Unit 1: Introduction to Coelomates
Evolution of coelom and metamerism
Unit 2: Annelida
General characteristics and Classification up to classes; Digestion, Excretion and Reproduction in Annelida
Unit 3: Arthropoda
General characteristics and Classification up to classes, Classification of Insecta up to orders Vision and Respiration in Arthropoda; Metamorphosis in Insects; Social life in bees and termites
General characteristics and Evolutionary significance
Unit 5: Mollusca
General characteristics and Classification up to classes; Respiration in Mollusca; Torsion and detorsion in Gastropoda; Pearl formation in bivalves
Unit 6: Echinodermata
General characteristics and Classification up to classes; Protective mechanisms in echinoderms (Dermal skeleton, evisceration, autotomy); Water-vascular system in Asteroidea; Larval forms in echinoderms
1. Study of Aphrodite, Nereis, Heteronereis, Sabella, Serpula, Chaetopterus, Pheretima, Hirudinaria, Trochophore
2. Study of T.S. through pharynx, gizzard, and typhlosolar intestine of earthworm
3. Study of Limulus, Palamnaeus, Palaemon, Daphnia, Balanus, Sacculina, Cancer, Eupagurus, Scolopendra, Julus,
Bombyx, Periplaneta, termites, Apis, Musca, Crustacean larvae (Any three)
4. Study of Peripatus
5. Study of Chiton, Dentalium, Pila, Doris, Helix, Unio, Patella,Ostrea, Pinctada, Sepia, Octopus, Nautilus
6. Study of Pentaceros/Asterias, Ophiura, Clypeaster, Echinus, Cucumaria, Antedon
7. Study of mouth parts, digestive system and nervous system of Periplaneta*
8. Submit a Project Report on field study of the social behaviour of any insect (bees/termites/ants/wasps) or
behavioural pattern of earthworm in nature. (*Subject to UGC guidelines)
Ecology is not more in semester 2 so we have cell biology
Unit 1: Overview of Cells
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, Virus, Viroids, Mycoplasma, Prions
Unit 2: Plasma Membrane
Various models of plasma membrane structures, Transport across membranes: active and passive transport, facilitated transport; Cell-cell junctions, structures and functions: Tight junctions, adherens junctions, gap junctions
Unit 3: Endomembrane System
Structure and Functions: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Signal hypothesis, Vesicular transport from ER to Golgi apparatus; Protein sorting and transport from Golgi apparatus; Golgi apparatus, Vesicular transport: Coated Vesicles Lysosomes; Peroxisomes.
Unit 4: Mitochondria
Structure, Semi-autonomous nature, Endo-symbiotic hypothesis; Respiratory chain, Chemiosmotic hypothesis and ATP Synthase.
Unit 5: Cytoskeleton
Structure and Functions: Microtubules, Microfilaments and Intermediate filaments.
Unit 6: Nucleus
Structure of Nucleus: Nuclear envelope, Nuclear pore complex, Transport of molecules across nuclear membrane, Chromatin: euchromatin, heterochromatin and packaging, nucleosome, nucleolus
Unit 7: Cell Division
Mitosis, Meiosis, Cell cycle and its regulation
Unit 8: Cell Signalling
Cell Signalling through G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and role of secondary messenger: cAMP and protein kinase; Apoptosis.
1. Principle of Light microscope, Phase contrast microscope and Electron microscope and principle of cell fixation,
staining and fractionation.
2. Preparation of temporary stained squash of onion root tip to study various stages of mitosis.
3. Study the effect of colchicine on mitosis at 24 hrs and 48 hrs.
4. Study of various stages of meiosis.
5. Preparation of temporary stained mount to show the presence of Barr body in human female blood cells/ cheek
6. Cytochemical staining and preparation of permanent slide to demonstrate:
(a) DNA by Feulgen reaction
(b) Mucopolysaccharides by PAS reaction
(c) Proteins by Mercuric Bromophenol Blue/Acid Fast Green.
Chemistry (generic elective) ge
Section a: physical Chemistry
Unit 1: Chemical Energetics
Review of thermodynamics and the laws of thermodynamics, important principles and definitions of thermochemistry, concept of standard state and standard enthalpies of formations, integral and differential enthalpies of solution and dilution, calculation of bond energy, bond dissociation energy and resonance energy from thermochemical data, variation of enthalpy of a reaction with temperature – Kirchhoff’s equation., statement of third law of thermodynamics and calculation of absolute entropies of substances.
Unit 2: Chemical Equilibrium
Free energy change in a chemical reaction, Thermodynamic derivation of the law of chemical equilibrium, distinction between G and Go, Le Chatelier’s principle, relationships between Kp, Kc and Kx for reactions involving ideal gases.
Unit 3: Ionic Equilibria
Strong, moderate and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, factors affecting degree of ionization, Ostwald’s dilution law, ionization constant and ionic product of water, ionization of weak acids and bases, pH scale, common ion effect, salt hydrolysis-calculation of hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis and pH for different salts. Buffer solutions, Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts – applications of solubility product principle
Section B: Organic Chemistry
Unit 4: Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Structure and aromatic character of benzene.
Preparation: methods of preparation of benzene from phenol, benzoic acid, acetylene and benzene sulphonic acid.
Reactions: electrophilic substitution reactions in benzene citing examples of nitration, halogenation, sulphonation and Friedel-Craft's alkylation and acylation with emphasis on carbocationic rearrangement, side chain oxidation of alkyl benzenes.
Unit 5: Alkyl and Aryl Halides
A) Alkyl halides (upto 5 carbons):
Structure of haloalkanes and their classification as 1⁰, 2⁰ & 3⁰.
Preparation: starting from alcohols (1⁰, 2⁰ & 3⁰) and alkenes with mechanisms.
Reactions: Nucleophilic substitution reactions with mechanism and their types (SN1, SN2 and SNi), competition with elimination reactions (elimination vs substitution), nucleophilic substitution reactions with specific examples from: hydrolysis, nitrite & nitro formation, nitrile & isonitrile formation and Williamson's ether synthesis.
Structure and resonance
Preparation: Methods of preparation of chloro, bromo & iodobenzene from benzene (electrophilic substitution), from phenols (nucleophilic substitution reaction) and from aniline (Sandmeyer and Gattermann reactions).
Reaction: Nucleophilic aromatic substitution by OH group (Bimolecular Displacement Mechanism), Effect of nitro substituent on reactivity of haloarenes, Reaction with strong bases NaNH2/NH3 (elimination addition mechanism involving benzyne intermediate), relative reactivity and strength of C-X bond in alkyl, allyl, benzyl, vinyl and aryl halides.
Unit 6: Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, Aldehydes and Ketones (Aliphatic and Aromatic)
A) Alcohols (upto 5 Carbon):
Structure and classification of alcohols as 1⁰, 2⁰ & 3⁰.
Preparation: Methods of preparation of 1⁰, 2⁰ & 3⁰ by using Grignard reagent, ester hydrolysis and reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters.
Reactions: Acidic character of alcohols and reaction with sodium, with HX (Lucas Test), esterification, oxidation (with PCC, alkaline KMnO4, acidic K2Cr2O7 and conc. HNO3), Oppeneauer Oxidation.
B) Diols (upto 6 Carbons): Oxidation and Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement.
C) Phenols: acidity of phenols and factors affecting their acidity.
Preparation: Methods of preparation from cumene, diazonium salts and benzene sulphonic acid.
Reactions: Directive influence of OH group and Electrophilic substitution reactions, viz. nitration, halogenation, sulphonation, Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Gattermann–Koch reaction, Houben-Hoesch condensation, reaction due to OH group: Schotten-Baumann reaction
D) Ethers (Aliphatic & Aromatic):
Williamson's ether synthesis, Cleavage of ethers with HI
E) Aldehydes and ketones (Aliphatic and Aromatic):
Preparation: from acid chlorides and from nitriles.
Reactions: Nucleophilic addition, nucleophilic addition – elimination reaction including reaction with HCN, ROH, NaHSO3, NH2-G derivatives. Iodoform test, Aldol Condensation, Cannizzaro’s reaction, Wittig reaction, Benzoin condensation. Clemmensen reduction, Wolff Kishner reduction, Meerwein-Pondorff Verley reduction.
1. Determination of heat capacity of calorimeter.
2. Determination of enthalpy of neutralization of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide.
3. Determination of integral enthalpy of solution of salts (KNO3, NH4Cl).
4. Determination of enthalpy of hydration of copper sulphate.
1. Preparation of buffer solutions: (i) Sodium acetate-acetic acid or (ii) Ammonium chloride-ammonium
acetate. Measurement of the pH of buffer solutions and comparison of the values with theoretical
Section B: Organic Chemistry
Preparations: (Mechanism of various reactions involved to be discussed)
(Recrystallization, determination of melting point and calculation of quantitative yields to be done in all
1. Bromination of phenol/aniline
2. Benzoylation of amines/phenols
3. Oxime of aldehydes and ketones
4. 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of aldehydes and ketones
5. Semicarbazone of aldehydes and ketones