Research Methods Lesson

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Research M ethods Lesson

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YEAR AND EVENTS

Aristotle states that it is impossible for rocks to fall from the sky since there is no such the material there, and so meteorites must the tops of distant explosive volcanoes .

384 to 322 B.C.E

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1543

Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth orbits the Sun.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1600

William Gilbert shows that the Earth is a magnet.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1610

Galileo Galilei finds four moons of Jupiter, proving that not all bodies orbit the Sun and thereby contradicting the tenets of the Catholic Church.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1655

The great experimentalist Robert Hooke suggests that lunar craters are caused by giant bursting bubbles.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1658

Archbishop James Ussher of Armagh calculated from Bible verses that the Earth was made the night before the 23rd of October in 4004 B.C. ( his estimate is similar to others, for example, Dr. John Lightfoot, Vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge stated in 1642 that the Earth was made on the 17th of September 3928 B.C. at 9 o'clock in the morning).

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1687

Sir Isaac Newton publishes his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, a work that includes the universal laws of gravitation, planetary motion, and fluid motion.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1693

In his book Protogaea , amous mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz hypothesizes that the Earth was once molten, based on observations he makes while trying to drain water from mines in the Harz mountains.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1801

Sicilian monk Giuseppe Piazzi discovers the first asteroid, Ceres. Motivated by the idea of an initially molten Earth, Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier develops theories of heat conduction and introduces the idea of an irreversible process, in contrast to Newton’s reversible dynamics.

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YEAR AND EVENT

1860

Scots scientist Kirk takes the first step toward producing extreme temperatures in the laboratory by reaching 234K, below the freezing point of mercury.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1890

Lord Kelvin (William Thompson) publishes On the Secular Cooling of the Earth, in which he states that the Earth consolidated no less than 20Myr and no more than 400Myr ago. He later revised the estimate to 20 to 40Myr . His estimate did not include the heat from radioactive elements, which had not yet been discovered.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1896

French physicist and subsequent Nobel-prize winner Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity by placing potassium uranyl sulfate on photographic plates. Marie Curie subsequently took up the study and coined the term “radioactivity.”

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1905

Einstein publishes his theory of Special Relativity.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1906

French physicist Bernard Brunhes discovers that the Earth’s magnetic field periodically reverses its pole directions when he finds lava flows with reversed fields recorded in their minerals .

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1911

Carnegie Institute scientists A.L. Day and R.D. Sosman calibrate platinum-rhodium thermocouples for high-temperature experiments . Superconductivity of materials near absolute zero is discovered.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1915

Einstein publishes his General Theory of Relativity.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1926

Arthur Eddington suggests that stars are powered by nuclear fusion.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1930s

Serbian astrophysicist Miultin Milankovitch develops a theory linking the Earth’s motion with large-scale climate change and hypothesizes that the planet has experienced periodic ice ages.

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YEAR AND EVENTS

1960s

The theory of plate tectonics is developed from continental drift and seafloor spreading.