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Nadia Ismail

21_2_PEHP171

Unit 2.3 Embracing a future that is informed by the pas t

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Unit 2.3.1: The core aspects of African Education under Pre-Colonialism

(i) Purpose

(i) Structure

( i) Curriculum

(i) Access to Education

The physical and psychological domination of the African people in order to exploit them so as to gain control over their labor and natural resources so as to benefit Pre-colonial rule.

Traditional African education occurred with early focus on physical development, character building, emphasis on developing intellectual ability through mastery of language which was a oral culture of learnin g.

Traditional African education later occurred under the direction of the community. Informal Communal education was essentially pragmatic in orientation. The focus to create an adult that would benefit society

Traditional African education didn’t have restriction as far as education was concerned only gender division. Children were communally and informally educated without exclusions.

African folklores taught values, life skills, music, art, law, history, sociology, philosophy and morality. Children were taught via a form of apprenticeship to fulfill future productive roles in the community.

Pre-Colonial missionary formal education included Latin, Hebrew, Greek, literature, geometry, arithmetic, physics with a strong emphasis on Christian religious education and support of Britain .

Pre-Colonial education was taught formally by Christian missionaries whose main focus on religious education and allegiance to the crown.

Pre-Colonial education welcomed all children into Christian mission schools.

Traditional African early education of children was centred around the informal education received from parents and the family as to the values and norms that society entailed.

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The Purpose Colonial education of Africa in To subject African people to physical and psychological domination and control Educated by Christian missionaries and colonial ideologies. Educated to fulfill administrative roles to facilitate British Bureaucracy Educated to support the development of the British economy through providing cheap labour

Unit 2.3.1: The Colonial Purpose of Education of the African People

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5.1.1 Unit 2.3.2: Education in South Africa and Teaching Practice Source1: https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/Amersfoort-legacy

Pre-colonial education

(2) Colonial Education

(3)Apartheid Education

(4) Post - Apartheid Education

Based on an oppressive formal education system that stripped them of agency as they were still seen as slaves. It also affected their identity as they were forced to adopt new identities.

Ultimately they rejected this education system and rebelled and resisted through escaping. The indigenous people and slaves taught themselves and became literate in communities such Genadendal. Muslim slave started religious schools and taught themselves reading and writing s

Learners would learn that an education system cannot be unwillingly enforced on learners. While teaching practice should support positive sense of agency and identity.

The British systematically enforced English as the spoken language of the people. The British attempted to structure education and in 1839 first department of education was formed and in Natal in 1843.

Transvaal and Orange Free State a drive through the educational system to build up a white identity was seen. They British supported hospitals the Anglican church and other institutions and c reated a cultural conquest as the missionaries found a point of entry through the education system

Learners would begin to understand their inherited educational heritage. and the disparities that continue to exists till now between white and black education. My teaching practice would emphasize the world wide damage of colonialism

Apartheid comes into being in 1950’s wand the Bantu education Act in 1953 which was a substandard education. School was made compulsory for all so as to fill employment gaps and needs of the white South Africans

Apartheid education was not accepted by black S outh Africans which led to Soweto youth uprising and rejection of Black people of Bantu education.

Learners would be exposed to the violations of Apartheid education policies. In this way I hope to empower learners to prevent their universal right to an education to be violated. An education that supports their growth and development as children.

The new democratic South Africa has being trying to redress the wrongs of the Apartheid regime.

Source 1: maintains that in order for South African education system to thrive we need everyone in the education system to be held accountable for its in part in developing a good education system. I would make my learners aware of tthis.

As Democratized South African we are faced with great deficiencies in the education system that has caused a decline in reading, writing, comprehension and computing.

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Unit 2.3.2 History of Education in South Africa

Democratization of South Africa in 1994 marked a turning point in South Africa The Apartheid education system was detrimental to the mind, bodies and spirits of the African school children. The Apartheid regime was only interested in promoting the rights of the white population in South Africa

Today 2021 the education system has come a long way in trying to undo the damage of apartheid Currently the educational system has ensured equal education for all however socio-economic differences occur that create disparities in education The government today is constantly trying to improve the education through research and analysis.

Apartheid Period

Contemporary Times

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To familiarize oneself with the learning environment To familiarize oneself with the curriculum Monitoring teaching by other teachers and establishing a mentorship approach to teaching practice To apply learnt pedagogical knowledge and skills in teaching practice To familiarize oneself with the learning culture

The key elements of South Africa Education and practice that could help empower learners in my own Teaching Practice

5.1.2 Unit 2.3.2: Source 2 :

These 5 elements are based on the Amok Teaching Practice, which I have applied to the South African education system.

https://www.oamk.fi)amok)studies

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Promoting research and development. Improving staff equity and enhancing quality Encouraging mission differentiation Improving student equity Encouraging inter-institutional and regional cooperation Stabilizing institutions

5.2.1 Unit 2.3.2 Source 3: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19) The K ey Elements in the Role of Government in Steering Higher Education that could meet its Future Goals

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5.2.2 Unit 2.3.2 Source: 3: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19) Challenges facing Policy Analysis in South African Higher Education

Misunderstandings regarding policy issues Contributors still reject their role in policy issues Funds for Higher educational institutions are misdirected and not used for transformation Fear surrounding making steps in advancement of transformation Opposition to policy analysis, planning and implementation

Challenges facing Policy Analysis in South African Higher Education

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Unit 2.3.2 Should you be appointed as Minister of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation, in which way would you steer Higher Education in the future?

I would begin by developing a holistic view of education, improved quality of education and thereafter attempt to achieve transformation. This would be supported by not only considering immediate goals but continuous development Covid 19 has been a learning curve in utilizing technology in education a more futuristic way. Continuous research should be made in order to have a supporting basis on which to implement future improvements tin steering Higher education. In the next section I have considered the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s article on “Empowering educators for a sustainable future. Tools for policy and practices…” I have used this article and explored the three steps that it talks about in order to provide the basis for steering Higher Education in the future.

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An Holistic Approach which Includes a cohesive and assimilated perspective of the problem 1. Reflect on education system and how it works or doesn’t work. 2. Examine the aims of the education system. 3. Consider the impact of Covid 19 on the education system . 4. Consider the stakeholders efficacy in terms of the importance of transformation. 5. Attempt to analyze the motivations and priorities of the stakeholders. 6. Reflect on the developmental aspects of education through debate. An Approach to education that can envisage the Past, Present, Future 1. Think about the reasons for the lack of effective transformation 2.Relate to transformation as a constantly evolving process 3. Problematize the issue within the South African context 4. Critically, reflect, analyze and research the issues at hand. 5. Consider the need to be prepared for any unforeseen circumstances. An approach that realizes Transformation of People, Education and Education Systems 1. Ask why there is a need for transform. 2. Inquire why there is a need to prepare learners for the future. 3 Reflect on why there is a need to build on normative experiences of learners. 4.Express how we can help learners transition to the real world so that they can have learning experiences that prepares them for the future

Unit 2.3.2 A Vision of Steering Higher Education in the Future

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Unit 2.3.3 How has my History of Education learning experience unlocked a new perspective on education, and how has it impacted me and how will it impact my future teaching practice ?

My learning experience of education has unlocked the role of technology in educational. I believe that technology cannot be under estimated in meeting learning objectives. M y own learning experiences have only provided me with an insight into technology. Impacting on the way I see modern technology and to teach under unforeseen circumstances. It will impact my future teaching practice as I aim use technology in a manner that facilitates a progressive, leaner centred approach to education.

ucation is powerful' weapon we can use to change the ELSON MANDELA

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Unit 2.3.3 A new perspective on education

My understanding of education has changed based on the current Covid 19 pandemic. Covid 19 forced the world of education to adapt to progressive conception of education Those countries lacking access to modern technological resources were at a great disadvantage. Countries that were slowly transitioning before Covid 19 w ere able to adjust with time. According to Elena Lucia Mara learner centred education is an approach that facilitates the learning process from the perspective of the learner.

"Education is not filling a pail but the lighting of a fire." — William Butler Yeats

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Unit 2.3.3 A New You

My view of education has changed in the process of studying the education My ideas of education was one based my own Apartheid education experiences. Through studying education my t raditional conception of education has changed to progressive approach to education.

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Unit 2.3.3 A New Way of Teaching and Learning

A new way of teaching and learning cannot be envisaged without considering Covid 19 Covid 19 has created a new platform from which to integrate technology and education thereby setting it on a new course into the future.

Student centred learning environments I Problem Anchored based instruction learning Cognitive apprenticeships Learning design Project based learning Games and simulation

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References

Slide 1 : https://evolllution.com/opinions/audio-future-possibilities-technology-higher-education-2/ https:// www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.emergingedtech.com%2F2020%2F04%2Ftechnology-enhance-students-career-development-hard-soft- Slide 2: https :// doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6635-2_3 Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121) https//: www.norad.no)education Slide 3: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6635-2_3 Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121 ) Slide 4 www.sahistory.org.za/article/Amersfoort-legacy Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121) https//:www.norad.no)education

Slide 1 : https://evolllution.com/opinions/audio-future-possibilities-technology-higher-education-2/ https:// www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.emergingedtech.com%2F2020%2F04%2Ftechnology-enhance-students-career-development-hard-soft- Slide 2: https :// doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6635-2_3 Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121) https//: www.norad.no)education Slide 3: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6635-2_3 Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121 ) Slide 4 www.sahistory.org.za/article/Amersfoort-legacy Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121) https//:www.norad.no)education

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Slide 5: https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com https://www.omok.fi-Amok Slide 6: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19 ) https://www.oamk.fi)amok)studies “Vocational T eacher E ducation S tudies )) Teacher Practice))Oulu Slide 7: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19) Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121) https//:www.norad.no)education Slide 8: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19) Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121)

Slide 5: https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com https://www.omok.fi-Amok Slide 6: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19 ) https://www.oamk.fi)amok)studies “Vocational T eacher E ducation S tudies )) Teacher Practice))Oulu Slide 7: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19) Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121) https//:www.norad.no)education Slide 8: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19) Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121)

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Slide 9: The Education White Paper 3, 1997. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313598148 South African Education Before and After 1994 (pp.7-19) Horsthemke, K., Siyakwazi, P.D., Walton, E., Wolhuter, C.C 2016. Education Studies. 2 nd Ed. South Africa: Oxford. (pp.119-121) https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.shutterstock.com%2Fsearch%2Fstep%2B1%2B2%2B3&psig=AOvVaw3kPIG5QoD4jdksXcQWqxEB&ust=1630175376554000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAsQjRxqFwoTCLCi-- Hq0fICFQAAAAAdAAAAABAI Slide 10 https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSXoB8fomFSYkUNdCuhxxAzxaaGC_dJXv3h8w&usqp=CAU https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQeo5qdNtJKdXo93377G7Wy5mYVMRytV9xB1Q&usqp=CAU Slide 11: https://dqam6mam97sh3.cloudfront.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/samr-model-puentedura.jpg Slide 12: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bojidar-Bojinov/publication/315738667/figure/fig3/AS:478564727431173@1491110130919/Positive-educational- data:image/jpeg;base64 https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQilLNNpiYXkv7pgqVw8j9Isud6KQSY9NaZRQ

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Slide 13: https:// courses.dcs.wisc.edu/design-teaching/PlanDesign_Fall2016/2-Online-Course-Design/3_Learning-Assessments/images/learner-centered-principles.png https://images.saymedia-content.com/. image/t_share/MTc0NjQ3MjI2MDg4NDMzMDE4/what-are-the-theories-behind-educational-technology.jpg Slides1-18 Audio: West African music

Slide 13: https:// courses.dcs.wisc.edu/design-teaching/PlanDesign_Fall2016/2-Online-Course-Design/3_Learning-Assessments/images/learner-centered-principles.png https://images.saymedia-content.com/. image/t_share/MTc0NjQ3MjI2MDg4NDMzMDE4/what-are-the-theories-behind-educational-technology.jpg Slides1-18 Audio: West African music