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National Defence University of Malaysia Kewajipan Maruah

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Palm Kernel Shell as Partial Coarse Aggregate Replacement in Asphalt Mixture: Optimum Binder Content and Volumetric Properties Investigation

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12.2 Types of Outlines – Stand up, Speak out

OUTLINE

Introduction Problem Statement Objectives Methodology Results & discussion Conclusion & recommendation

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INTRODUCTION

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Crocodile crack

Rutting

Stripping

PAVEMENT FAILURE

EXAMPLE OF AGRICULTURE WASTE:

HOW TO REDUCE AGRICULTURE WASTE IN MALAYSIA Use as modifying in asphalt mixture.

Coconut shell

periwinkle shell

Palm kernel shell

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PROBLEM STATEMENT

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The road construction sector is facing pavement failure such as fatigue, rutting, stripping and cracking.

The high costs for road construction of conventional mineral aggregates.

Too many waste agriculture in Malaysia.

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WHAT IS PKS ??

Confused emoticon with speech bubble Royalty Free Vector

Palm kernel shells (or PKS) are the shell fractions left after the nut has been removed after crushing in the palm oil mill

PALM KERNEL SHELL PROCESS

Palm tree

Factory

Palm oil tree

palm oil fruit before process

Industry process

Palm kernel shell

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WHY PKS??

MALAYSIA’S BIOMASS POTENTIAL

Kyoto Oil & Grains | Palm Kernel Shells (PKS)

Annually, a minimum of 168 million tonnes of biomass waste is generated in Malaysia ( Agamuthu et al., 2009 ).

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By 2010, up to 4.5 million hectares of land is cultivated with oil palm. With more than 423 mills in Malaysia, this industry generated around 80 million dry tonnes of biomass in 2010 (Besustenablemagazine.com).

Kyoto Oil & Grains | Palm Kernel Shells (PKS)

Therefore , PKS is good alternative materials to be used for asphalt mixture modification.

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BENEFIT OF PKS

PKS are a fibrous material and can be easily handled in bulk directly from the product line to the end use. Given its high energy content (14-20GJ/t) and the fact that it is a waste product. PKS is a relatively cheap source of biomass fuel. Chemical Free Comes from sustainable source.

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STUDIES ON PKS

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AUTHOR NDOKE (2006) • (Marshall Method) • 50 blows Olutaiwo et al.(2015) • (Marshall Method) • 50 blows Olutaiwo et al. (2015) • (Marshall Method) • 50 blows TITLE Performance of Palm Kernel Shells as a Partial replacement for Coarse Aggregate in Asphalt Concrete (penetration grade 60-70) re—rnt Experimental evaluation of the effects of partial replacement of coarse aggregate with Graded Palm Kernel Shell in Asphaltic Wearing Course ( Investigation of the Effects of Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate with Graded Palm Kernel Shell in Asphaltic Binder Course (The bitumen 60/70 pen.) PERCENT OF PKS 10, 20, 30, 50 and PKS partial replacement at coarse aggregate 0%, 30%, 50%, and 100% PKS partial replacement at coarse aggregate 30%, 50%, and 100% PKS partial replacement at coarse aggregate RESULT • PKS can be used as partial replacement for coarse aggregate upto 10% for heavily trafficked roads. • for light trafficked roads. up in Lttlt•mc 30% PKS meets the criteria provided in the Asphalt Institute Standard Specification. • It was observed that for medium trafficked roads PKS between 10%-30% by weight of coarse aggregate can be used for the replacement while even 100% replacement is possible for lightly trafficked rural roads. ad 1" of —n • effective optimum quantity of PKS replacement at 50% replacement in binder asphalt. • PKS here can be used under medium traffic and definitelywith a road carrying a light traffic.

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OBJECTIVES

To determine the optimum binder content (OBC) for unmodified and PKS modified asphalt mixture.

To compare volumetric properties of PKS asphalt mixture to JKR/SPJ/2008-S4 specification.

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MATERIALS

Jet Fuel,Diesel,Lpg,Lng,Bitumen - Buy Bitumen 60 70,Solid Bitumen,Shell Bitumen Product on Alibaba.com

60/70 PEN grade asphalt

PKS: 10, 20, 30 % PKS as partial replacement in Coarse Aggregate - Replace at sieve size at 5mm-14mm

surface asphalt mix pill

PKS modified asphalt mixture

Compacted at 75 blow- M arsahll Mix design method (heavy traffic)

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GRADATION LIMITS FOR AGGREGATE

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Gradation Limits For Asphaltic Concrete

Mix Type Wearing Course Mix Designation AC 14 BS Sieve Size (mm) Percentage Passing by Weight 28   20 100 14 90-100 10 76-86 5 50-62 3.35 40-54 1.18 18-34 0.425 12-24 0.15 6-14 0.075 4-8

Asphalt content in design of pavement (JKR/SPJ/2008-S4)

TYPE AND SIZE COURSE ASPHALT CONTENT AC 14- Wearing Course 4.0-6.0%

METHODOLOGY

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PROPOSED MIX GRADATION VS AC14

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P roperties of PKS

Properties Unit Value Bulk Density mg/m3 0.74 Dry Density mg/m3 0.65 Porosity % 28.00 Void ratio - 0.40 Total moisture(ARB) % 12.00-14.00 Impact Value % 4.50 Specific Value - 1.62

Physical properties of 60/70 penetration grade asphalt.

Properties Unit specification Value Standard Test Method P enetration at 25˚C 0.1 mm 60-70 66 ASTM D5 S oftening ˚C 47-52 49 ASTM D36 V iscosity at 135˚C mPa.s - 550 ASTM D113 Ductility at 25˚C cm >100 100 ASTM D4402 Specific gravity - 1.0 - 1.06 1.03 ASTM D70

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MIX DESIGN

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Heat to temp 160˚C, then can start to mix

Put in mold and wait tempt decrease to 145˚C

Marshall Mix design method compacted at 75 blow for each face. Design for heavy traffic.

Three sample for each binder content

Coarse aggregates (size 5mm-14mm) were replaced with PKS

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[Audio] The average value of bulk specific gravity, stability, flow, VFA and VTM obtained above shall be plotted separately against the bitumen content and a smooth curve drawn through the potted value. The mean optimum bitumen content shall be determine by averaging five optimum bitumen contents so determine as follows:

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HOW TO DETERMINE OBC??

Plots of DENSITY, STABILITY, VTM, VFA AND FLOW

Peak of curve taken from the stability graph.

Flow equal to 3 mm from the flow graph .

Peak of curve taken from the bulk specific gravity graph.

VFA equal to 75% for wearing course from the VFA graph.

VTM equal to 4.0% for wearing coarse from the VTM graph.

Void in Total M ix (VTM) Void Filled with Asphalt (VFA)

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

eQ

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[Audio] The first sample produced is the unmodified asphalt mixture were present by graph at side. The results of volumetric properties of the 0-PKS asphalt In order to determine the OBC, optimum value from density, stability and flow graph while average value of VFA and VTM were selected. Next, the average value from these properties were taken as OBC percentage which is 5.4%

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OPTIMUM BINDER CONTENT (OBC) FOR 0-PKS

OBC FOR 0-PKS = 5.4%

Stability against asphalt content

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[Audio] In order to determine the OBC, optimum value from density, stability and flow graph while average value of VFA and VTM were selected. Next, the average value from these properties were taken as OBC percentage which is 5.30%.

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OPTIMUM BINDER CONTENT (OBC) FOR 10-PKS

Parameter Asphalt content (%) Optimum value for density 5.60 4% value for VTM 5.55 75% value for VFA 5.65 3mm value for flow 4.15 Optimum value for stability 5.50 OBC (%) 5.30

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OPTIMUM BINDER CONTENT (OBC) FOR 20-PKS

Parameter Asphalt content (%) Optimum value for density 5.70 4% value for VTM 5.54 75% value for VFA 5.60 3mm value for flow 4.20 Optimum value for stability 5.55 OBC (%) 5.32

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OPTIMUM BINDER CONTENT (OBC) FOR 30-PKS

Parameter Asphalt content (%) Optimum value for density 5.85 4% value for VTM 5.80 75% value for VFA 5.80 3mm value for flow 4.40 Optimum value for stability 5.80 OBC (%) 5.53

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[Audio] Based on the results, 30- PKS exhibits the highest OBC value which is 5.53 compared to 0-PKS, 10-PKS, and 20-PKS.

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COMPARISON OF OBC FOR UNMODIFIED ASPHALT MIXTURE AND MODIFIED ASPHALT MIXTURE

Comparison of OBC value for unmodified and modified asphalt mixture

TYPE OBC 0-PKS 5.40 10% PKS 5.30 20% PKS 5.32 30% PKS 5.53

The trend of PKS modified asphalt mixture is inclining from 10-PKS to 30-PKS by 4.3%. However the OBC for 10-PKS and 20-PKS is lower than control sample by 1.82% and 1.48% respectively

Objective 1 achieved

Highest

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VOLUMETRIC PROPERTIES OF UNMODIFIED AND MODIFIED ASPHALT MIXTURE AT VARYING ASPHALT PERCENTAGE

From the result beside it can be concluded that all the value volumetric properties for 30-PKS are highest than 0-PKS. Based on previous research, the results at 30-PKS meets the right criteria had provided in Asphalt Institute Standard Specification and also the replacement between 10-PKS to 30-PKS by weight coarse aggregate can be used for medium trafficked road ( Olutaiwo et al., 2015 ). Accordance to Ndoke , (2014), recommended that up to 10-PKS replacement can be used for heavily trafficked road.

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COMPARISON OF VOLUMETRIC PROPERTIES FOR 0-PKS, 10-PKS, 20-PKS AND 30-PKS AT OBC VALUE WITH PUBLIC WORK DEPARTMENT ( JKR SPECIFICATION)

PARAMETER JKR/SPJ/2008-S4 0-PKS 10-PKS 20-PKS 30-PKS REMARKS Stability, S >8000 N 11479 N 12708 N 9242N 11440 N OK Flow, F 2.0 - 4.0 mm 3.098 mm 3.717 mm 3.62 mm 3.56 mm OK Stiffness, S/F > 2000 N/mm 3705 N/mm 3419 N/mm 2553 N/mm 3213 N/mm OK VTM 3.0 - 5.0 % 4.82% 4.96% 4.04% 4.18% OK VFA 70 - 80 % 70.21% 72.91% 74.22% 73.55% OK

Result for all samples are in between the limitation stated in JKR/SPJ/2008-S4. Therefore , replacement of PKS at 10-PKS, 20-PKS and 30-PKS is acceptable for asphalt mixture design.

Objective 2 achieve

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CONCLUSION

The OBC value for unmodified asphalt mixture is 5.40% while for 10-PKS, 20-PKS and 30-PKS are 5.30%, 5.32%, 5.53% respectively. The trend shows an increment in the OBC value for PKS asphalt mixture and all volumetric properties value are within the JKR/SPJ/2008/S4 specifications. This is in good agreement with previous study done by ( Olutaiwo et al., 2015) that used 10-PKS for heavily trafficked roads and 30-50-PKS for medium trafficked road.

PKS has a potential as an alternative material for coarse aggregate replacement in asphalt mixture

since it is cheaper,

locally available and

suitable for sustainable pavement construction.

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[Audio] This project also is conducted to meet the United National sustainable development goals specifically goal number 9, 11, 12, 13, and 15 for a better and sustainable life in future.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

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tt"it SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 17 GOALS TO TRANSFORM OUR SIXtAIN.Attt GOALS

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Siti Zubaidah Mohd Asri , Ts Faridah Hanim Khairuddin , Dr Ng Choy Peng, Dr Noor Aina Misnon , Prof Madya Ir Dr Nur Izzi Md Yusoff , Ahmad Nazrul Hakimi Ibrahim, Gunalan Vasudevan

UPNM(FRGS/1/2020/TK0/UPNM/03/4) UKM(DIP-2020-003)

Financial Support

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THANK YOU !

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