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Circulatory sy,stem ( Cardiovasculårsyitem )

Luc. 1

Histology

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The Cardiovascular system includes the heart , blood vessels , lymphatic vessels 1. The heart: located in the thoracic cavity , between the lungs and deep to the sternum. *Gross Anatomy of the Heart:- pericardium . Structure of Pericardium 1 -The fibrous pericardium 2-The serous pericardium 3-pericardial cavity The heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called Heart Pericardial nuid Peri card i u

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Chamber of heart RIGHT ATRIUM Receives deoxygenated blood from the body via SVC, IVC and coronary sinus RIGHT VENTRICLE Receives deoxygenated blood from right atrium via Right atrioventricular orifice and sends it to lungs via Pulmonary trunk. Arch of ao LEFT ATRIUM Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via pulmonary veins. Pulmonary veins LEFT VENTRICLE Receives oxygenated blood from left atrium via Left atrioventricular orifice and sends it to body via aorta.

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b.The Heart wall:- A) The epicardium: is The inner layer of the pericardium that is in contact with the surface of the heart. B) The myocardium: is the muscular middle layer of the wall of the heart C) The endocardium : a thin serous membrane lining the cavities of the heart Slide 64, Heart Epicardium Endocardium The Layers Of the Heart Walt Epicardium Outer protective layer Myocardiur Muscular midc layer Endocardium Thin inner layer • — 4ghtCo.

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2. Blood vessels: include arteries, veins and capillaries. And consist three layers or tunics. The tunica intima or inner layer: it is the innermost layer of the arteries and a. veins , composed ofa thin layer of endothelial cells and it's lines the entire circulatory system. b. The tunica rnedia or rniddle layer :it is formed by a layer of smooth muscle and variable arnounts of connective tissue. The tunica adventitia or outer layer: which consist mainly of connective c. tissue fibers a rtery tunica adventitia tunica media tunica intima endothelium internal elastic rnembrane vein •r

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Arteries:-are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart The walls of arteries are thicker than that of veins consist of three type:- a. Large elastic arteries b. Middle sized muscular arteries c. small arteries and arterioles Capillaries:- Capillaries connect arterioles with venules. capillaries are comprised of only one layer of endothelial cells, and therefore, capillaries only have a tunica intima, There is no media or adventitia. Veins:- are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart.

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The veins contain three types:- a. Largest veins b. Small to medium-sized veins c. Venules Vein carries blood back to ward the heart Capillary network Venule Thin. elastic muscular wan Arteriole Artery carries blood from the heart T%ick. elastic muscular wall

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types of blood circulation : Pulmonary circulation : conveys blood from the heart to the lung and from the lung to the heart . Systemic circulation :- conveys blood from the heart to other tissues of the body and from other tissues to the heart Pulmonary arteries Vena cavae Right atrium Right ventricle Systemic veins Oxygen poor, C02 - rich blood Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit Capillary bed of lungs where gas exchange occurs Pulmonary veins Aorta and branches Left atrium Left ventricle Systemic arteries Oxygen rich, C02 - poor blood Capillary bed of all body tissues where gas exchange occurs

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The difference between arteries and veins :- Arteries Carries blood away from the heart They are thick walled Have no valves Smaller diameter than veins Are more muscular Veins Carries blood toward the heart They are thin walled Have valves Larger diameter than arteries Are less muscular