The Education System in Cambodia

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The Education System in Cambodia

Mr. Bartolome de peralta man rn Edd

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EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CAMBODIA

Education in Cambodia is controlled by the state through the Ministry of Education in a national level and by the Department of Education at the provincial level. The Cambodian education system includes pre-school, primary, general secondary, higher education and non-formal education.

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THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CAMBODIA

Presently, after its reform in 1996, the formal educational structure of Cambodia is formulated in 6+3+3. This means 12 years for the completion of general education that divides up into six years for primary education (grade 1 to 6) and six years for secondary general education (grade 7 to 12).

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Secondary education consists of three years each for lower secondary education (grade 7 to 9) and upper secondary education (grade 10 to 12). This formulation does not include at least one year for pre-school education (kindergarten) for children from 3 to below 6 years old and university education of 4 to 5 years.

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Two others components of Cambodian educational structure involve non-formal education providing all children, youth, adult, disabled people with literacy and access to life skills. The other component is teacher training education. This allows students that successfully completed grade 12 or grade 9 to pursue teacher certificates at provincial teacher training colleges (for primary school teachers) or regional teacher training centers (for lower secondary school teachers).

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Currently, the educational system is run by the Cambodian state, but private education exists at all levels and is run by private sectors. Most private schools offering pre-school education and general education have been operated by the communities of ethnic and religious minority including Chinese, Muslim, French, English and Vietnamese. Private higher education is accessible mainly in the capital of the country, but it is also available throughout the provinces of Cambodia.

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CAMBODIAN GENERAL EDUCATION

Cambodian general education is based on a national school curriculum that consists of two main parts: basic education and upper secondary education. Basic education curriculum is divided into three cycles of three years each. The first cycle (grade 1-3) consists of 27-30 lessons per week lasting 40 minutes which are allocated to the five main subjects: • Khmer (13 lessons) • Maths (7 lessons) • Science & Social Studies including Arts (3 lessons) Physical and Health Education (2 lessons) and local life skills program (2-5 lessons)

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THE SECOND CYCLE (GRADE 4-6) COMPRISES OF THE SAME NUMBER OF LESSONS BUT IS SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT:

Khmer (10 for grade 4 and 8 for grade 5-6) Maths (6 for grade 4-6) Science (3 for grade 4 and 4 for grade 5-6) Social Studies including arts (4 for grade 4 and 5 for grade 5-6) Physical and Health Education (2 for grade 4-6) Local life skills program (2-5 for grade 4-6).

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THE THIRD CYCLE (GRADE 7-9) CONSISTS OF 32-35 LESSONS WHICH ARE ALLOCATED FOR 7 MAJOR SUBJECTS:

Khmer Maths Social Studies and Science (6 lesson respectively) Foreign languages (4 lessons) Physical & Health Education and Sports (2 lessons) Local life skills program (2-5 lessons)

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UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION

Upper Secondary Education curriculum consists of two different phases. The curriculum for the first phase (grade 10) is identical to the third cycle of primary education (see above). The second phase (grade 11-12) has two main components: Compulsory and Electives. Compulsory involves four major subjects with different numbers of lesson allocated per week: Khmer literature (6 lessons), Physical & Health Education and Sports (2 lessons), Foreign language: English or French (must choose one, 4 lessons each) and Mathematics: Basic or Advance (must choose one, 4 or 8 lesson respectively).

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ELECTIVES

Electives include three major subjects covering four or five sub-subjects with four lessons allocated per week for each one (students may choose one or two or three of them): Science: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth and Environmental Studies Social Studies: Moral/Civics, History, Geography, Economics EVEP (Effective Vocational Education Program): ICT/Technology, Accounting Business Management, Local Vocational Technical Subject, Tourism and Arts Education and other subjects

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Education System in Cambodia

Education School/Level Grades Primary Primary 6 Middle Junior 3 Secondary Secondary School 3 Vocational Vocational/Technical School 2-3 Tertiary Bachelor 4-5 Tertiary Tertiary Master Doctorate 2-3 3

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INTRODUCTION

Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is an indispensable component for socio-economic development as it assists learners in gaining knowledge, technical skills, and competency to become skilled workers and technicians and it significantly contributes to the socio-economic development of their nation.

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Recently, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) has endorsed a range of national policies, including "Cambodia Industry Development Policy (IDP) 2015 – 2025, and National Employment Policy (NEP) 2015 – 2025", aimed at contributing to the development of industrial sector creating decent work and ensuring quality and high productivity of the workforce that is able to better compete with regional countries.

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In order that Cambodia TVET achieve the objectives set forth in the above national policies, "National Technical Vocational Education and Training Policy" must be prepared with clear vision, goals, objectives and strategies to develop human resources with high quality, competency and skills that can respond to socio-economic development at present and in future.

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TVET FORMAL, NON-FORMAL AND INFORMAL SYSTEMS

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FORMAL TVET SYSTEM

After compulsory education, which consists of a six year primary school followed by a three-year lower secondary school, students can enroll in the formal TVET programs or continue to the three-year upper secondary general education. Upper secondary TVET programs are offered at three different levels (each lasting one-year) in a wide variety of areas, including vehicle repairing , general mechanics, computer technology, agricultural mechanics, electricity, electronics, repairing of cooling mechanics, and civil engineering.

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The formal TVET system also recruits graduates from upper secondary schools, who have completed grade twelve. The duration of the training varies depending on the course, but it lasts a minimum of one-year. For instance, technical and professional training institutions offer programs lasting two to three-years and leading to a certificate/high diploma (Diploma for Technician). Other providers of tertiary TVET are polytechnics and a small number of vocational training center's/schools.

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NON-FORMAL AND INFORMAL TVET SYSTEMS

The Provincial Training Centers (PTCs) and Vocational Training Centers (VTC) are the major providers of non-formal TVET. These courses are short-term lasting from one to four months and focusing on basic agriculture, construction, motor repair skills, craft, and basic food processing. They are mainly designed to address social dislocation and poverty reduction, and target in particular rural areas.

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PROVINCIAL TRAINING CENTER OFFER THE FOLLOWING COURSES:

One to two-weeks course on agriculture (representing the majority of courses offered by PTCs 46 per cent); and Three to six months courses on technical trade (15 per cent), textiles-garments (9 per cent), hairdressing-beauty (5 per cent), with computing, tourism, hospitality, business, art, and languages making up the remaining 25 per cent.

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GOVERNANCE AND FINANCING

The National Training Board (NTB) is an apex body for TVET policy formation and for the approval of strategies to implement that policy. NTB is chaired by a deputy prime minister and includes senior representatives of all involved ministries, employers, employees, trade union, training providers (public, privates, and NGOs), and donors with limited private sector memberships. NTB has not only a coordinating function but also the leadership role in linking a national training programs to the needs of the economy

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TVET TEACHERS AND TRAINERS

The National Technical Training Institute (NTTI), founded officially in 1999, is a state-own higher education institute under the direction of the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training (MOLVT). The NTTI is responsible for training selected university graduates to become capable and professional TVET teachers and upgrading trainers and administrative TVET staff. Teacher training is a one-year programme consisting of thirty-seven credits. The NTTI also provides Vocational Technical Teacher Training Program through which candidates can apply for Master, Bachelor and Diploma (Associate) degrees.

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Qualifications and Qualifications Frameworks

Secondary Vocational Education

Program Duration Qualification Semi-skilled worker 1 year Certificate 1 Skilled worker 2 years Certificate 11 Highly skilled worker 3 years Certificate 111

Students who complete the three-year (level three) TVET programs are awarded a certificate equivalent to high school diploma (Baccalaureate).

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Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification Technician 2-3 years Diploma Engineers 2-3 years Bachelor’s

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National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

Cambodian NQF Level General Education System TVET System Higher Education System 8 Doctoral Degree Doctoral Degree 7 Master of Technology/Business Master Degree 6 Bachelor of Technology/Engineering/Business Bachelor Degree 5 Higher Diploma of Technical/ Business Associate Degree 4 Upper Secondary School Certificate TVET Certificate III 3 Upper Secondary School certificate TVET Certificate II 2 1 Upper Secondary School certificate Lower Secondary School Certificate TVET Certificate I Vocational Skill Certificate

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CAMBODIA'S NEW TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY

Cambodia's new Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Policy 2017–2025, formally approved by the government on 16 June 2017. It intends to help promote understanding of the policy among the wide range of TVET stakeholders including ministries, training institutions, employer and employee associations, development partners, civil society organizations, and Cambodia's youth.

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KEY POINTS

Cambodia's demographic dividend offers great opportunities, but its human resource base remains largely low-skilled. It will be critical for Cambodia not only to improve education and technical and vocational training for young people entering the labor market, but also to upgrade the skills of the existing workforce. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is indispensable to socioeconomic development as it produces the skilled workers and technicians an evolving and modernizing labor market needs.

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OVERVIEW OF TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN CAMBODIA AND IN THE REGION

Within ASEAN, skills development is expanding quickly because it is considered as a crucial driving force for economic growth. Changes in skills development are being supported through skills development policies driven by demand-based training which are inclusive of all ministries and institutions providing skills training.

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The Royal Government of Cambodia under the wise leadership of Samdech Akka Moha Sena Padei Techo Hun Sen, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia has been paying highly attention to all sectors, especially the development of employment sector including job creation, the strengthening harmonized industrial relations and TVET to meet the demands of labor market in order to contribute to poverty reduction and improvement the livelihoods of people and to sustain socio-economic development as highlighted in the Rectangular Strategy Phase

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The National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) 2014-2018 also clearly reflects government's commitment into human resources development in the context of job creation to accelerate economic growth. The NSDP also sets out the main activities for the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training to implement RGC's priority policy, especially TVET.

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Therefore, the quality of training programs will be supported by training institutions and recognized at nation and region level. Participation of industries, communities and stakeholders will enhance training outcomes responded to employments, attract new industries and contribute to economic growth.

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TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN CAMBODIA

TVET PROVIDERS There are 55 public TVET Institutions/Schools/Centers, including 38 Institutes/Centers the serving 24 provinces offering programs from basic skills training to advanced degrees are under directly managing of the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training (MLVT). 49 NGOs/associations are delivering TVET training programs. 227 private TVET providers are mostly running short courses training in skills areas on a cost recovery basis. Various government ministries have staff training colleges

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ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

The huge number of youth who need to make a smooth transition from schooling to the employment has posed a challenge to the labor market, as well as to the TVET system in Cambodia. There is a "skills gap" in the labor market, and employers find it difficult to find professional staff who have good analytical and decision-making skills. Cambodia needs staff members who can expose their country to international trends in TVET development. There is a strong need for policy dialogue among the major sectors of TVET, a review and identification of gaps in the TVET system, and a revision of TVET qualifications framework. Networking with other countries and establishing TVET documentation centers are needed to enhance the capacity of TVET policy makers at the central level

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VOCATIONAL TRAINING

Vocational training is very important in Cambodia, as many people have not graduated from High School. Most of the students in their Vocational Training Program are illiterate, which proves challenging at times, however, the outcomes are definitely worth it.

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Vocational Skills Certificate

Civil Construction Auto-Mechanic Business & ICT Massonary Automotive Servicing Administration Services Steel Fabrication & Fixing Automotive Air Condition Servicing Computer Servicing Finishing Capentry Automotive Electrical Servicing HRD Rough Capentry Automotive Body Repairing Customer Services Plumbing Automotive Painting Sale Services Building Electrical Wiring Automotive Engine Rebuilding Marketing Services Steel Structural Errection Motorcycle Servicing Computer Graphic Designing

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VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROJECTS - OSY

Home Sewing Business The purpose of the sewing cooperative is to ensure their sewing graduates utilize their skills to improve their standard of living. This is achieved by encouraging their sewing graduates to become a strong team, with their seamstresses acting as Team Leaders. The women primarily make clothes for schools, universities, NGO's, tour agencies and individuals at their homes.

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Their Vocational Training Coordinator and Director head the program, by searching customers, communicating with customers, and coordinating the orders. They also develop the sewing team through training and coaching. Some of their sewing students are hired to participate in home sewing business program. Each month, they make their products at their homes using machines purchased through by Microfinance Program. They receive a fair wage and ongoing support from their staff and employee benefits.

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SEWING COOPERATIVE

The purpose of the sewing cooperative is to ensure every sewing graduates utilize their skills to improve their standard of living. This is achieved by encouraging their sewing graduates to become a strong team. The women primarily make clothes for schools, universities, NGO's, tour agencies and individuals at their homes.

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Their Vocational Training Coordinator and Director head the program, searching customers, communicating with customers, and coordinating the orders. They also develop the sewing team through training and coaching. The purpose of the sewing cooperative is to ensure their sewing graduates utilize their skills to improve the standard of living

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SEWING PROGRAM

Sewing program in Cambodia targets the poorest in their community who are struggling to make ends meet. They recruit students by spending weeks conducting assessments and determining the suitability of people to their program.

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Their 10-month sewing program not only teaches women the basics of sewing right through to elaborate ceremony tops, they also learn about chemical-free farming and life skills as part of a holistic approach to development. As a result, these women are empowered with the with the confidence, independence and skills to support themselves and their families.