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DUW10022 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH FOR ENGINEERING PRESENTATION CLO/GSA MARKS CLO1 - CLO2 - CLO3 / 25 TOTAL /25 NAME: NUR ATIRAH BT AFANDI NURUL NASRIHAH BT NADZRI ATHIRAH NATASHA BINTI RUHAIZAK TIME ALLOCATION: 15 minutes MATRIX NO: : (16DKA20F2024) (16DKA20F2036) (16DKA20F2021) DATE: 6/06/2021 PROGRAM: DKA : CLASS: DKA 1 A / B

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INTRODUCTION TO OFFICE ERGONOMIC

Many people don’t realize that a poorly designed computer workstation and/or bad work habits can result in serious health problems. Common symptoms associated with poor design or habits include discomfort in the back, neck and shoulders, hands and wrists, as well as headaches and eyestrain. If you experience any of these symptoms while working, contact the UEOHC for medical help. Fortunately, the solution can be quite simple. Proper workstation setup and work practices can eliminate discomfort and even prevent it from occurring in the first place! Simple adjustments to office equipment can work wonders, making work more comfortable and more productive.

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ERGONOMICS RISK

Postural problems

Almost regardless of how an office worker works there is growing recognition of the important role of movement in maintaining musculoskeletal health; and that remaining in an essentially fixed posture for extended periods is not conducive to good health. When that posture involves sitting, then any impact of a lack of movement is exacerbated by the fact that the sedentary posture is fundamentally bad for the back (and other parts of the body - there are even some clinical case reports of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) from sustained sedentary postures). Obviously how an employee does sit and work (including the posture they adopt in interacting with their computer systems) can compound the effect of the sedentary nature of their work. Prolonged poor postures, especially awkward limb and neck positions, arising from insufficient attention being paid to the layout of office equipment such as display screens, keyboards and other input devices will accelerate or exacerbate the development of musculoskeletal symptoms.

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Repetitive movements

Repetitive twisting movements, usually in combination with poor body position. Exposure to cold, combined with repetitive motions. ... Repetitive motions using a bent wrist. It is up to everyone to help identify poor ergonomic practices in the workplace.

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Psychosocial factors

Psychosocial risks to health in the workplace include: excessive workloads, conflicting demands, a lack of influence over the way the job is done, job insecurity, and a lack of support from management or colleagues. Many of these can be encountered in office work, with or without the use of computers (although in some cases, the impact of computing technologies on how jobs are structured can play a major role – such as in call centres). The potential impact of these factors is two-fold. Firstly they can have a direct impact on the mental and physical health of workers. Secondly, there is a growing body of evidence that they can contribute to (and exacerbate) the risk of musculoskeletal problems.

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Environment

A good physical working environment is important, not only for health and well-being but also because an inadequate environment can have a negative impact on concentration and communication therefore impairing work performance. Unsuitable temperatures, draughts, inadequate lighting, excessive or disturbing noise can all have an adverse impact.

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ANALYSIS

POSTURAL PROBLEM While back and neck conditions top the list of potential posture woes, there are many others — such as poor balance, headaches, and breathing difficulties. "Researchers are also looking into whether posture affects mood, sleep, fatigue, and jaw alignment

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the association of numerical muscle disease with office work

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cause of spinal cord injury - sitting posture

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ANALYSIS

ENVIRONMENT -Noise The volume of a typical office usually is between 40-60 dB, and the sources of this noise range from computer fans to copy machines to people speaking around you. Maintaining a lower level of background noise also is important for understanding conversations you have with your colleagues or on the phone. A normal conversation typically is held at volumes between 60-65 dB. We recommend keeping background noise between 48-55 dB, which has been shown to reduce noise-related errors. However, keeping background noise between 54-59 dB will help mask distracting conversations

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-LIGHTING

Adequate lighting is essential for any indoor workspace. To keep costs low, it is a common practice to use the minimal amount of lighting needed for whatever task is being performed. An office work surface is considered to be a "fine work" situation, for which medium-to-high levels of light are needed, specifically in the 45-65 foot-candles (500-700 lux) range. Background and general lighting can be significantly lower, around 30 percent of the minimum value required for the workstation levels, e.g. 15 foot-candles. Adequate and adjustable work surface lighting then can be used to reach the workstation specific levels, which may help save on electricity costs. Glare from surrounding light sources can be a major issue, depending on the positioning of computer monitors. You may have experienced this phenomenon before when a lamp (or the sun) behind you reflects off your screen, or maybe when the light source is in front of you, directly shining in your eyes.

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- Climate

People work most productively when they are in a comfortable climate. The climate of your office either can have a positive or negative impact on workplace productivity and comfort. To better understand this, you first should realize that the climate you perceive consists of three main components: air temperature, air humidity and air movement. The best air temperature depends on the season. A range of 68-75°F (20-24°C) generally is preferable, but contrast to the outside temperature also may play a role depending on the season. For example, in the summer, an office at 68°F presents a large contrast to the outdoor temperature and may feel uncomfortably cold, and the reverse might be true for 75°F in the winter. Right around 73°F tends to be the temperature at which the majority of people feel comfortable. Depending on the size of your office, you also could experiment with the temperature, determining which temperature is preferred by the most employees.

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Analysis

Psycososial factors What happens when it is lacking? Employee perceptions of a lack of psychological support from their organization can lead to increased absenteeism withdrawal behaviours conflict strain - which can lead to fatigue, headaches, burnout and anxiety turnover loss of productivity increased costs greater risk of accidents, incidents and injuries 2. Organizational Culture

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Organizational Culture

Culture sets the tone for an organization – a negative culture can undermine the effectiveness of the best programs, policies and services intended to support the workforce. An unhealthy culture creates more stress, which lowers employee well-being. A culture of profit at all costs and constant chaotic urgency can create an environment in which burnout is the norm. -Civility and Respect A workplace that lacks civility and respect can lead to emotional exhaustion amongst staff, greater conflicts, and job withdrawal. A work environment that is uncivil and disrespectful also exposes organizations to the threat of more grievances and legal risks. One example of disrespectful behaviour is bullying. Exposure to workplace bullying is associated with psychological complaints, depression, burnout, anxiety, aggression, psychosomatic complaints and musculoskeletal health complaints. Bullying not only affects those directly involved, but also affects bystanders, as they too experience higher levels of stress. A number of provinces currently have legislation to address such behaviours

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ANALYSIS

Repetitive movements Many jobs that involve repetition of the same job again and again are apparent even upon cursory observation: assembly line jobs where motions are repeated every few seconds, data processing jobs, directory assistant operators, court reporting, letter and package sorting. Repetitive motion jobs include performance of identical motions again and again, but also include repeating multiple tasks where the motions of each task are very similar and involve the same muscles and tissues.

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THE ACTIVITIES REPETITIVE IN THE OFFICE

TYPING KEYBOARD (Positioning) The keyboard should be at or slightly below elbow height, and parallel with your forearms. If your keyboard has feet on the back that prop it up, make sure to close those feet in order to keep in flat and maintain the wrists in a neutral position. Position equipment and work tasks so that your body is directly in front of and close to your major work tasks (think letter “B” at your belly-button!) Utilize a gel wrist rest to provide rest breaks when typing

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CONCLUSION

It is important to apply the ergonomics standards to keep a healthy live. We'll have spend a lot of time at work, studying, etc. While ergonomics is a relative new field of study,it is acquiring relevance worldwide. More companies are applying ergonomics policies. Probably some day will be mandotary. We need to think about how we working, about our postures and habits. It is always a good time to learn and improve. Ergonomics helps people to be more comfortable at work, reducing stress and injury caused by incorrect positioning and repetitive tasks. As a good user, we need to use ergonomics because it give big influence in our life.