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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

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ROTTER AND MISCHEL

abstract

COGNITIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

PRESENTED BY: CRISTOBAL, ELLAIZA CAPITO, BETHZAIDA BSP II

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OUTLINE

ROTTER AND MISCHEL: COGNITIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

OVERVIEW OF COGNITIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY BIOGRAPHY OF JULIAN ROTTER BIOGRAPHY OF WALTER MISCHEL ROTTER’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY PREDICTING SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS PREDICTING GENERAL BEHAVIORS MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR PSYCHOTHERAPY MISCHEL’S PERSONALITY THEORY COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE UNITS

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The cognitive social learning theories of Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel each rest on the assumption that cognitive factors help shape how people will react to environmental forces. Both theories object to Skinner’s explanation that behavior is shaped by immediate reinforcement and instead suggests that one’s expectations of future events are prime determinants of performance. Rotter believed that neither the environment itself nor the individual is completely responsible for behavior. Instead, he held that people’s cognitions, past histories, and expectations of the future are keys to predicting behavior. Mischel believes that cognitive factors, such as expectancies, subjective perceptions, values, goals, and personal standards, play important roles in shaping personality.

OVERVIEW:

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Born in Brooklyn in 1916. In highschool, he become familiar with the writings of Adler and Freud. Undergrad: Majored in Chemistry at Brooklyn College. Got MA at University of Iowa. In 1941, received a PhD in Clinical Psychology from Indiana University. Published Social Learning and Clinical Psychology in 1954 Died in 2014

BIOGRAPHY OF JULIAN ROTTER

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BIOGRAPHY OF WALTER MISCHEL

BORN IN VIENNA IN 1930

FAMILY FLED TO EUROPE FROM NAZI PERSECUTION.

STUDIED AT THE CITY COLLEGE OF NEW YORK

GRADUATE AT CHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

PROFFESORSHIPS AT STANDFORD AND COLUMBIA.

STUDIED UNDER GEORGE KELLY AND JULIAN ROTTER.

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ROTTER’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

FIVE BASIC HYPOTHESIS :

First Assumption Humans interact with their meaningful environments. People’s reaction to environmental stimuli depends on the meaning or importance that they attach to an event. Rotter believed that human behavior stems from the interaction of environmental and personal factors.

Second Assumption : Human personality is learned. It follows that personality is not set or determined at any particular age of development; instead, it can be changed or modified as long as people are capable of learning.

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Third Assumption : Personality has a basic unity Which means that people’s personalities possess relative stability People learn to evaluate new experiences on the basis of previous reinforcements. Fourth Assumption: Motivation is goal directed Rotter rejected the notion that people are primarily motivated to reduce tension or seek pleasure, insisting that the best explanation for human behavior lies in people’s expectation that their behaviors are advancing them toward goals. Fifth Assumption : People are capable of anticipating events. They use their perceived movement in the direction of the anticipated event as a criterion for evaluating reinforces.

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PREDICTING SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS Rotter suggested four variables that must be analyzed in order to make accurate predictions in any specific situation. These variables are: Behavior Potential Expectancy Reinforcement Value Psychological Situation

BEHAVIOR POTENTIAL

EXPECTANCY

REINFORCEMENT

PREDICTIVE FORMULA

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PREDICTING GENERAL BEHAVIORS

General Expectancies Predicting one’s reaction to the specific situation is a matter of knowing how he views the options available to him and also the status of his present needs. Needs Rotter ( 1982) defined needs as any behavior or set of behaviors that people see as moving them in the direction of a goal. Needs are not states of deprivation or arousal but indicators of the direction of behavior Category of Needs : Recognition-status, Dominance, Independence, Protection-Dependancy, Love and Affection, Physical Comfort NEED COMPONENTS: These components are analogous to more specific concepts of behavior potential, expectancy, and reinforcement value ( Rotter, Chance, & Phares, 1972).

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HERE PRESENTATION TITLE

In Rotter’s social learning theory is any persistent behavior that fails to move a person closer to a desired goal. Setting your goals. Another frequent cause is low freedom of movement.

MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR

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PSYCHOTHERAPY The goal of Rotter’s therapy is to bring freedom of movement and need value into harmony, thus reducing defensive and avoidance behaviors. To Rotter (1964) “the problems pf psychotherapy are problems of how to effect changes in behavior through the interaction of one person with another. That is, they are problems in human learning in a social situation”.

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CHANGING GOALS The role of the therapist is to help these patients understand the faulty nature of their goals and to teach them constructive means of striving realistic goals . ELIMINATING LOW EXPECTANCIES In addition to changing goals, the therapist tries to eliminate low expectancies of success and its analog. People may have low freedom of movement for at least three reasons : * First, they may lack the skills or information needed * Second, low freedom of movement * Third, low freedom of movement can spring from inadequate generalization.

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Background of the Cognitive -Affective Personality System Walter Mischel objected to this assumption . His early research led him to believe that behavior was a largely a function of the situation. Consistency Paradox Mischel saw that both laypersons and professional psychologists seem to intuitively believe that people’s behavior is relatively consistent, yet empirical evidence suggests much variability in behavior, Person-Situation Interaction Mischel came to see that people are not empty vessels with no enduring personality traits. He acknowledged that most people have some consistency in their behavior, but he continued to insists that the situation has a powerful effect on behavior.

MISCHEL’S PERSONALITY THEORY

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Person-Situation Interaction Mischel came to see that people are not empty vessels with no enduring personality traits. Personal dispositions Influence behavior only under certain conditions and in certain situations. This view suggests that behavior is not caused by global personal traits but by people’s perceptions of themselves in a particular situation. Cognitive-Affective Personality System Mischel and Shoda believe, solves the consistency paradox by taking the long history of observed variability in behavior and the intuitive conviction of both psychologists and laypeople that personality traits.

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Behavior Prediction This theoretical position can generate a number of hypothesis about behavior outcomes. It assumes that prediction of behavior rests on a knowledge of how and when various cognitive-affective units are activated. These units include encodings, expectancies , beliefs, competencies, self-regulatory plans and strategies, and affects and goals. Situation Variables Mischel believes that the relative influence of situation variables and personal qualities can be determined by observing the uniformity or diversity of people’s responses in a given situation. For example, while watching an emotional scene in an engrossing movie-situation variables are more powerful than a personal characteristics.

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COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE UNITS These person variables shifted the emphasis from what a person has to what a person does in a particular situation. When a person does includes more than actions, it includes cognitive and affective qualities such as thinking, planning, feeling, and evaluating. Cognitive -affective units include all psychological, social, and physical aspects of people that cause them to interact with their environment with a relatively stable pattern of variation.

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These units include people’s:

Encoding Strategies : One important cognitive-affective unit that ultimately affects behavior is people’s ways of categorizing information received from external stimuli. Competencies and Self-regulatory strategies : It how we behave depends in parts ln the potential behaviors available to us, our beliefs of what we can do our plans and strategies for enacting behaviors and our expectancies for success. Expectancies and Beliefs : Any situation presents an enormous number of behavioral potential, but how people behave depends on their specific expectancies and beliefs about the consequences of each of the different behavioral possibilities. Goals and Values: People do not react passively to situations bit are active and goal directed. Affective responses: It includes emotions, feelings, and physiological reactions.

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