ISOFLAVONES

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ISOFLAVONES. Shivam Joshi.

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Bioactive Compounds of Soybean. Soy is a low cost source of protein that has been consumed in Asian nations for many centuries Regular intake of this food is thought to be partially responsible for the lower rates of heart disease, stroke, and cancer observed in Eastern populations. Soybean products contain a plethora of bioactive phytochemicals such as isoflavones , saponins , phytic acids, phytosterols , trypsin inhibitors, and peptides..

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Information... Isoflavones are members of the large flavonoid family of plant compounds which are, in turn, members of the larger group of plant constituents known as polyphenols The principal isoflavones in soy are genistein , daidzein , and their metabolites.

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Sources. Isoflavones are a type of polyphenol found in legumes, including soybeans, chickpeas, fava beans, pistachios, peanuts, and other fruits and nuts. Soybeans are the richest source of isoflavones , and soy foods and ingredients contain varying concentrations of isoflavones Isoflavone compounds, such as genistein and daidzein , are found in a number of plants, but soybeans and soy products like tofu and textured vegetable protein are the primary food sources..

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Isoflavones Content. Food Soy Burger Soy soy Milk Texturized Vegetable Protein Tofu Soy Protein Bar Soy Breakfast Patty Soy Flour Soy Beans, Boiled Tempeh Soy Nut Buter Serving 1 paw lc 1 bar 2 patties 2 Tbs. Soy protein 8 12 8 14 9 6 16 12 7 18 8 Isoflavone content (mg) 7 38 24 33 4 33 47 36 Kcal 100 150 100 180 160 190 200 160.

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Health Effects of Isoflavones.

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Estrogenic and Antiestrogenic Activity. Relative to physiologic estrogens, isoflavones appear to be a weaker form according to both in vitro and in vivo assays Because of this, its believed that isoflavones can compete at estrogen receptor sites, blocking the stronger version naturally produced by the body from exerting its full effect Since high blood levels of estrogen are an established risk factor for breast cancer, weaker forms of estrogen may provide protection against this disease.

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Soy and Bone Health. Speculation about the potential benefits of isoflavones was in part fueled by the similarity in chemical structure between the soybean isoflavones and the synthetic isoflavone , 7-isopropoxyisoflavone, which was shown to increase bone mass in postmenopausal women.

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Soy & Cardiovascular Health. Dietary soy protein has been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health Best-documented effect is on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, with reductions of ~10% in LDL cholesterol and small increases in HDL cholesterol Dietary soy protein improves flow-mediated arterial dilation Soy isoflavone extracts improves systemic arterial compliance, an indicator of atherosclerosis extent.

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Applications in Foods & Beverages. Some companies are interested in combining soy protein and concentrated isoflavones to come up with the desired profile they want for the product and its health effects. The soy-using food sectorwhich includes baked goods, nutrition bars and cereals has been well-served by the soy ingredient industry. However, the beverage sector is starting to see a renewed interest in incorporating soy into beverages beyond just soymilk..

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Safety. The safety of high intakes of soy isoflavones and other phytoestrogens for breast cancer survivors is an area of concern among scientists and clinicians. The results of cell culture and animal studies have been conflicting; some preclinical studies showed that soy isoflavones might stimulate the growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells, while others suggested that they might either potentiate or abrogate the anticancer effects of tamoxifen on breast tissue. Since infants fed soy-based formulas are exposed to relatively high levels of isoflavones , which they can absorb and metabolize, concern has been raised regarding potential long-term effects on anthropometric growth, bone health, as well as reproductive, endocrine, and immune functions.

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Drug Interactions. Fermented soy foods contain highly variable amounts of the biologically active amine, tyramine, which is catabolized in the body by monoamine oxidase enzyme (MAO) and excreted in the urine. The ingestion of very high amount of tyramine may saturate the detoxification system and lead to clinical symptoms of intoxication. Some evidence from animal studies suggested that high intakes of soy isoflavones , particularly genistein , could interfere with the antitumor effects of tamoxifen ( Nolvadex )..

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