Natural Vegetation and Wild-Life

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Natural Vegetation and Wild-Life. Flowers in a tree.

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Topics to be covered.. Logs Stacked. What is Natural Vegetation and Wild-Life? Temperature Characteristics of the vegetation zone. Relief. Climate. Types of Vegetation. Importance of Forest..

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What IS Natural Vegetation and Wild-Life?. Natural vegetation refers to a plant community, which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is termed as virgin vegetation ..

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Relief. Land. Land affects natural vegetation directly and indirectly. The fertile level is generally devoted to agriculture. The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wildlife..

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Climate. Temperature. The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil. The fall in the temperature affects the vegetation and its growth..

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Temperature Characteristics of the vegetation zone..

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Types of vegetation:- (i) Tropical Evergreen Forests. (ii) Tropical Deciduous Forests. (iii) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs. (iv) Montane Forests. (V) Mangrove Forests..

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Tropical Evergreen Forests. These forests are present in the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coast. These forests grow best in areas having rainfall more than 200 cm with a short dry season. The trees reach great heights up to 60 metres or even above. It has the vegetation of all kinds i.e trees, shrubs and creepers giving it a multilayered structure. These forests appear green all the year-round. Important trees of this forest are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona. Common animals found in these forests are elephant, monkey, lemur and deer..

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Tropical Deciduous Forests. These forests are also called monsoon forests . They are spread over the region having rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm. They shed their leaves about 6 to 8 weeks in the dry summer. In these forests, the common animals found are lion, tiger, pig, deer and elephant. These forests are further divided into: Moist deciduous: These are found in areas having rainfall between 200 and 100 cm. Teak is the most dominant species of this forest. Bamboos, sal , shisham , sandalwood, khair , kusum , arjun and mulberry are other commercially important species. Dry deciduous: These are found in areas having rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm. There are open stretches, in which teak, sal , peepal and neem grow..

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The Thorn Forests and Scrubs. The natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes. This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of the country, including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil to get moisture. The stems are moist to conserve water. Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimise evaporation. Acacias, palms, euphorbias and cacti are the main plant species. Common animals are rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horses and camels..

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Montane Forests. Montane forests are the forests which are found in the mountains. The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres . At high altitudes, generally, more than 3,600 metres above the sea level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Alpine grasslands are used for grazing. At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation. The common animals found are Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats..

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Mangrove Forests. Mangroves are trees that live along tropical coastlines, rooted in salty sediments, often underwater. The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides. Mud and silt get accumulated on such coasts. Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of the plants submerged underwater. Sundari trees are found in Ganga-Brahmaputra delta and provide hard timber. Royal Bengal Tiger is a famous animal in these forests..

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importance of forest. Forests help in maintaining the water cycle on earth. Plants absorb water from the soil through their roots. The process of releasing excess water by plants into the atmosphere in the form of water vapour is known as transpiration. The process in which water vapour from oceans rises and condenses to form clouds is known as condensation and the process of moving clouds to land due to sea breeze is known as precipitation and this eventually leads to rainfall. All these processes together form the water cycle and hence forests play a significant role in continuing water cycle. Forests help in maintaining the temperature and oxygen level of the atmosphere. Plants release oxygen during photosynthesis and consume carbon dioxide. Forests being a huge reserve of plants and trees, they play a significant role in balancing oxygen level in the atmosphere. Forests help in preventing global warming. The increased amount of carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere results in the greenhouse effect and thus causes global warming . Forests prevent soil erosion. Trees present in the forests hold the soil particles strongly with the roots and prevent them from erosion..

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Thank you. Aditya kumar | 9 ‘A’. Weathered piece of wood.