Introduction to Law and Politics

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Introduction to Law and Politics

Mohd Haris bin Abdul Rani

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TOPIC 1 – INTRODUCTION TO LAW & POLITICS

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WHY STUDY LAW & POLITICS?

It is very important for us to know the definition of both area of the study and see how they are related to one another. This is because:- As a citizen, you will be exposed to the reality of life; law and politics As a player of politics, you need to maneuver yourself within it As a legal professional, you don't want to be influenced by Politics As the seeker of truth; you don't want politics to dominate the environment

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WHY STUDY LAW & POLITICS IS IMPORTANT?

It is very important because:- You want to pass this paper! You need to be aware of what is going on with the society You don't want to be manipulated by anyone You want to be in control, in a world that is out of control You want justice not only for yourself but for everyone else

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WHAT IS LAW?

Law is a system of rules created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior, (with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate).

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Politics

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WHAT IS POLITICS?

Politics (from Greek; 'affairs of the cities') is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The academic study of politics is referred to as political science.

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Politics

Wikipedia

Wikipedia

In the view of Harold Lasswell (P/scientist), politics is "who gets what, when, how." For David Easton(P/scientist), it is about "the authoritative allocation of values for a society." To Vladimir Lenin (P/Theorist), "politics is the most concentrated expression of economics." Bernard Crick (P/Theorist) argued that "politics is a distinctive form of rule whereby people act together through institutionalized procedures to resolve differences, to conciliate diverse interests and values and to make public policies in the pursuit of common purposes."

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Politics

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WHAT IS POLITICS?

According to Adrian Leftwich (P/Activist): "Politics comprises all the activities of co-operation, negotiation and conflict within and between societies, whereby people go about organizing the use, production or distribution of human, natural and other resources in the course of the production and reproduction of their biological and social life."

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WHAT IS LAW & WHAT IS POLITICS

"Power struggle"

Haris

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LAW

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WHAT IS LAW & WHAT IS POLITICS

Fact: Politicians wants to control Law

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What is Law & What is Politics

Fact: Law is something that can be dangerous to Politicians

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TOPIC 1 – POLITICAL HISTORY

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POLITICAL HISTORY

Political history studies the organization and operation of power in large societies. By focusing on the elites in power, on their impact on society, on popular response, and on the relationships with the elites in other social history, which focuses predominantly on the actions and lifestyles of ordinary people, or people's history, which is historical work from the perspective of the common people. e.g. politics of slavery / transatlantic slavery

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Political history is the narrative and survey, of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders. It is interrelated to other fields of history, especially diplomatic history, as well as constitutional history and public history.

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A) DIPLOMATIC HISTORY

Diplomatic history deals with the history of international relations between states. Diplomatic history can be different from international relations in that the former can concern itself with the foreign policy of one state while the latter deals with relations between two or more states. Diplomatic history tends to be more concerned with the history of diplomacy, but international relations concern more with current events and creating a model intended to shed explanatory light on international politics. e.g. Foreign Envoys, Special Envoys, Messengers, Representatives, Ambassadors,

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B) CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY

Reflect the establishment of a given country by way of the historical perspective. e.g. Constitutional History of Malaysia Constitutional History of Thailand Constitutional History of England and many others

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C) PUBLIC HISTORY

Concerning the history of the people as a whole. e.g. People of China People of India People of Europe People of America

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TOPIC 1 – POLITICAL HISTORY

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POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice and the enforcement of a legal code by authority. It is Ethics applied to a group of people, and discusses how a society should be set up and how one should act within a society. Individual rights (such as the right to life, liberty, property, the pursuit of happiness, free speech, self-defense, etc.) state explicitly the requirements for a person to benefit rather than suffer from living in a society.

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Political theory also engages questions of a broader scope, tackling the political nature of phenomena and categories such as identity, culture, sexuality, race, wealth, human-nonhuman relations, ecology, religion, and more.

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TOPIC 1 – POLITICAL HISTORY

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POLITICAL TERMINOLOGY

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Political_terminology&pagefrom=Metapolitics#mw-pages

Online Political Terminology

https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/vocabulary-political-words/

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TOPIC 1 – POLITICAL HISTORY

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POLITICAL METHODOLOGY

Political methodology is a subfield of political science that studies the quantitative and qualitative methods used to study politics. Quantitative methods combine statistics, mathematics, and formal theory. Political methodology is often used for positive research, in contrast to normative research.

Positivism is a philosophical theory which states that "genuine" knowledge (knowledge of anything which is not true by definition) is exclusively derived from experience of natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from sensory experience, as interpreted through reason and logic, forms the exclusive source of all certain knowledge. Positivism therefore holds that all genuine knowledge is a posteriori knowledge.

Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as bad or undesirable or impermissible. A norm in this normative sense means a standard for evaluating or making judgments about behavior or outcomes.

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A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries.

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END CLASS

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Topic 1 Modern Law and Politics

Mohd Haris bin Abdul Rani

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TOPIC 2

Legal and Political System Legal and Political Culture and Obligation Legal and Political Socialisation Legal and Political Change

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Legal and Political System (establishing the link between law and a given political system in the world)

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POLITICAL SYSTEM

Defines the process for making official government decisions Q? but what is government? and in what kind of system that the official government decisions being made? Look at what is the society setting they are in then we are able to understand how political system works.

who holds the power

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Band society – perhaps a group or a camp making it a simple type of human society, normally A gathering of a small families, no larger than an extended family or clan. Probably around 30 to 50 individuals.

Political System?

Law?

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POLITICAL SYSTEM

Tribe society – larger, consisting of many families. Tribes have more social institutions, such as a chief or elders. More permanent than bands. Many tribes are sub-divided into bands.

who holds the power

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Chiefdom – larger than both band and tribe. More authoritarian in nature where power are centered to single lineage/family perhaps with elite class as the ruling class in the form of families or 'houses'. A stage like hierarchy comprises of several tiers. Extended to several villages under the paramount chief.

Political System?

Law?

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POLITICAL SYSTEM

Empires – a very large location of land and waters under the control of a single ruler who control under one religion and always are at war with their neighboring empire or state.

who holds the power

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Sovereign state – defined territory with general population of residence in permanent nature. Ability to enter into diplomatic relationship with other sovereign states.

Political System?

Law?

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POLITICAL SYSTEM

Supranational political systems – A group of nations joining force to achieve a common goal or gain strength from forming such an alliance.

who holds the power

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END CLASS

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Topic 2 Modern Law and Politics

Mohd Haris bin Abdul Rani

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TOPIC 2 MODERN LAW AND POLITICS

Legal and Political System Legal and Political Culture and Obligation Legal and Political Socialisation Legal and Political Change

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TOPIC 2 > WHAT IS POLITICAL CULTURE?

First is the understanding of what is Culture? What is then Political Culture? Who came up with this term? Why is it important to them? Why is it important to us who study law?

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TOPIC 2 > POLITICAL CULTURE

What is Culture? The way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time Cambridge Dictionary

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Wikipedia

Wikipedia

Wikipedia

Wikipedia

What is Political Culture? Political culture, in political science, a set of shared views and normative judgments held by a population regarding its political system Britannica

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117 AD

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TOPIC 2 > POLITICAL CULTURE

Remember Political System?

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Wikipedia

Wikipedia

Wikipedia

Wikipedia

Political culture, in political science, a set of shared views and normative judgments held by a population regarding its political system Britannica

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TOPIC 2 > POLITICAL CULTURE

The notion of political culture does not refer to attitudes toward specific actors, such as a president or prime minister, but rather denotes how people view the political system as a whole and their belief in its legitimacy. Britannica

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Lucian Pye defined political culture as the composite of basic values, feelings, and knowledge that underlie the political process. Hence, the building blocks of political culture are the beliefs, opinions, and emotions of the citizens toward their form of government. Britannica

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TOPIC 2 > POLITICAL CULTURE

Angry Trump supporters protest election outcome at Roundhouse

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Who came up with this term? Historians, Political Scientist, Literary scholar (Philology), Anthropologist

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TOPIC 2 > POLITICAL CULTURE

Why is it important to them? In a parochial political culture, citizens are only indistinctly aware of the existence of central government. In a subject political culture, citizens see themselves not as participants in the political process but as subjects of the government. In a participant political culture, citizens believe both that they can contribute to the system and that they are affected by it.

Gabriel Almond and Sydney Verba (political scientists)