Name : jayasri a/p selvadurai matrics no : 2019.5.as03.0003 course : bachelor of pharmacology LECTURER: MDM ADLIYANTI

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Name : jayasri a/p selvadurai matrics no : 2019.5.as03.0003 course : bachelor of pharmacology LECTURER: MDM ADLIYANTI



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What is Vaccination ?

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way of protecting people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body’s natural defenses to build resistance to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger. Vaccines train your immune system to create antibodies, just as it does when it’s exposed to a disease. However, because vaccines contain only killed or weakened forms of germs like viruses or bacteria, they do not cause the disease or put you at risk of its complications.

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Celebrate Vaccines Water The main ingredient. Preservatives and stabilisers Maintain vaccine quality, safe storage and prevent contamination. Example: Sorbitol; naturally found in fruit in larger amounts. What's I'm a vaccine in a vaccine? immunolog$ British for m, Active ingredient A very small amount of a harmless form of the bacteria or virus you are immunising against. Adjuvants Create a stronger immune response to the vaccine. Pose no significant risk to health in the very small quantities used. Example: Aluminium; naturally found in drinking water at higher levels. Residual traces of substances that have been used during vaccine manufacture, measured as parts per million or billion in the final vaccine. Example: Formaldehyde; naturally found in human body.

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You are given a small amount of a harmless form of a disease... How do vaccines work? ...Then your body makes antibodies to fight it off Then if you encounter the disease again... ...your body already has the antibodies, so you don't get sick. immune. You are #CelebrateVaccines imnhunolog$

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Diphtheria cases 1910 Pertussis cases 1940 Measles cases 1940 How effective is vaccination? Introduction of vaccine 1940 Introduction of vaccine 1957 Introduction of vaccine 1965 2015 1968 #CelebrateVaccines 2013 Brit# S%ietyfor immunolog

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The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the  coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing  pandemic   of   coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. As of 15 March 2021, more than 119 million cases have been confirmed, with more than 2.65 million deaths attributed to COVID-19, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in history .

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Types of Covid-19 Vaccines

WHOLE VIRUS VACCINE Vaccines include:  Sinopharm , Sinovac Number of doses required: 2 doses, intramuscular The whole virus vaccine uses a weakened or deactivated form of the pathogen that causes COVID-19 to trigger protective immunity to it.  The two vaccines mentioned above – Sinopharm and Sinovac – both use inactivated pathogens, therefore they cannot infect cells and replicate, but can trigger an immune response.


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RNA or mRNA VACCINE Vaccines include: Pfizer- BioNTech , Moderna Number of doses required: 2 doses, intramuscular Since no other existing licensed or approved vaccine uses this type of technology, the Messenger RNA (mRNA) variety could be mistaken for something completely new to healthcare. However, a number of mRNA vaccines have been studied in the past for illnesses and diseases including cytomegalovirus (CMV), influenza, rabies, and the Zika virus.

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NON-REPLICATING VIRAL VECTOR Vaccines include: Oxford-AstraZeneca, Sputnik V ( Gamaleya Research Institute) Number of doses required: 2 doses, intramuscular This type of vaccine introduces a safe, modified version of the virus – known as “the vector” – to deliver genetic code for the antigen. In a COVID-19 vaccine, the “vector” is the spike proteins found on the surface of the coronavirus . Once the body’s cells are “infected”, the cells are instructed to produce a large amount of antigens, which in turn trigger an immune response.

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PROTEIN SUBUNIT Vaccines include:  Novavax Number of doses required: 2 doses, intramuscular The protein subunit vaccine contains purified “pieces” of a pathogen rather than the whole pathogen to trigger an immune response. It is thought that by restricting the immune system to the whole pathogen, the risk of side effects is minimised .