. Department of Education Region V Division of Camarines Sur PILI DISTRICT HIMAAO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Himaao , Pili , Camarines Sur o0o .
This policy brief provides the rationale and recommendations for promoting and accelerating women`s political participation and representation in elective positions through the adoption of a gender quota and other temporary special measures..
While men can and do participate in crafting gender-responsive laws and programs, they cannot always nor fully represent the interests of women considering their differentiated needs, issues, socialization and experiences. Promoting women`s representation in elected bodies allows them to contribute to development and nation-building, and ensures that governance leads to equal access to resources and to development results and outcomes for both women and men, girls and boys..
The slow increase in women`s representation in politics may be attributed to prevailing patriarchal norms and values, and gender stereotypes. It has often been said that politics is more the realm of men than women. Gender stereotypes that consider women as weak, emotional and indecisive qualities that are undesirable in negotiation and decision-making discourage voters from voting for women candidates. At the same time, the ``multiple burden`` experienced by most women, wherein they bear most of the responsibility for performing domestic duties while they engage in political, economic and social activities discourages women themselves from running for public office..
The proportional system of representation under the Party-List System Act (Republic Act 7941)0, which encourages a type of party politics that is not personality-based but rather one that is anchored on principles or programs, could have been a good entry point for women`s increased representation in the legislature. Nonetheless, except in the case of women`s party-list groups, the tendency to place women at the bottom or the last spot of the list from which party-list representatives shall be chosen in case the party obtains the required number of votes still impedes women from getting elected under this system..
Considering all these and given the existing constraints to women`s political participation, there is, therefore, a need to adopt temporary special measures to facilitate and accelerate the attainment of de facto gender equality between women and men in terms of political participation and representation..
Nonetheless, a lot of countries are also adopting gender-neutral quotas that provide that neither sex shall occupy more than a given percentage of seats. This type of quota may also be in the form of a requirement for alternating female and male candidates on candidate lists such as those of France, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Republic of Korea, Lesotho and Zimbabwe. As of February 2019, 50 single or lower houses were composed of 300 percent or more women; more than half of these countries have applied some form of quotas – either legislative candidate quotas or reserved seats..
WHAT ARE THE EXISTING LAWS OR POLICIES RELATED TO THE ISSUE?.
It mandates the adoption of temporary special measures for the incremental increase of women in third level positions in the civil service until a fifty-fifty (50-50) gender balance is achieved; sets a forty percent (40%) quota for women in local development councils and planning bodies; and provides for the creation of an incentive system for encouraging political parties to integrate women in their leadership hierarchy and electoral nominating processes, among others..
These national mandates are aligned to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), which directs State Parties to take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the country and, in particular, to ensure the rights of women to participate in the formulation of government policy and the implementation thereof, and to hold public office and perform all public functions at all levels of government, on equal terms with men (Article 7b)..
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POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS. Women`s representation is crucial in the realization of development goals for it is through their representation that their voices are heard, and their issues, concerns, and perspectives are made an integral part of decision and policymaking processes that affect their lives. Nonetheless, social, economic and structural barriers that hinder women`s full participation and representation still exist. Thus, the PCW recommends the adoption of a gender quota and other temporary special measures as affirmative actions that would level the playing field and provide equal opportunities for women to run and be elected into public office. These measures are as follows:.
Create a women`s campaign fund for aspiring women candidates, especially those belonging to marginalized sectors;.