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Managing Police Misconduct A Proactive Approach for Police Administrators

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Objectives

Amanda Mc Mayo-Ali- 00036653 Gerard Clarke- 00043047 Taleena Rivers- 00062957 Omeaku Lawrence- 00045233

We are here to tell you all about managing police misconduct using a blend of ethical and proactive methods.

Meet the Authors

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Quotes

Let me be clear - no one is above the law. Not a politician, not a priest, not a criminal, not a police officer. We are all accountable for our actions. AZQUOTES

LEADERSHIP TRUE LEADERSHIP LIES IN GUIDING OTHERS TO IN ENSURING SUCCESS. THAT EVERYONE IS PERFORMING AT THEIR DOING THE WORI BEST, THEY ARE PLEDGED TO DO AND DOING IT WELL.

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Misconduct Caught on Tape

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Some Out of MANY Misbehaving ex TTPS Officers

Three cops charged for misbehavior in public office 12 DEC8,BER2019 CRILE The three officers who were held last week, appeared before a Siparia Magistrate on Wednesday. The accused are PC Brandon Fiddler,

Officers charged with corruption, misbehaviour in public office Pmto: Marion Oeft), Sutxo (right), courtæy Trinidad and Poliæ

Cop brothers charged with misbehaviour in public office LOOP NEWS CREATED: 100CTCBER2019 CRIME Photos coutesy TTPS: PC Justin Bart (left), PC Johnathon Bart (right) Two police constables were expected to appear before a Port of Spain

Lcop Two cops charged with misbehaviour in public office LOOPNZVS CREATED: 9 APRIL 2021 CRIME SHERWIN SAIANDY Pictured: (Left to right) PC Reynold Lahkan ard PC Shewin Salandy (Photos: Trhidad and Tobago Police

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Some Out of MANY Misbehaving ex TTPS Officers

Exercise Of Neg\eci of Practice Msobedience dinate1099tessive

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Definitions

Police Misconduct Police misconduct encompasses illegal or unethical actions or the violation of individuals’ constitutional rights by police officers in the conduct of their duties. (Police Misconduct |Police Corruption| CIP, 2021) In Trinidad and Tobago we call police misconduct ‘misbehavior in public office’. Some common types of misbehavior by police officers are common assault, obstructing justice, corruptly receiving money, false imprisonment, false arrest, and false charges etc. (Pino & Johnson, 2011)

Examples of police misconduct include: police brutality, dishonesty, fraud, coercion, torture to force confessions, abuse of authority, and sexual assault, including the demand for sexual favors in exchange for leniency, false arrest, false imprisonment, falsification of evidence, police perjury, witness tampering. Some more types of misconduct include: police corruption, racial profiling, unwarranted surveillance, unwarranted searches, working under the influence of drugs and alcohol and the blue code of silence. ("Police misconduct - Wikipedia", n.d.)

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Definitions

Proactive Policing Proactive Policing can be defined simply as police work initiated by law enforcement agencies or officers that is intended to deter crime, reduce disorder, reduce citizen’s fear of crime, or remedy other specific concerns in a given area.(Robert Swan)

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Relevant Laws and Bodies

Police Service Regulations Police Complaints Authorities Act Police Service Commission Act

Police Complaints Division Police Complaints Authorities Police Service Commission Professional Standards Bureau Anti-corruption Investigation Bureau

SERVICE

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Types of Misconduct

Excessive use of force- Not according to use of force continuum. E.g. the use of Firearm instead of the baton in a minor situation Brutality -  Abuse of Authority by inflicting violence Corruption - Grass eaters and Meat eaters Racial or other forms of discrimination- Biasness towards Africans or East Indians  Witness tampering- Alter or prevent the testimony of witnesses within criminal or civil proceedings Profiling - Stopping of minority because of their status. Police subculture - Cliques, Solidarity, and Blue wall of Silence

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Prepare a warning notice for each allegation in triplicate. Serve the original of each warning Notice on the alleged Officer who commit a breach of discipline. Request the alleged defaulter to sign and place the date on the copies of the Notice. Certify at the back of the duplicate and triplicate of warning notice served Prepare a report settling out the brief facts Attach the report to the duplicate & submit it to the disciplinary who has the authority to determine the course of action.

Dealing with Misconduct

Some of internal sanction are; fines, demotions, reprimand, suspension,  criminal prosecution or dismissal

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO POLICE SERVICE ANTICO tionlnvesti 'onsBÄ

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Preventative Methods of Misconduct in the TTPS

Body worn video cameras Being held to account

Training Continuous Ethics Programs

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Professional Development

1. COMMUNICATION SKILLS : Officers must be competent in transmitting accurate information in order to receive constructive feedback, must develop the technique of active listening and negotiations, must have critical thinking and effective writing skill set whilst displaying the attributes of honesty, integrity and professionalism to go with their behavior to promote a supportive and open climate to foster effective communication 3. NETWORKING : Officers must build and maintain constructive working relations with internal and external contact to assist in attaining goals, have knowledge of the strategic direction of the service have a skillset of critical thinking, time management and delivery of quality service whilst combining my attribute of paying attention to detail with a behavior to build & maintain rapport with stake holders

2. MANAGING PERFORMANCE : Officer must be competent at accepting my own or my subordinates performance whilst acquiring knowledge of emotional intelligence, change management principles, goal setting & action planning as; must develop the skill of critical thinking problem solving networking time management self knowledge and development combine the attribute of paying attention to details with a behavior which ensures employees have clear goals and responsibilities 4. CUSTOMER SERVICE : Officers must become competent, have knowledge and a skillset in providing quality customer service; must have a cooperative attribute whilst displaying a behavior of positive customer relations

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Training and Development

PROBLEM SOLVING LEADERSHIP TEAMWORK ACHIEVING RESULTS ORGANIZATIONAL AWARENESS INTEGRITY EMPLOYEE RELATIONS

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Using Ethical Principles to Manage Misconduct

Principles of Ethical Decision Making Police Administrators Must Consider; Imperative principle directs Police Administrators to make decisions according to a specific, unbending rules. 2) Utilitarian principle determines the ethics of conduct by the good or bad consequences of the action that Police Administrators seek to avoid or promote. 3) Generalization principle is based on: “What would happen if all similar persons acted this way under similar circumstances?” Thus, Police Administrators must be careful when the are setting standards. (Krogstad & Robertson, 1979)

Proactive Leadership and management can foster strong ethical standards in the police service.  Employee behavior is influenced more directly by the behavior of superiors than by the stated directives or ethics of the organization. Managers and leaders must not act unethical and expect their subordinates to be ethical service men and women. In recent times, the TTPS has been plagued with senior officers misbehaving and involving in corruption. Police departments that have very little to no misconduct posses ethical administrators. Moreover, research has indicated that close mid-level supervision reduces the use of force and incidents of misconduct by officers (Walker, 2007).

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International Best Practices

A 2001 report issued by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), titled “Principles for Promoting Police Integrity: Examples of Promising Police Practices and Policies,” offers recommendations for curbing police misconduct and improving the continued professionalization of the basic line function. The following is a list of the various recommendations from the DOJ report.

5. Assistance From Other Arms of the CJ 6. Effective Investigative 7. Resolution of Misconduct 8. Accountability and Effective Management- 9. Supervision and leadership 10. Public Feedback and Civilian Input 11. Community Meeting 12. Civilian Oversight 13. Training

1.Accepting Complaints 2. Reports of Misconducts 3. Avenues for Reporting 4. Whistle-Blowing

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Possible Challenges

Policies not effective Ad hoc investigations into misconduct Lengthy process of determining breaches Lack of proper supervision Evaluation not done correct Lack of power given to external agency

CHALLENGES AHEAD

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Conclusion

Leadership in policing is where administrators do their best to ensure officers are performing at their best. Between the periods of October 2019- March 2020, there have been more than 75 accusations of unlawful use of authority. Some preventative methods are the use of body worn cameras, continuous ethics training, preventative induction training, and accountability. Police departments that have very little to no misconduct posses ethical administrators. (walker, 2007)

A 2001 report by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), offered recommendations for curbing police misconduct and improving and this was adapted as an international best practice. However, six (6) possible challenges were identify if it was to be implemented in Trinidad and Tobago. Therefore, recommendations are given to help guide police administrators how to proactively deal with police misconduct.

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Recommendations to Police Administrators

Using effective organized directives as means of non-verbal communication. Written directives Achievable and reasonable Explanation why the directive was given Mandatory Feedback from patrol/community officer

Proactive organizational communication model; keeping the basic line function in mind.

FEEDBACK

PLANNING

ORGANIZING

OPERATIONALIZING

EVALUATING

(Thibault, Lynch And Mc Bribe, 1985)

(Thibault, Lynch And Mc Bribe, 1985)

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References

Cox, S. M., Massey, D., Koski, C. M., & Fitch, B. D. (2020). Introduction to policing. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Swan, R. (n.d.). Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/proactive-policing-definition-strategies.html In-text: (2021) Your Bibliography: (2021). Retrieved 27 April 2021, from http://documentcenter/DocCenter/Standing%20Orders/SO%2048-Disciplinary%20Procedure%20+%20Complaints.pdf In-text: (2021) Your Bibliography: (2021). Retrieved 24 May 2021, from https://www.o98.gc.ca/lbrr/archives/cnmcs-plcng/cn34561-eng.pdf In-text: (Street, 2021) Your Bibliography: Street, T. (2021). Racial Discrimination and it’s Various Forms | Race Discrimination Solicitors advice in UK | Tribunal Claim. Retrieved 24 May 2021, from https://www.tribunalclaim.com/racial-discrimination/ In-text: (2021)

Cox, S. M., Massey, D., Koski, C. M., & Fitch, B. D. (2020). Introduction to policing. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Swan, R. (n.d.). Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/proactive-policing-definition-strategies.html In-text: (2021) Your Bibliography: (2021). Retrieved 27 April 2021, from http://documentcenter/DocCenter/Standing%20Orders/SO%2048-Disciplinary%20Procedure%20+%20Complaints.pdf In-text: (2021) Your Bibliography: (2021). Retrieved 24 May 2021, from https://www.o98.gc.ca/lbrr/archives/cnmcs-plcng/cn34561-eng.pdf In-text: (Street, 2021) Your Bibliography: Street, T. (2021). Racial Discrimination and it’s Various Forms | Race Discrimination Solicitors advice in UK | Tribunal Claim. Retrieved 24 May 2021, from https://www.tribunalclaim.com/racial-discrimination/ In-text: (2021)

McCartney, S., & Parent, S. (2015). Ethics in Law Enforcement. Solr.bccampus.ca. Retrieved 17 April 2021, from http://solr.bccampus.ca:8001/bcc/file/03897e9e-cb62-40ed-aecc-feef5caae9d2/1/Ethics-in-Law-Enforcement-1563922725.pdf. Police Misconduct | Police Corruption | CIP. California Innocence Project. Retrieved 18 April 2021, from https://californiainnocenceproject.org/issues-we-face/police-misconduct/. Seminal, J. (2020). PCA: 394 COMPLAINTS AGAINST COPS IN THE LAST YEAR. cnc3. Retrieved 17 April 2021, from https://www.cnc3.co.tt/pca-394-complaints-against-cops-in-the-last-year/. Your Bibliography: (2021). Retrieved 27 April 2021, from http://documentcenter/DocCenter/Standing%20Orders/SO%2048Disciplinary%20Procedure%20+%20Complaints.pdf