Policy making during pandemics

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[Audio] Hello Everyone, My name is Nina Dixon. I'll be presenting on policymaking during pandemics. Specifically on how quick decision-making and rapid changes can determine the success of policy implementation.

Policy making during pandemics

By nina dixon

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[Audio] The three articles we are exploring are: 1.Do COVID-19 policies affect Mobility Behaviour? Evidence from 75 Canadian and American cities 2.Public responses to Policy REVERSALS: The case of mask usage in Canada During covid- 19. Canadian Public Policy 3. Patient and public involvement in covid-19 policymaking

3 Articles

Do COVID-19 policies affect Mobility Behaviour? Evidence from 75 Canadian and American cities Public responses to Policy REVERSALS: The case of mask usage in Canada During covid-19.  Canadian Public Policy Patient and public involvement in covid-19 policy making

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[Audio] Before we get into the articles, let's get into the background of the Coronavirus pandemic. The Coronavirus is an infectious disease that has causes respiratory illness and other morbid symptoms. Do you remember where you were during December 2019? Here in North America, it was business as usual. We just finished celebrating the holidays. Shortly thereafter, new of the virus hit • The initial outbreak started in Wuhan, China • On December 31, 2019, the Coronavirus disease was reported to the World Health Organization January 27, 2019, confirmation was made that the virus reached Toronto, Canada via a person who travelled from Wuhan to Toronto On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization had declared the Coronavirus also known as COVID- 19 a pandemic.

BAckground

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The initial outbreak started in Wuhan, China On December 31, 2019, the Coronavirus disease was reported to the World Health Organization January 27, 2020, confirmation that the virus reached Toronto, Canada On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization had declared the Coronavirus also known as COVID-19 a pandemic.

Audio Recording Mar 14, 2021 at 5:02:22 PM

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[Audio] New measures of the aggressiveness of COVID- 19 policies across the globe have impacted citizens behaviours and their involvement in public policy making

Policy making

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Aggressive policies were developed and implemented to protect citizens Social distancing Travel only for essential reasons Face covering Lockdowns

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[Audio] Let's take a look at the first article.

Article # 1

Armstrong, D. A., Lebo , M. J., & Lucas, J. (2020). Do COVID-19 policies affect Mobility Behaviour? Evidence from 75 Canadian and American cities.  Canadian Public Policy,   46 (S2). doi:10.3138/cpp.2020-062

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[Audio] Here are some questions to think about that the author addresses.  What do you think the policy differences between Canada and the US are? What is the relationship between policy and mobility? Do Canadian cities differ from US cities in relation to mobility patterns? Are Canadian cities more responsive to more aggressive policy mix than their American counterparts?

Article # 1

Do COVID-19 policies affect Mobility Behaviour? Over the last six months, all levels of government adopted policies to restrict citizens mobility to reduce the spread of COVID-19 Evidence was collected from across 75 Canadian and US cities Results showed that policies do effect mobility patterns in each city

abstract

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA

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Article # 1 – Cont’d

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Some of the policy differences across cities included how citizens behaved regarding complying with government directions.

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA

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[Audio] Canadian cities do not differ systematically from American cities in most activities, but COVID- 19 policies affect mobility patterns

Article # 1 – cont’d

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Social Distancing in the US versus Canada

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[Audio] Across American and Canadian cities we saw similar policies enacted such as: travel for essential purposes only, the use of face coverings, the implementation of stay at home orders and massive lockdowns of public places.

Article # 1 – cont’d

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Essential Travel

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Face coverings

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Stay at home orders

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Lockdowns

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[Audio] Now let's look at the second article.

Article # 2

Mohammed, A., Johnston, R. M., & Van der Linden, C. (2020). Public responses to Policy REVERSALS: The case of mask usage in Canada During covid-19.  Canadian Public Policy,   46 (S2). doi:10.3138/cpp.2020-089

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[Audio] Here are some questions to think about regarding Public responses to policy reversals and mask usage in Canada during COVID- 19: 1. Are Canadians more responsive to policy mix regarding the pandemic in comparison to their American counterparts? 2. What have been some of the public responses to policies and policy reversals? 3. Do policy reversals have potential implications for public trust in governments?

Article # 2

Are Canadians more responsive to policy mix regarding the pandemic in comparison to their American counterparts? What have been some of the public responses to policies and policy reversals? Do policy reversals have potential implications for public trust in governments?

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[Audio] Public health agencies and government from all over react to the ever changing information. Initially, the World Health Organization suggested that the Public Health Agency of Canada discourage asymptomatic members of the general public from wearing mask because they feared there would be a spike in demand for masks, putting a further strain on the availability of personal protective equipment. There was also no evidence to prove that wearing a mask stopped the spread of the virus and it was also feared that having to constantly adjust masks would put those at risks of infection because they were constantly touching their faces. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued new recommendations calling for face coverings to be worn in public places. WHO followed suit. In May 2020 our Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau began wearing a mask and the PHAC formally requests that Canadians comply. Canadians continue to trust public health officials despite the changes.

Article # 2 – Cont’d

Government at all levels react to constant changes in information (WHO) suggested that (PHAC) discourage asymptomatic people from wearing masks Fear was that: 1. Spike in demand for masks would further strain availability on PPE 2. Evidence did not show mask would protect against virus 3. Wearing mask could increase risk of people touching their faces leading to infection Revised directions was given Mask became mandatory Canadians continue to trust public health officials despite changes in policy

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[Audio] Now as we look at article three on Patient and public involvement in covid019 policy making

Article # 3

Richards, T., & Scowcroft, H. (2020). Patient and public involvement in covid-19 policy making.  BMJ,  M2575. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2575

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[Audio] Some questions to consider are: those listed above

Article # 3

Why the voices of patients and the public ignored? How could health leaders improve with the information they now have? How can we ensure that patient and public involvement becomes irreversibly embedded in decision making?

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[Audio] At the beginning of the pandemic, patient and public involvement was absent. It was clear that decisions had to be made fast but the key actors that could have helped policy advisors mitigate the effect of lockdowns and the effects of the virus were left out. The resources, skills, views, priorities and preferences of patients, carers and communities which support them were not valued. They were merely used to improve care. New approached are needed. The approaches of expert advisors are flawed because they are unrepresentative of the communities they serve. With a mutual understanding and respect for this type of partnership, the relationship of citizens and government is strengthened. Countries like the UK has paid patient directors.

Article # 3 cont’d

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Community involvement was absent at the beginning of the pandemic

The resources and skills of carers and the communities they support were not valued

Morbidity and mortality could have been lessened

New approaches are needed

Collaborative platforms

Input from underrepresented groups

Paid patient employees

Citizen involvement

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[Audio] When citizens are involved in their personal health this improves the quality of safety of care, raises health literacy and increases self-monitoring which is advantageous to health systems and health care culture

conclusion

Policy making during COVID-19 has impacted citizens behaviors and their involvement in policy making Quick decision making can determine the success of policy implementation Citizens reactions to policies vary depending on leadership behavior The more citizens are involved they more they are inclined to comply with government direction

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