Project Management Extreme Programming (XP) & CCPM Week 11 – Lecture 2
Any questions from the last lectures? Any questions from the last or about the next tutorials? Any questions from the last or about the next practical labs? Any questions about the assignment? … … Any questions about the course in general?
Last Sessions …
Communications Management This section identifies all: critical communication channels for project stakeholders, frequency of communications, types of information to be communicated, and project status tracking plan. Wh e re a p p r o pr i a t e , i n c l u d e e l e c t ron i c m ed i a u s ed f or c o ll ab o ra t i v e purposes (e.g., Google Docs, Facebook, etc.). Al s o, i n c as es o f ge og r aph i c a ll y d i s pe r s e d p ro j e c t te a m s , i n d i c a t e methods for regular communication. See discussion from Chapter 6 on team communication methods. Include Communication Management Protocol (next slide)
Communication Management Protocol (Sample)
Understand why Agile Project Management was developed and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects. Understand the key features of the Extreme Programming (XP) planning process for software projects. Understand the logic behind Theory of Constraints and its implications for Critical Chain scheduling. Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project scheduling techniques.
Key Terms in Agile P M (1 of 2)
Sprint — one iteration of the Agile planning and executing cycle. Scrum — the development strategy agreed to by all key members of the project. Time-box — the length of any particular sprint, fixed in advance, during the Scrum meeting. User stories — short explanation of the end user that captures what they do or what they need from the project under development. Scrum Master — person on the project team responsible for moving the project forward between iterations, removing impediments, or resolving differences of opinions between major stakeholders.
Key Terms in Agile P M (2 of 2)
Sprint backlog — the set of product backlog items selected for the Sprint, plus a plan for delivering the Sprint Goal. Burndown chart — remaining work in the Sprint backlog. Product owner — person representing the stakeholders and serving as the “voice of the customer.” Development team — organizational unit responsible for delivering the product at the end of the iteration (Sprint). Product backlog — a prioritized list of everything that might be needed in completed product and source of requirements for any changes. Work backlog — evolving, prioritized queue of business and technical functionality that needs to be developed into a system.
Steps in Agile Project Management
Sprint Planning Daily Scrums Development Work Sprint Review Sprint Retrospective
During the Sprint, three guidelines shape the process: No changes are made that would endanger or modify the Sprint goal. Once goals for the Sprint are agreed to, they are not to be altered in the middle of the Sprint. Quality goals do not decrease. During the Sprint, the team cannot modify the goals or sacrifice quality standards that were first agreed to. Scope may be clarified and renegotiated between the product owner and the development team as more is learned.
Stages in a Sprint
Sprint Planning and Daily Scrums
Sprint Planning: The work to be performed in the Sprint is identified during the Sprint Planning session. This plan is created by the collaborative work of the entire Scrum team S pr i nt Pl ann i ng i s tim e - b o x ed t o a m a x im um of o ne f u l l day ( e i ght hours) for a one-month Sprint. Daily Scrums: The Daily Scrum is a short (15 minutes) event that allows the development team an opportunity to synchronize their activities and create a plan for the next 24-hour time window. During the meeting, members of the development team explain what they accomplished in the past 24 hours to meet the Sprint goal, what they intend to work on during the current day, and identify any problems.
Sample Burndown Chart For Day 9 of a Sprint
Sprint duration – 15 days Team size – 5 members Hours/day – 8 Total capacity – 600 hours
Sprint Reviews and Retrospective
Sprint Reviews: A Sprint Review is held at the end of the Sprint to inspect the completed increment (the Sprint Backlog) and make changes to the Product Backlog if needed. During the Sprint Review, the Scrum team and other key stakeholders work closely to verify what was done on the Sprint. Sprint Retrospective: The Sprint Retrospective is a meeting that is held to evaluate how the previous Sprint went; what worked, what didn’t work, and where potential improvements can be made to the Sprint process. A valuable Sprint Retrospective should also include an action plan for identifying and implementing improvements to the process.
Keys to Successful Agile P M
Cross-functional teams Empowered team members Shared accountability Servant leadership Continuous flow of value Attention to technical excellence Rapid risk reduction Early feedback and adaptation Total openness and transparency 10. Trust
Problems with Agile
Active user involvement and close collaboration of the Scrum team are critical throughout the development cycle. Evolving requirements can lead to potential for scope creep. It is harder to predict at beginning of project what the end product will actually resemble.
4 . A g i l e requ i r e m en ts ar e k ep t to m i n im u m, w h i c h c a n l e a d to
confusion about the final outcomes. T e st i n g i s i n t egra t e d t h r oughou t lif e c y c l e , wh i c h c a n ad d c o s t to project. F requen t de li ver y o f pr o j e ct f ea t ure s pu ts a bu r de n o n produ ct owners. If it is m i s a pp li e d to t r a d i t i on a l pro j e ct s , it c a n b e a n e x p e n s i v e approach without delivering benefits.
Extreme Programming (X P)
A m ore a g gre ss i v e fo r m
of S c ru m ; a methodology intended to improve
s oft w are de v el o p m ent s oft w are quality and
responsiveness to changing customer requirements. Two guiding features of XP: Refactoring Pair programming Advantage of XP is whole process is visible and accountable. Agile P M and X P have grown out of need to combine the discipline of project management methodology with the needs of modern enterprise to respond quickly. XP takes its name from the idea that innovative and beneficial elements of software engineering practices are taken to “extreme” levels with this approach.
Refactoring and Pair Programming
Refactoring: Refactoring is the continuous process of streamlining the design and improving code; not waiting until final testing to edit and fix code. Pair Programming: Another controversial feature of XP is the philosophy of pair programming. In XP, all code is written in collaboration between pairs of programmers, who work side-by-side on the same machine during coding. Pair programming can help programmers resolve issues and clarify interpretations of the user stories that drive the requirements.
Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain Project Scheduling
the net w o rk sc hedu l es w e c on s tru c ted in the
pre v ious t w o c hapte r s u s ing PE R T and probabili s tic ti me estimates are extremely resource dependent. That is, the accuracy of these estimates and our project schedules is sensitive to resource availability—critical project resources must be available to the degree they are needed. Thus project managers are often locked into a defensive mode, preparing for problems while they carefully monitor resource availability and guard their project slack time. The concept of theory of constraints as it is applied to Critical Chain Project Management represents an alternative method for managing slack time and more efficiently employing project resources.
Theory of Constraints
The main idea behind TOC is the notion that any “system must have a constraint. Otherwise, its output would increase without bound, or go to zero A constraint limits any system’s output. T. O.C Methodology: Identify the constraint that limits the output Exploit the constraint. Explore all the effects of the constraint Subordinate the system constraint. Commit resources to … Elevate the constraint. And address as a priority … Repeat the process if you identify any new constraint …
Pi n t o, J . ( 201 9 ). P ro j e c t M a na ge m en t : A c h i e v i ng C o m p e t i t i v e Advantage, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. Pearson Learning. Wysocki, R. (2009). Effective Project Management - Traditional, Agile, Extreme - 5th Edition. Wiley Publishing Go u nd a r, S . (2 0 1 8 ). I N F O2 3 1: M an a ge m e nt of I T P ro j e c t s C o u r s e . School of Information Management. Victoria University of Wellington.
Questions? Or Comments
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