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REVIEW.

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Word Formation.

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The internal composition of words Differences between derivation and inflection Morphological forms and processes.

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Morphology The study of the smallest meaningful unit in a language. MURRAY, 1995.

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WHAT IS Morphology form study • It is the study and description of HOW WORDS are formed in a language. • It is concerned with the INNER structure of words and the RULES of constructing words.

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WHAT IS It is the MINIMAL units of meaning or grammatical function that are used to form words (Lieber, 2009). It is a word or a part ofa word that can not be divided into smaller meaningful units. happi un ness un ha ppy (prefix) (root) ness (suffix).

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FREE Free Morphmes Bound Morphemes.

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independent have complete meaning may constitute a word (free form) by itself Ex. man, faith, read FREE MORPHEMES can not stand alone by itself; mustappear with at least one other morpheme do not have independent semantic meaning Ex. manly, faithful, reader BOUND MORPHEMES.

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1/10. Difference between Derivation and Inflection.

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DERIVATION C R EA T I N G N E W W O R D S T O M A K E W O R D S O F A D I FFE R E N T G R A M M A T I CA L C L AS S ( Y U L E , 20 1 0 ).

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action act react reaction.

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INFLECTION T H E M O R P H O L OG I CA L SYS T E M FO R M A K I N G W O R D FO R M S O F W O R D S..

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Bound Inflectional Morphemes are used to indicate ASPECTS of the GRAMMATICAL function of a word. cars reading played ta Iler present participle past participle comparative.

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DERIVATIONAL AND INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES Inflectiona I morphemes neverchange the gra mma tical category (part of speech) of a word. However, derivational morphemes Often change the part of the speech of a word. When a derivational suffix and an inflectional suffix are added to the same word, they always appear in a certain relative order within the word. That is, inflectional suffixes follow derivational suffixes. For these reasons, Akmajian et al. (2010, p.46) state that derivational morphemes show the "inned' layer of words, whilst inflectional suffixes mark the "outer" layer of words. Certain derivational affixes produce new members for a given class of words, but inflectional affixes are always added to available members of a given class of words..

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Morphological forms and Processes.

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Morphological processes alter stems to derive new words. They may change the word’s meaning (derivational) or grammatical function (inflectional)..

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00 morphological processes have typically been categorized by the type of expressive means or signifier involved—principally, an additive process, • or a metamorphic process. (de Saussure 1960).

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Additive Taxonomy of morphological processes by signifier type A. Segmental or concatenative 1 Compounding 2. Affixation a) Canonical affixation b) Infixation c) Transfixation d) Co-fixation (i) Circumfixation (ii) Co-prefixation (iii) Co-suffixation e) Interfixation B.Suprasegmental 1. Suprafixation.

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Metamorphic or non-concatenative Taxonomy of morphological processes by signifier type A. Reduplication B. Apohony ISegmental apophonies 2. Mutation 3. Subtraction 4. Metathesis C. Suprasegmental apophonies 1. Tonal 2. Accentual D. Conversion 1 Categorial 2. Rectional 3. Paradigmatic.

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OTHER WORD FORMATION PROCESSES Coinage Borrowing Blending Clipping Backformation Conversion Acronyms Eponyms.