time of elections

 Bihar- The Indian Supreme Court held that the

dissolution of Bihar assembly was unconstitutional

 Bangladesh- Political parties agreed that a neutral

govt should rule the country at the time of elections

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[Audio]  Major decision by elected leaders.  One person, One vote and one value  Respect for rights  Rule of law  Free and fair electoral competitions.

 Major decision by elected leaders.

 One person, One vote and one value

 Respect for rights

 Rule of law

 Free and fair electoral competitions.

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[Audio] BROADER MEANING OF DEMOCRACY L I J I N

BROADER MEANING OF

DEMOCRACY

L I J I N

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[Audio]  On this chapter we understood the meaning of Democracy in a limited and descriptive sense.  We have understood Democracy is a form of govt.  The most common form that democracy takes in our times is that of a representative democracy.  In the countries we call democracy, all the people do not rule.  A majority is allowed to take decisions on behalf of all the people.  Even majority does not rule directly.

 On this chapter we understood the meaning of

Democracy in a limited and descriptive sense.

 We have understood Democracy is a form of govt.

 The most common form that democracy takes in our

times is that of a representative democracy.

 In the countries we call democracy, all the people do

not rule.

 A majority is allowed to take decisions on behalf of all

the people.

 Even majority does not rule directly.

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[Audio] In Democracy majority of people rule through their elected representatives- Why?  Modern democracies involves such a large number of people that it is physically impossible for them to sit together and take a collective decision.  Even if they could, the citizen does not have the time, the desire or the skills to take part in all the decisions.

In Democracy majority of people rule through

their elected representatives- Why?

 Modern democracies involves such a large number of

people that it is physically impossible for them to sit together and take a collective decision.

 Even if they could, the citizen does not have the time,

the desire or the skills to take part in all the decisions.

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[Audio] Aims of Good Democracy  True democracy will come to this country only when no one goes hungry to bed.  In a democracy every citizen must be able to play equal role in decision making. For this you don't need just an equal right to vote. Every citizen needs to have equal information, basic education, equal resources and a lot of commitment.

Aims of Good Democracy

 True democracy will come to this country only when

no one goes hungry to bed.

 In a democracy every citizen must be able to play

equal role in decision making. For this you don’t need just an equal right to vote. Every citizen needs to have equal information, basic education, equal resources and a lot of commitment.