Cell division (Mitosis)

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Cell division (Mitosis)

Tetelo Makola PISF 171 Task 4b

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Cell Division Mitosis

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Mitosis

Division of somatic cells (non-reproductive cells) in eukaryotic organisms . A single cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Daughter cells have same number of chromosomes as does parent cell.

Division of somatic cells (non-reproductive cells) in eukaryotic organisms . A single cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Daughter cells have same number of chromosomes as does parent cell.

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When the cell is not dividing… DNA molecules are in extended, uncondensed form = chromatin Cell can only replicate and transcribe DNA when it is in the extended state. When the cell is preparing for division… DNA molecules condense to form chromosomes prior to division. each chromosome is a single molecule of DNA easier to sort and organize the replicated DNA into daughter cells

When the cell is not dividing… DNA molecules are in extended, uncondensed form = chromatin Cell can only replicate and transcribe DNA when it is in the extended state. When the cell is preparing for division… DNA molecules condense to form chromosomes prior to division. each chromosome is a single molecule of DNA easier to sort and organize the replicated DNA into daughter cells

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The mitotic phase

Divided into four stages of mitosis:

1 st – Prophase 2nd – Metaphase 3rd – Anaphase 4th – Telophase followed by Cytokinesis

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1. Prophase

Three Major Events chromosomes condense spindle fibers form (spindle fibers are specialized microtubules radiating out from centrioles) chromosomes are captured by spindle

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chromosomes align along the equator of the cell, with one chromatid facing each pole

2. Metaphase

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3. Anaphase

sister chromatids separate spindle fibers attached to kinetochores shorten and pull chromatids towards the poles. free spindle fibers lengthen and push the poles of the cell apart

sister chromatids separate spindle fibers attached to kinetochores shorten and pull chromatids towards the poles. free spindle fibers lengthen and push the poles of the cell apart

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4. Telophase

spindle fibers disintegrate nuclear envelopes form around both groups of chromosomes chromosomes revert to their extended state cytokinesis occurs, enclosing each daughter nucleus into a separate cell