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Something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India.

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a chariot driver.

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the sum of a person's actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as deciding their fate in future existences.

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relating to or denoting a family of languages spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, or the peoples who speak them.

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is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy.

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essence, flavor, or sentiment, in particular the characteristic quality of music, literature, and drama.

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transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self, and the subject is released from the effects of karma and the cycle of death and rebirth. It represents the final goal of Buddhism.

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The Indian subcontinent, the great landmass of South Asia, is the home of one of the world’s oldest and most influential civilizations. In this article, the subcontinent, which for historical purposes is usually called “India”, is understood to comprise the areas of not only the present-day Republic of India but also the republics of Pakistan (partitioned from India in1947) and Bangladesh (which formed the eastern part of Pakistan until its independence in 1971). For the histories of these latter two countries since their creation, see Pakistan and Bangladesh.

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World Map Hd India Refrence World Map Chennai India Fresh Politically Country for S X | India world map, India map, Map

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World’s second most populous nation Seventh largest in area 3,000 km wide Shoreline of about 7,000 km India and Bharat are both official names. Early settlers called their land “Bharat Varsha” or “Bharat” During medieval times, it was known as “Hind.”

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Earliest Indian civilization grew up in the Indus Valley from 4000 to 2500 BC. 1500 BC Aryan invaders entered India Hinduism and the Caste system were the foundations of the Indian society.

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• Form parts of India’s borders • WEST Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tibet • EAST Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet • Topographically complex and divided into prominent elongated valleys and mountain ranges • Highest mountain Karakoram Range

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• Part of a vast lowland extending across the subcontinent from Pakistan in the west to Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) in the east • Bordered on the north by foothills of the Himalayas, south of the Bramaputra basin, south of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, east of the Brahmaputra, and in the rest of India by the Ganges.

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• More than 200 languages are spoken • Linguistic diversity provides an important key to understanding Indian civilization. • Four major linguistic groups were represented. • Most important are the Indo-Arab branch of the Indo-European group and the Dravidian language group.

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• 4th most widely spoken language in the world • Language of 30% of the population

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Hinduism - Origins, Facts & Beliefs - HISTORY

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Started somewhere between 2300 B.C. and 1500 B.C. Hindus have four goals in life known as the Purusharthas , meaning “object of human pursuit”. - they are DHARMA, ARTHA, KAMA and MOKSHA. DHARMA is considered the most important of all.

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The four VARNAS serve as the theoretical basis for the Hindu society, these were thought to have been created from Purusha’s body . BRAHMIN (Priest) – was the Purusha’s mouth. KSHATRIYA (Warriors) – are the arms. VAISHYA (Peasants) – are the thighs. SHUDRA (Serfs) – are the feet.

Varna , Sanskrit varṇa , any one of the four traditional social classes of India. Although the literal meaning of the word varna (Sanskrit: “ colour ”) once invited speculation that class distinctions were originally based on differences in degree of skin pigmentation between an alleged group of lighter-skinned invaders called “Aryans” and the darker indigenous people of ancient India, this theory has been discredited since the mid-20th century.

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Brahmin - Wikiwand

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Their duty is to perform sacrifices, to study and to teach the Vedas, and to guard the rules of dharma. Because of their sacred work, they are supreme in purity and rank.

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VARNA AND DIFFERENT HINDU "CASTES" | Facts and Details

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From this class arose the kings who are the protectors of society.

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Structure - ANCIENT INDIA

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They live by trading, herding, and farming.

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Who were the Shudras? – Black Leadership Analysis

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They engage in handicrafts and manual occupation and they are to serve meekly the three classes above them. They are strictly forbidden to mate with persons of a higher varna.

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What is Buddhism? A short introduction for beginners

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Most Indian Buddhist live in the Himalayan region or southern India. Began with the life of Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 B.C.) Birth, death and sufferings - this cycle is an effect of karma according to their belief.

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The  Four Noble Truths  are: life is suffering; 2) the cause of suffering is desire; 3) the removal of desire is the removal of suffering; and 4) the Noble Eightfold Path leads to the end of suffering.

The Noble Eightfold Path consists of: 1) right understanding; 2) right thought; 3) right speech; 4) right action; 5) right means of livelihood; 6) right effort; 7) right concentration; and 8) right meditation.

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An ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciation. Its founder is often, inaccurately, identified as the sage Vardhamana (better known as Mahavira, l. c. 599-527 BCE)

The Theory of Knowledge in Jainism

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Jains believe that animals and plants , as well as human beings, contain living souls. Each of these souls is considered of equal value and should be treated with respect and compassion.   Jains are strict vegetarians and live in a way that minimises their use of the world's resources. Jains believe in reincarnation and seek to attain ultimate liberation - which means escaping the continuous cycle of birth, death and rebirth so that the immortal soul lives for ever in a state of bliss. There are no gods or spiritual beings that will help human beings.

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Centered in Punjab State , in northwestern India. It was founded by Nanak (1469-1539), a mystic who believed that God transcends religious distinctions. The Sikh place of worship is called a Gurdwara which means 'Gateway to the Guru'. A Gurdwara is any building where the Guru Granth Sahib is kept.

why are the gurus always shown with open hands in paintings?Eg shri guru nanak dev ji has an open palm in this painting. : Sikh

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Sikhs believe in one God who guides and protects them. They believe everyone is equal before God. Sikhs believe that your actions are important and you should lead a good life. They believe the way to do this is: Keep God in your heart and mind at all times Live honestly and work hard Treat everyone equally Be generous to those less fortunate than you Serve others

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MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI Leader of the Indian Nationalist movement Known as Mahatma (Great soul) Pioneered on civil disobedience or the philosophy of nonviolent confrontation Born on October 2, 1869, Porbandar

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SAROJINI NAIDU (born February 13, 1879, Hyderabad, India—died March 2, 1949, Lucknow) Political activist, Feminist and a Poet. The first Indian woman to be president of the Indian National Congress and to be appointed an Indian state governor. She was sometimes called “the Nightingale of India.”

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• Mostly written in Sanskrit (oldest extant Aryan language) • A small portion was written in Prakrit (vernacular form of Sanskrit)

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Oldest sacred literature is found in the four Vedas.

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An anthology of 1028 hymns to various gods

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(Sanskrit: “The Knowledge of Verses”) also spelled  Ṛgveda , the oldest of the sacred books of  Hinduism , composed in an ancient form of  Sanskrit  about 1500  BCE , in what is now the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. It consists of a collection of 1,028 poems grouped into 10 “circles” ( mandala s).

(Sanskrit: “The Knowledge of Verses”) also spelled  Ṛgveda , the oldest of the sacred books of  Hinduism , composed in an ancient form of  Sanskrit  about 1500  BCE , in what is now the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. It consists of a collection of 1,028 poems grouped into 10 “circles” ( mandala s).

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THEN was not non-existent nor existent: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it. What covered in, and where? and what gave shelter? Was water there, unfathomed depth of water? Death was not then, nor was there aught immortal: no sign was there, the day's and night's divider. That One Thing, breathless, breathed by its own nature: apart from it was nothing whatsoever. Darkness there was: at first concealed in darkness this All was indiscriminated chaos. All that existed then was void and form less: by the great power of Warmth was born that Unit. Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire, the primal seed and germ of Spirit. Sages who searched with their heart's thought discovered the existent's kinship in the non-existent. Transversely was their severing line extended: what was above it then, and what below it? There were begetters, there were mighty forces, free action here and energy up yonder Who verily knows and who can here declare it, whence it was born and whence comes this creation? The Gods are later than this world's production. Who knows then whence it first came into being? He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it, Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not.

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(Book of Chants) liturgies, mostly repetitions of hymns in the Rig Veda

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"Sama Veda"  is an ancient Hindu scripture and one of the four main  Vedas  of Hinduism. It is a collection of melodies and chants, and is also called the "Book of Song," "Veda of Chants" or even "Yoga of Song." It is basically the words of the " Rig Veda " put to music.

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(Book of Spells) incantations, notions about demonology and witchcraft.

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The Yajur Veda is an ancient collection of Sanskrit mantras and verses, used in Hindu worship and rituals. The name is derived from the Sanskrit roots, yajus , meaning "worship" or "sacrifice"’ and veda , meaning "knowledge." Yajur Veda is sometimes translated as "Knowledge of the Sacrifice."

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(Prayer Book) additional many prose formulas

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The " Atharva Veda " is an ancient Hindu scripture and is one of the four Vedas commonly known as the fourth Veda. Sometimes it is called the "Veda of Magical Formulas“. It is a collection of 20 books containing hymns, chants, spells and prayers; and involves issues such as healing of illnesses, prolonging life, black magic and rituals for removing maladies and anxieties.

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1500 BC – 200 BC Principally religious and lyric

200 BC – Present Many types of literature achieved distinction

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lasted from around  1500 BCE  through to  500 BCE The Aryans were a people from central Asia who spoke an Indo-European language. They brought with them into India a religion based on the worship of many gods and goddesses. This ancient religion is depicted in collections of oral poetry and prose – hymns, prayers, chants, spells and commentaries – known as the “Vedas”.

lasted from around  1500 BCE  through to  500 BCE The Aryans were a people from central Asia who spoke an Indo-European language. They brought with them into India a religion based on the worship of many gods and goddesses. This ancient religion is depicted in collections of oral poetry and prose – hymns, prayers, chants, spells and commentaries – known as the “Vedas”.

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(500 B.C. – A.D.) The period of composition of the two great epics, Mahabharata and the Ramayana . The Dhammapada was also probably composed during this period. Vedic literature and new Sanskrit literature. The Maurya Empire (322-230 B.C.) The Gupta Dynasty (320-467 B.C.)

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