Definition of depression

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Definition of depression

Serious medical illness Affect feeling, mindset and action Results in emotional and physical problem Decrease function at work and home 4 Causes of Depression: Biological reason Conflict Pregnancy Personal problems

Presented by: Aqila Alya Binti Syamrin 2001544

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BIOLOGICAL REASONS FROM THE MOTHER

MOTHER’S EMOTIONS Neurons and glial cells are affected harmly. Inherited mother’s depression. Neurogenesis and degenerations of neurons cause depressive system

GENETIC PREDISPOSITION Changes of combination genes.

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Presented by: Aqila Alya Binti Syamrin 2001544

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EXTERNAL REFERENCES

Biological causes The biological reasons are associated with disorders at the level of the neurotransmission in brain including substanc es such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), cerebral nerve growth fac tor (BDNF — brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and others [14,15]. It is assumed that the reduced production of these neu- rotransmitters can cause symptoms of depression, and may be responsible for the emergence of suicidal thoughts and actions. Research studies carried out at the University of Pisa in Italy confirm that serotonin deficiency plays a significant role in the development of depression. It was also shown that kynurenine seriously affects the central nervous system by increasing the expression of the "tryptophan-kynurenine" and in this way determines the serotonin deficiency The lay- out "tryptophan-kynurenine" also affects the formation of anxiety disorders, psychotic symptoms and depressive dis orders. Kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism leads to the formation ofmultiple active metabolites, which act an tagonistically relative to each other. At first, the amino acid is metabolized to formylkynurenine, which is converted to the kynurenine. Two enzymes are involved in this reaction: 2,3 tryptophan dihydrooxygenase [TDO], activated by stress hormones and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase [IDO], activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The increased expression of genes producing cytokines (IFN y, TNF-u) may deter- mine a genetic predisposition to the formation of depression (by activation the pathway of IDO), and environmental stim uli activate the TIX) path at hormonal level. It is suggested that the system "tryptophan-kynurenine" may be one of the main sites of interaction between genetic and environmental factors involved in the pathophysiology of depression [16].

Since early pregnancy, the mothers' emotions significant ly affect the formation of synapses and the neurotransmitters secreted by the mother modify the development of a child 's brain. Under the influence of stress during pregnancy, the mother's body may release stress hormones the presence of which can affect the whole life of the unbom child. Depend- ing on how strong the negative emotions are and how long they last, it leads to a modification of synapses in the fetus' brain and exerts a destructive effect on neurons and glial cells Severe chronic stress by inhibiting the neurogenesis and by contributing the atrophy of neurons, causes many anatomical and pathophysiological changes: reduces the number of neurons. It also deteriorates the communication between neurons, decreases neuroplasticity, entailing de- pressive symptoms With use of NIRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Im- aging), besides significant destructive changes in the brain, it was also found that children of women who have expe- Henced severe stress and negative emotions both during pregnancy and after birth, often also have enlarged amyg- daloid nucleuses (brain structures that regulating emotion al reactions and responsible for feelings of anxiety, panic and aggression). The stronger thematemal stress is, the greater the volume of amygdaloid nucleus in the child [6].

Bembnowska, M. & Jośko-Ochojska, J. (2015). What causes depression in adults?. Polish Journal of Public Health , 125(2), 116-120. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282841619_What_causes_depression_in_adults Stephanie, F.  (2017, July 25). Is Depression Genetic. https://www.healthline.com/health/depression/genetic