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S.M.K BUKIT JELUTONG SHAH ALAM 2003 PROAKTF DAN

PROJECT BASED LEARNING A CASE STUDY ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN MALAYSIA

NAME : NOOR YASMIN HANI BINTI MOHAMAD ASROLL CLASS : 2 BETA TEACHER’S NAME : PN. FAJARIAH HUSNA BINTI IBRAHIM

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MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

Learning Area : 4.0 Human Health Learning Standard : 4.1 Infectious and Non-infectious diseases

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AIM

Understanding infectious diseases in terms of the following : Types of diseases and causes Ways of transmission and preventions Statistics and current status in Malaysia

PROBLEM STATEMENT

When it’s hot outside (which is most times of the year) Malaysians often hear about the increasing number of dengue cases. Another common sight is the mosquito fogging operation and public announcements from the Health Ministry about the do’s and don'ts of protecting against dengue. We try to be vigilant, hoping that the fogging would keep us safe. But dengue is just one of the many diseases that continue to plague Malaysians. Carry out a case study on common infectious diseases in Malaysia.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

MOST COMMON INFECTIOUS DISEASES

01

PREDICTION OF DISEASE PROGRESSION

02

SUGGESTIONS TO SOLVE INFECTIOUS DISEASES

03

CONCLUSION

04

05

REFERENCES / ATTACHMENTS

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank my science teacher, Pn. Fajariah Husna, for giving me the information needed to produce this presentation. I am really grateful for completing this assignment within the time given. I also thank my classmates and parents for helping me find information to add into this presentation. Thank you all for guiding me until the end.

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INTRODUCTION

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms - such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Some infectious can be passed from person to person.

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MOST COMMON INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN MALAYSIA

01

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IN THIS TOPIC :

Dengue virus E.coli infection HIV/AIDS COVID-19 ( symptoms, causes, transmission, vectors and pathogens, treatment, ways to avoid )

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DENGUE

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection, found in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide. The virus responsible for causing dengue, is called dengue virus (DENV).

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SYMPTOMS OF DENGUE :

Abdominal pain or tenderness. Persistent vomiting. Clinical fluid accumulation. Mucosal bleed

THE AEDES MOSQUITO IS THE MAIN VECTOR FOR DENGUE :

These mosquitoes spread the virus by reproducing.

These mosquitoes lay eggs near standing water in containers, like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots and vases.

These mosquitoes prefer to bite people, and both live indoors and outdoors.

Mosquitoes that spread dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika bite during the day and night.

Mosquitoes become infected when they bite a person infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.

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TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

There is no specific treatment for dengue. Fever reducers and pain killers can be taken to control the symptoms of muscle aches, pains and fever. Acetaminophen or paracetamol are the best options to treat these symptoms. Dumping out standing water near homes are the best way to prevent the reproduction of mosquitoes. Use mosquito repellent and wear light-coloured clothing when outdoors.

Stay indoors during dusk and dawn.

REPELLENT

Acetaminophen

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E.COLI

Escherichia coli, also known as E.coli, is a rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm blooded organisms.

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SYMPTOMS OF E.COLI

Severe stomach cramps Diarrhea (often bloody) Vomiting Small chance of fever (less than 101 degrees fahrenheit/ 38.5 degrees celsius )

Diarrhea may be caused by bacteria or parasites fourxi in food and water Bacteria *AliAM

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CAUSES OF E.COLI

Contaminated water or food - especially raw vegetables and undercooked ground beef. Unclean cooking utensils, pans and serving platters. Raw foods exposed to the outside Unclean cooking area

When culinary items are contaminated with e.coli, the bacteria can enter the body and start reproducing.

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PREVENTION

Thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables Avoiding cross-contamination by using clean utensils, pans and serving platters. Keeping raw meats away from other foods and away from other clean items Defrosting meats in a microwave or refrigera

TREATMENT

Antibiotics, such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, or a fluoroquinolone.

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HIV/AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body’s ability to fight infection and disease.

As of December 2018, Malaysia has a total of 115,263 HIV cases reported.

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SYMPTOMS OF HIV/AIDS

Rapid weight loss Recurring fever or profuse night sweats Extreme and unexplained tiredness Prolonged swelling of lymph glands Sores of the mouth, anus, or genitals Pneumonia

Swollen Lymph Nodes Swollen lymph node Excess lymph fluid Cleveland Clinic '201B

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WAYS OF TRANSMISSION OF HIV/AIDS

Needle and syringe sharing Intercourse with an infected partner (semen or vaginal secretions that may contain HIV will enter the body) Blood transfusions Through blood caused by injuries

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PREVENTION

Avoid sharing needles and drug use in general Use condoms during intercourse Avoid risky sexual behaviors Get tested for HIV

TREATMENT

The main treatment for HIV is antiretroviral therapy, a combination of daily medications that stop the virus from reproducing. This helps protect CD4 cells, keeping the immune system strong enough to take measures against diseases.

Antiretroviral therapy does not cure HIV, but it makes it a manageable chronic condition. This treatment also reduces the risk of spreading the virus.

Litniwine rd 30 omivudine and Tenofovir :scproril Fumarate Tabkts mg Linezolid Tablets .cELLTRøs

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STATISTICS OF HIV/AIDS SINCE 2000-PRESENT (PREDICTION INCLUDED)

0.7 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 National —09-Johor —01-Perlis — 10-Paha ng —07-NS 11 -Terengganu --08-Melaka 12-Kelantan Figure 12: Incidence per 1000 population for category 2, 2000-2030

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COVID-19

COVID -19 is a disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus. ‘CO’ stands for corona, ‘VI’ for virus, and ‘D’ for disease. Formerly, this disease was referred to as ‘2019 novel coronavirus’ or ‘2019-nCoV’.

COVID-19 mainly attacks the lungs as it is a respiratory infectious disease. The first case of COVID-19 was detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China.

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SYMPTOMS OF COVID-19

Most common : fever, dry cough, tired ness Less common : aches and pains, sore throat, diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, headache, loss of taste or smell, rash or discolouration of skin serious symptoms : shortness of breath, difficulty of breathing, chest pain or pressure, loss of speech or movement.

Loss of faste Loss of smell

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TRANSMISSION OF COVID-19

This virus is spread by close contact with another individual, typically within 1 metre. Infection is caused by water droplets produced by an infected person when sneezing or coughing. The water droplets containing the virus usually enter the body through the eyes, nose or mouth. The virus can be easily spread in big gatherings without social distancing.

COVID-19 mainly infects senior citizens because of their weak immune system.

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PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

There is currently no cure for COVID-19, however most companies from many countries have produced vaccines that is safe for adults. The best way to prevent from being infected is to wash your hands often and wear a mask when outdoors. Keep a distance between each other in at least 1 metre/6 feet Seek medical attention when you experience fevers and dry coughs It is highly recommended to stay at home and avoid going outside where the virus is likely to affect you.

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PREDICTION OF DISEASE PROGRESSION BASED ON STATISTICAL GRAPHS FROM MOH MALAYSIA

02

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BASED ON STATISTICAL GRAPHS SHOWN IN 01 :

We can tell that cases in 2020 have greatly decreased compared to 2019. This is because citizens have been educated and alarmed about this virus. Now, abandoned areas with standing water have been cleaned and there is less places for aedes mosquitoes to reproduce, causing less cases to be recorded.

(DENGUE)

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40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 1999 2000 0 2001 School Canteen 12.43 19.88 31.4 Hostel 36.14 41.61 26.7 Horrr 8.11 8.7 15.3 Public P rerises 13.01 9.32 3.6 Higher Institution 17.3 14.9 12.8 Public Events 13.01 4.97 4.45 Others 0.62 5.75

(E.COLI)

E.coli cases have decreased as time progresses due to better hygiene precautions in public areas. When hygiene is taken seriously in culinary, E.coli is hardly found in foods nowadays. This leads to very less cases as of today.

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0.7 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 National —09-Johor —01-Perlis — 10-Paha ng —07-NS 11 -Terengganu --08-Melaka 12-Kelantan Figure 12: Incidence per 1000 population for category 2, 2000-2030

HIV cases in the states given in the graph are predicted by MOH to rise constantly as time progresses.

(HIV)

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On 14th May 2021, MOH predicted that 8,000 cases would be recorded daily by JUne if the standard operational procedure is not followed by the people. However on 29th May, 9020 cases have been recorded. This has exceeded MOH’s prediction and serious action needs to be taken before the situation gets worse as time progresses.

(COVID-19)

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SUGGESTIONS TO SOLVE INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN MALAYSIA

03

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DENGUE

Practice good hygiene : clean out standing water near houses, use mosquito repellent to prevent from being bitten by mosquitoes Spread awareness about dengue using social media platforms to educate others. Immediately seek medical attention when experiencing symptoms

E.COLI

Spread awareness about e.coli Urge public premises and canteens to practice good hygiene when serving food Immediately seek medical attention when experiencing symptoms

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HIV/AIDS

Educate others about HIV/AIDS Start awareness campaigns on HIV/AIDS Seek immediate medical attention when experiencing symptoms

COVID-19

Teach children to practice good hygiene and social distancing Urge the people to stay home when conditions get worse Get vaccinated Meet with people using online meeting programs instead of meeting in person to prevent the risk of infection

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CONCLUSION

04

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I conclude that infectious diseases must be taken seriously especially in Malaysia. The 4 infectious diseases that i have presented have some similar ways on how to prevent the diseases. Some infectious diseases can badly affect the body and can potentially kill. We must take action against these diseases and educate ourselves about infectious diseases so we can be cautious and find ways to prevent ourselves from getting infected. To add up, COVID-19 (the current pandemic) has been stealing countless lives around the world. We need to prevent this from continuing and spreading around Malaysia. I appreciate MOH’s hard work on keeping this situation under control and i applaud the frontliners for sacrificing their time for our infected people. To end the conclusion, infectious diseases can be avoided with the cooperation of people with the goal to avoid more infections.

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REFERENCES/ ATTACHMENTS

05

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DENGUE

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue#:~:text=Dengue%20is%20a%20mosquito%2Dborne,to%20be%20infected%20four%20times . https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dengue-fever/symptoms-causes/syc-20353078 https://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dvbd/media/avoid-dengue.html https://www.moh.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/1458

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue#:~:text=Dengue%20is%20a%20mosquito%2Dborne,to%20be%20infected%20four%20times . https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dengue-fever/symptoms-causes/syc-20353078 https://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dvbd/media/avoid-dengue.html https://www.moh.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/1458

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E.COLI

https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/ecoli-symptoms.html#:~:text=Symptoms%20of%20Shiga%20toxin%2Dproducing,F%2F38.5%CB%9AC https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/index.html https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/e-coli/symptoms-causes/syc-20372058 https://www.healthline.com/health/e-coli-infection https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/ecoli-prevention.html

https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/ecoli-symptoms.html#:~:text=Symptoms%20of%20Shiga%20toxin%2Dproducing,F%2F38.5%CB%9AC https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/index.html https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/e-coli/symptoms-causes/syc-20372058 https://www.healthline.com/health/e-coli-infection https://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/ecoli-prevention.html

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HIV/AIDS

https://medlineplus.gov/hivaidsmedicines.html https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html#:~:text=What%20is%20HIV%3F-,HIV%20(human%20immunodeficiency%20virus)%20is%20a%20virus%20that%20attacks%20the,they%20have%20it%20for%20life . https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hw151408 https://www.moh.gov.my/moh/resources/Penerbitan/Laporan/Umum/National_Subnational_Estimations_Projections_Of_HIV_Epidemic,_Malaysia_2019.pdf

https://medlineplus.gov/hivaidsmedicines.html https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html#:~:text=What%20is%20HIV%3F-,HIV%20(human%20immunodeficiency%20virus)%20is%20a%20virus%20that%20attacks%20the,they%20have%20it%20for%20life . https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hw151408 https://www.moh.gov.my/moh/resources/Penerbitan/Laporan/Umum/National_Subnational_Estimations_Projections_Of_HIV_Epidemic,_Malaysia_2019.pdf

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COVID-19

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19 http://covid-19.moh.gov.my/

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19 http://covid-19.moh.gov.my/

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Thanks!

Do you have any questions? m-8872401@moe-dl.edu.my 010-207 5098