-is the sub-discipline of civil engineering that involves natural materials found close to the surface of the earth. It is the application of the principles of the soil mechanics and rock mechanics to the design of foundations, retaining structures and earth structures.
A geotechnical engineer’s job is to make sure that a building doesn’t get added to the long list of leaning buildings.
Leaning Tower of Pisa
No matter what type of building you are designing, the first step is to understand the ground you plan to build on.
What do Geotechnical Engineers do?
Evaluation of geotechnical hazards including potential of landslides
Determination of bearing capacity, deformations of foundations, and likely interactions between soil, foundation and the structure
Assessment of earth pressure and the performance of retainingwalls
Analysis of embankment behavior
Strength of excavations, caves, tunnels
Conducting of response analysis for a site
Foundation engineering is a branch of geotechnical engineering which applies soil mechanics, structural engineering, and project serviceability requirements for design and construction of foundations for onshore, offshore, and in-land structures.
Shallow foundations, often called footings, are situated beneath the lowest part of the structure. A footing is the first constructed element of a structure which is built after excavating the ground.
In general, the depth of a shallow foundation is less than its width.
A deep foundation is a type of foundation which is placed at a greater depth below the ground surface and transfers structure loads to the earth at depth. However, when dealing with poor soil conditions at shallow depth, large design loads, and site constraints, a deep foundation is likely to be the optimum solution.
Underground and Earth-retaining Structures
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting soil laterally so that it can be retained at different levels on the two sides.
Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil to a slope that it would not naturally keep to.
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains. An excavation site or “dig” is the area being studied. These locations range from one to several areas at a time during a project and can be conducted over a few weeks to several years.
A road, railway line, or canal is normally raised onto an embankment made of compacted soil to avoid a change in level required by the terrain, the alternatives being either to have an unacceptable change in level or detour to follow a contour.
A dam is a structure built across a river or a stream to hold back water. Ancient dam builders used natural materials such as rocks or clay. Modern-day dam builders often use concrete. Man-made dams create artificial lakes called reservoirs. Reservoirs can be used to store water for farming, industry, and household use.
Earthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth’s surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock. The purpose of earthwork are the creation of engineering works from the soil such as dams, railroads, highways, canals, channels, and trenches, the laying of foundations for buildings and structures which are erected from other materials, the leveling of areas under development for building, and the removal of masses of earth in order to open up mineral deposits (or burden removal).
Rocks, soils, and minerals are important to engineers. They are essential for a variety of reasons, including the fact that they serve as the foundation for our structures and roadways. Engineers also acquire a lot of their building materials from rocks, soils, and minerals. Engineers must be familiar with the characteristics of various rocks, soils, and minerals in order to select the best material for a task that is both efficient and cost effective.