INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINOS. SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS.
LA INDOLENCIA DE LOS FILIPINOS. Essay Published in La Solidaridad Madrid, Spain (July 15, 1890 –September 15, 1890).
INDOLENT. Idle Lazy Little love for work Lack of activity.
8/15/2021. 4. La Indolencia de los Filipinos, more popularly known in its English version, "The Indolence of the Filipinos," is an exploratory essay written by Philippine national hero Dr. Jose Rizal, to explain the alleged idleness of his people during the Spanish colonization..
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First, the establishment of the Galleon Trade cut off all previous associations of the Philippines with other countries in Asia and the Middle East. As a result, business was only conducted with Spain through Mexico. Because of this, the small businesses and handicraft industries that flourished during the pre-Spanish period gradually disappeared..
Second, Spain also extinguished the natives’ love of work because of the implementation of forced labor. Because of the wars between Spain and other countries in Europe as well as the Muslims in Mindanao, the Filipinos were compelled to work in shipyards, roads, and other public works, abandoning agriculture, industry, and commerce..
Third, Spain did not protect the people against foreign invaders and pirates. With no arms to defend themselves, the natives were killed, their houses burned, and their lands destroyed. As a result of this, the Filipinos were forced to become nomads, lost interest in cultivating their lands or in rebuilding the industries that were shut down, and simply became submissive to the mercy of God..
Fourth, there was a crooked system of education, if it was to be considered an education. What was being taught in the schools were repetitive prayers and other things that could not be used by the students to lead the country to progress. There were no courses in Agriculture, Industry, etc., which were badly needed by the Philippines during those times..
Fifth, the Spanish rulers were a bad example to despise manual labor. The officials reported to work at noon and left early, all the while doing nothing in line with their duties. The women were seen constantly followed by servants who dressed them and fanned them – personal things which they ought to have done for themselves..
Sixth, gambling was established and widely propagated during those times. Almost every day there were cockfights, and during feast days, the government officials and friars were the first to engage in all sorts of bets and gambles..
Seventh, there was a crooked system of religion. The friars taught the naïve Filipinos that it was easier for a poor man to enter heaven, and so they preferred not to work and remain poor so that they could easily enter heaven after they died..
Lastly, the taxes were extremely high, so much so that a huge portion of what they earned went to the government or to the friars. When the object of their labor was removed and they were exploited, they were reduced to inaction..
Rizal admitted that the Filipinos did not work so hard because they were wise enough to adjust themselves to the warm, tropical climate. “An hour’s work under that burning sun, in the midst of pernicious influences springing from nature in activity, is equal to a day’s labor in a temperate climate.”.
CAUSES OF THE INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINOS. 8/15/2021.
1. Wars. the inhabitants of the Philippines were dragged to maintain the honor of Spain (thousands and thousands of Filipinos were sent but nothing was said if they ever returned to their homes.) great diminution of the natives because the governors got them as crews for the vessels they sent out..
2. Pirate Attacks. Devastation of the terrible pirates Reduced more and more the number of inhabitants of the Philippines Burned down the towns, captured and enslaved men Disarmed and subjected to tributes so that they were left without the means to defend themselves.
3. ATTITUDE OF THE FRIARS. At that time, the friars advised their poor parishioners: to stop work in the mines, to abandon their industries, to destroy their looms and pointing them that heaven is their sole hope.
3. ATTITUDE OF THE FRIARS. The friars told them that it is easier for a poor man to enter heaven than for a rich man.
4.LESSENING ENCOURAGEMENT TO LABOR. Trade contact or relations between the Borneans, Siamese, Cambodians and Japanese nations were being cut off The coast wide trade which was flourishing before disappeared.
5. MISERLY RETURN FOR ONE’S LABOR. Because of selfish, greedy, mean Encomenderos who: reduced many to slavery compelled Filipinos to work for their benefit Made them sell their products at an insignificant price or for nothing or cheated them with false measures Treated them like slaves.
6. GAMBLING. The local word sugal (from the Spanish word jugar , means to gamble) indicates that gambling was unknown in the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived Balasa – from the Spanish word barajar , the introduction of playing cards.
7. FIESTAS. Gave their contribution to large number of fiestas, lengthy masses, novenae , processions, rosaries Filipinos were much less lazy before the word miracle was introduced into their language.
8. CURTAILMENT OF INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY. Curtail means to cut off, to cut short Individual liberty is being cut off Accused of being a filibustero (rebel) or a suspect Lack of confidence in the future Uncertainty of reaping the fruits of their labor.
9. APATHY OF THE GOVERNMENT. No encouragement, aid pertaining to commerce or agriculture The products coming from the Philippines were burdened with imposts and duties and have no free entry in the ports of the mother country and the consumption of the products are not encouraged Due to the fraudulent (dishonest, deceitful) manipulations of the Chinese, the Filipino industries were dying..
10. OWNERSHIP OF THE BIG ESTATES BY THE FRIARS. The best estates, the best tracts of land in some provinces were in the hands of the religious corporations The friars have deceived many by making them believe that those estates were prospering because those were under their supervision.
11. LACK OF MORAL SUPPORT. Absence of moral support Absence of help from the government Chemist (competitive examination) Young man won a prize in a literary contest Education of the Filipino.
12. DEPRIVATION OF HUMAN DIGNITY. The students have to contend with the daily preaching that lowers human dignity, gradually or brutally killing their self-respect Priests who boldly declared that it is evil for the Filipinos to know Castilian, that the Filipinos should not be separated from his carabao, and that he should not have any further ambition..
13. FEELING OF INFERIORITY. Constant plucking (pulling, removing) of the soul Deadens the energy Paralyzes all tendency towards advancement.
14. VICIOUS DRESSING OF THE INTELLIGENCE AND WILL.
15. LACK OF AN IDEAL FOR A GOOD WORKER. The Filipinos’ spirits were transformed according to the taste of the nation that imposed upon them its God and its laws INSTEAD: Ideal and prototype tanned and muscular laborer (who should have brought along with him the useful iron implements and the hoes to till the fields).
15. LACK OF AN IDEAL FOR A GOOD WORKER. BUT IT WAS AN: Aristocratic lord who brought along with him stamped papers, crucifixes, bulls and prayer books AS A RESULT: The imitative people became clerks, devout, prayer-loving, acquired ideas of luxurious and ostentatious living without improving correspondingly their means of subsistence..
16. LACK OF NATIONAL SENTIMENT. (expression of emotional ideas, feelings, etc.) Scarcity of any opposition to the measures that are prejudicial to the people and the absence of any initiative that will redound to their welfare Deprived of the right of association, therefore they were weak and inert (inactive, unmotivated, passive).
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