Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE

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Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE

Group 2 CALISPA ALBÁN ESTEFANÍA ALEJANDRA CANGO QUEVEDO CINTHYA ELIZABETH CARVAJAL GUAITARILLA LIRIA ESTEFANIA CISNEROS GUARNIZO JANETH MONSERRATH

Qualitative Research In Education NRC 4336

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Ethnography

What is ethnography? Ethnography is the study of social interactions, behaviours , and perceptions that occur within groups, teams, organisations , and communities. (Reeves, Cooper & Hodges, 2008)

key features According to Eriksson and Kovalainen (2008), there are some key characteristics that must be taken into account in ethnographic research.

Key elements of ethnographic research Ethnographic research entails : • An interest in cultures, cultural understanding • Looking at the culture from the ‘inside’, with the emic perspective; • Being attentive to language practices; • Being close to the field and collecting first-hand experience.

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When is ethnography used?

Ethnography allows observing, studying customs in certain areas of geography. In addition, with an impartial vision of the environment, it is possible to discover the problems of society (poverty, racism, economic problems, education, others), as well as to propose solutions.

Observation. Collect as much information as possible in the social framework to be investigated. Description. Detail what is observed in a document (written, visual, sound) Analysis. The information obtained and recorded must be compared, understood and made relevant conclusions, both on a small and large scale.

How to conduct it?

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The main advantages of ethnography are:

You get direct access to culture. Learn first-hand about people's behavior and interactions. The analysis makes it possible to predict the consequences of encounters between civilizations. It is holistic in nature. Your data is contextualized. Various ways are used to collect information.

The disadvantages of ethnography we must highlight:

The researcher is required to spend a lot of time in the area to be studied. The researcher must be accepted in society. The nature of the research makes data collection unpredictable.

ADVANTAGES OF ETHNOGRAPHY

DISADVANTAGES OF ETHNOGRAPHY

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References

David, H. B. (2008). Qualitative research methodologies : ethnography . Recuperado el 19 de June de 2021, de https:// www.academia.edu /900971/ Qualitative_research_methodologies_ethnography Estela, R. M. (21 de July de 2020). Concepto de etnografia . Recuperado el 19 de June de 2021, de https:// concepto.de / etnografia / Grecia., C. (2018). Etnografía. Recuperado el 19 de June de 2021, de https:// www.euston96.com / etnografia /

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Phenomenological Research

CARACTERISTICS

Post intentional Phenomenology

experiences pure

Interpretive Phenomenological analysis

scientific language

Ill

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¿how to carry out research in phenomenology?

Intuiting

Analyzing

Describing

Bracketing

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interpreter researcher

veracity of information.

Advantages

understand experimental events

another point of view.

social world is built in interaction

Siäiii}iiftii

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disadvantages

typical results not always accepted by policymakers

low resources for data collection’

subjectivity can involve low credibility pure bracketing

essence of perception

MOH

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Ayala, R. (2008). The phenomenological-hermeneutical methodology of M. Van Manen in the field of educational research. Possibilities and first experiences. Research Journal, 26 (2), 409-430. Recovered from: http://www.scielo.org.pe/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2307-79992019000100010  Remeyni, D., Williams, B., Money, A. & Swartz, E. (1998) “Doing Research in Business and Management: Una Introducción al Proceso y Método” Sage Publications, p.97

Ayala, R. (2008). The phenomenological-hermeneutical methodology of M. Van Manen in the field of educational research. Possibilities and first experiences. Research Journal, 26 (2), 409-430. Recovered from: http://www.scielo.org.pe/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2307-79992019000100010  Remeyni, D., Williams, B., Money, A. & Swartz, E. (1998) “Doing Research in Business and Management: Una Introducción al Proceso y Método” Sage Publications, p.97

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Grounded theory

Grounded theory (GT) is a systematic and flexible methodology in the social sciences . It focuses on theory generation , which is supported by data that have been methodically collected and analyzed .

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Data and collection analysis Occur simultaneously . Categories and analytic codes are developed from data. Abstract categories are constructed inductively . Theoretical sampling is used to refine categories . Social processes are discovered in the data. Analytical memos are used between coding and writing framework . Categories are integrated into a theoretical . Involves a comparative strategy for discovering grounded theory .

Key features

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When to use it

Is designed to be usable in the context of a variety of theoretical approaches ( ScienceDirect , 2019). Modify existing theories from different perspectives . Expand on or uncover differences from what is already known about a theory .

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How to conduct grounded theory

Develop research question Begin data collection Code of data: Give each line of data a code or label to describe its content . Category development based on coding Theoretical sampling of new sorts of data to test developing ideas. Test hypothesis based on the theory which developed above Test ideas in other settings to see whether the theory works in these

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Advantages disadvantages Provide for intuitive appeal Foster creativity Strengthen the conceptualisation Use a systematic approach to data análisis Provide for data depth & richness Involve and exhaustive process Can fall into methodological errors Review the literature without developing assumptions Use multiple approaches to GT Cover limited generalizability

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Alarcón, A.; Munera, L. & Montes, A. (2016). La Teoría Fundamentada en el Marco de la Investigación Educativa. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=6069707

Alarcón, A.; Munera, L. & Montes, A. (2016). La Teoría Fundamentada en el Marco de la Investigación Educativa. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=6069707

Chun Tie , Y.; Birks , M. & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded theory research : A design framework for novice researchers . Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318722/

Chun Tie , Y.; Birks , M. & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded theory research : A design framework for novice researchers . Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318722/

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