SPA 505-week 4

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WhatsApp Video 2021-04-19 at 13.52.15.mp4

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Musolf, L.D. & Springer, J.F. (1979). Malaysia’s parliament system: Representative politics and policymaking in divided society

Mohamad Al Hakim Bin Al Balkhis P-SM0074/20

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REPRESENTATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA Introduction: The trend of Malaysia politic comes from a few factor : eclipse of representative institution, growth of bureaucratic power and the condition of nation socioeconomic

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Communalism: The Context of Malaysia Politics The characteristic shape Malaysian politics such as colonial rules, traditional social structure and the strains of economics development Ethnics diversity will cause the Malaysian political development Conflict is regulated by stable communal elites through negotiation/bargaining The stable governing coalition between political parties has been pointed to as successful mean of elite accommodation of issues that divided communal group

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Sensitive issue have been defused in special constitution arrangement Negotiate and the bargaining are used to maintain the settlement of conflict Antagonisms which dominate mass political disposition and render communal chauvinism a powerful and dangerous political force. Employment of divided society and balancing in between participative and authoritative institution also being regulated to reduce conflict

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Legislatures in Developing Countries Report on legislative systems → i . ineffectiveness of the legislature ii. The frequency in mediating between government and the citizen Legislative contribute to rural development are almost entirely the product of legislators attempts to establish linkages –constituencies Legislature has the potential and certainly has a better basis for claiming that its participation is representative and its actions are socially legitimate

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Representation and Responsiveness Representation is an ill-defined concept that has acquired conflicting meaning through long use. It may be employed to denote any relationship between rulers and ruled or it may connote responsiveness, authorization, legitimacy or accountability. It may be defined so broadly that any political institution performs representative function or so narrowly that only an elected legislature can do so Legitimacy, accountability, responsiveness – explain one’s interest in r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t it u t i o n s . L e g i s l a t u r e m a y n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n d e c i d i n g , b u t rather acting.

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Components of Responsiveness Policy Responsiveness – focuses on the “great public issues that agitate the political process” ( Eulau and Karps,1977). Effective representation in this realm requires a meaningful connection between constituents policy preferences, demands or needs and the representative’s decisions. Service Responsiveness – concerns the non- legislative services that a representative actually performs for individual or group in his district. These non legislative services – intervening with bureaucrats, responding to constituents’ personal concerns, assisting in finding employment.

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Components of Responsiveness 3.Allocation Responsiveness- the particularized nature of the benefits issuing form “service” activities has undoubtedly limited their importance in discussions of representation The effectiveness of these activities is simply too limited by the time and resources of the legislature and by the individual nature of the interest addressed. The most familiar example of allocative representation would be traditional “ prok -barrel “ activities which bring publicly-funded economic benefits to a district as a whole or to a substantial portion of its population.

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Components of Responsiveness 4.Symbolic Responsiveness – expression of the values and attitudes of constituents by the representative should not be underestimated, particularly in the context of realtively new institutional pattern which do not have a deep weel of historical “diffuse” support to drawn on. is further complicated in the developing setting by the need to balance the “traditional” or communal.

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Malaysian Parliamentary System The formal institutional balancing of communal representation in the government depend heavily on Parliament MP represent the interest of his district in the capital city and communicates and explains the actions of the government. Success in parliament elections is important to the major conflict organizations within the communal group.