Sphingolipids. Shivam Joshi.
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[Audio] Lesson descriptions should be brief.. Bioactive Lipids.
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Functions of Sphingolipids. Sphingolipids have been reported to have multiple biological functions. In cellular level, they are involved in providing the structural integrity of cell membrane, cell recognition, cell adhesion, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and controlling the function of cilia and microvilli. In central nervous system, sphingolipids are known to be players of brain development. In gastrointestinal tract, sphingolipids play a role in regulating oral absorption of some nutrients. In immune systems, sphingolipids have been reported to function in the differentiation, maturation, and immune responses of lymphocytes including B cells, and T cells..
Structure of Sphingolipids. General chemical structure of sphingolipids. The long chain sphingosine... | Download Scientific Diagram.
Subclass of Sphingolipids. Sphingolipids Ceramide Sphingomyelin Glycosphingolipid.
Ceramides. A ceramide is composed of a sphingoid base and a fatty acid. Ceramides can be synthesized from L-serine and palmitoyl -CoA via the de novo pathway, from sphingomyelins via the sphingomyelinase pathway, and from complex sphingolipids via the salvage pathway. Generally, ceramides are associated with cell death, differentiation, proliferation, and inflammation. C6 ceramide encapsulated liposomes are known to induce caspase-mediated apoptosis more potently in osteosarcoma cells than free C6 ceramide, thereby providing better safety against non-cancerous bone cells..
Sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin is a major structural lipid that contributes to forming the plasma membranes of mammalian cells. Sphingomyelin has also been included in environmentally reactive drug delivery systems developed using enzymes that are induced by specific environmental cues. The members of the acid sphingomyelinase family of sphingomyelinases are activated by oxidative stress or ionizing radiation and function to convert sphingomyelins to ceramide. Iron nanoparticle-containing sphingomyelin lipid nanoparticles have been developed for site-specific drug release..
Glycosphingolipids. Cerebroside is a ceramide that binds to a single sugar molecule, usually glucose or galactose. Glucosylceramides (or glucosylcerebrosides ), especially those conjugated with a short-chain fatty acid, have been studied to control cell plasma membrane fluidity. N- octanoyl -glucosylceramide was found to cause incomplete lipid packing and enhance the cellular uptake of amphiphilic drugs, such as doxorubicin This short-chain glucosylceramide generated transient membrane channels to mediate the translocation of doxorubicin, and thus improving its efficacy. This strategy may be a promising solution for multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer therapy ..