What drives Human trafficking?
The absence of Rule of law
Slavery prospers in the absence of a properly functioning law enforcement system. often supported by police and other authorities . So, human traffickers operate with impunity. Example: The Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) instability has left large groups of people vulnerable to slavery. DRC is the world's largest producer of cobalt and has vast reserves of gold, diamonds, coltan, tin, tantalum, and tungsten. These natural resources have created a profit motive for traffickers and militias to exploit vulnerable communities. Corruption and patronage networks run deep, and politicians and the military have links to armed groups.
War and Conflicts
Instability brought on by war or conflict can expose besieged communities to forced labour and other illicit activities . Example: Islamic State extremists enslaved 6,417 Yazidis, according to the Kurdistan Regional Government. Yazidi women and girls as young as eight were forced into sexual slavery, sold in markets or gifted by commanders to fighters as brides. Those who refused or attempted to escape suffered beatings, torture, rape, or execution. Also, provided easy recruits along with the use children in combat in Syria
“This is a war that is being fought on the bodies of women.” – Zainab Bangura, Former UN Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict
Groups that face discrimination, including ethnic and religious minorities, Women and children, and migrants and refugees, are vulnerable to enslavement. At particular risk are those fleeing war and armed conflict, such as the Yazidi minority in Iraq and Syria, and Myanmar’s Muslim Rohingya population. Example: Southeast Asia's fishing industry, especially in Thailand, has been notorious for severe labour abuses. Majority of Thailand's fish harvest (mostlyshrimp and tuna) is exported to Asian, European, and American markets. Industry brings in more than $7.3 billion annually, but has labour shortage. Firms have come to rely on migrant labour provided by illicit networks.
The world's population rose from 2.5 billion in 1950 to nearly 7.4 billion in 2015. The world is also in a state of historic flux: a record-setting 65.6 million people were displaced at the end of 2016 by war and persecution, and still more by economic uncertainty and environmental destruction. China and India, the two most populous nations, have lifted millions out of poverty, yet millions more in both countries remain marginalized and are susceptible to abuse. displaced people seek out perilous employment and are vulnerable to false offers. Example: UNDB reports that in Balkan crisis, nearly 13000 common people were kidnapped for trafficking's or handed over to terrorist organizations for beheading castings and other purposes .
Poverty is one of the largest contributors to human trafficking. It can drive people to become traffickers; it can drive parents to sell children or other family members into slavery. People in poverty are targeted by traffickers, who offer them a way to earn money when, in fact, they will actually earn nothing and be treated as a slave. About 765 million people worldwide live-in extreme poverty, making less than $1.90 per day. Lack of Socioeconomic benefits Health Education jobs
How it affects Human Security
Human security is concerned with safeguarding and expanding people's vital freedoms. Elements associated to human security are economic security, food security, health security, personal security, community security, and political security. When state seems absent to provide? P ublic Goods And Legal Jobs Suppression Of Crime And Public Safety Access Dispute Resolution Mechanisms Access To Justice Socioeconomic Public Goods Like Infrastructure, Education, Health Care Etc Leads To The Weak State-citizen Contact, And People Fall Victim To Human Trafficking.
How it affects state security:
Can Fuel Conflict By Enabling Armed And Extremist Groups To Raise Income And Expand Their Power And Military Capabilities; Groups Such As The Self-proclaimed Islamic State In Iraq And Syria Set-up Shadow Economies. For Example Boko Haram In Nigeria Have Enslaved Women And Girls And Generated Revenue From Sex Trafficking. Governments May Profit As Well: State-sponsored Trafficking Can Provide Corrupt Regimes A Source Of Income And Bolster Their Military Capabilities.