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ST. CHARLES HIGH SCHOOL

2020 - 2021

Topic: SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY

VII A Group 2

HISTORY PROJECT

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BY- Gnanasri Gangichetty,Harshini S, Hima Gowri S, Maria Sheril S, Molly Nathania L, Najmus Sahar , Naomi Maria P, Pragati D and Rekapalli Navya.

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1. Introduction

2. Decline Of the Roman Empire

3. Byzantine Empire

4. King Justinian and The fall of the Byzantine Empire

5. Spread of Christianity

6. Crusades

8. Monasteries

10. Conclusion

11. Bibliography

12.  Acknowledgement

7. Consequences of the Crusades

9. Impact Of Monasteries

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INTRODUCTION

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The Spread Of Christianity

When we say Christianity the first thing that comes to our mind is Lord Jesus Christ and Christmas , which is the birthday of Jesus .

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It is celebrated worldwide on the 25 th of December every year. But did you ever wonder how Christianity became so popular that Everybody knows about it?

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“Although Jesus Christ died Christianity did not.” Christianity began in the 1 st century AD after Jesus died and resurrected, as a small group of Jewish people in Judea , but quickly spread throughout the Roman empire by the role of Emperor Constantine and St Peter.

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Peter the Apostle , whose original name was Simeon or Simon , in the Early Christian church he was recognized as the leader of the 12 disciples and by the Roman Catholic Church as the first of its unbroken succession of popes. St Peter travelled far and wide to spread Christianity .

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Despite early persecution of Christians, Christianity later became the state religion as the Roman Emperor Theodosius declared it as the state religion in 392 CE.

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Emperor Charlemagne made many efforts to spread Christianity throughout Europe . Charlemagne gave out money and land to the Christian church and also protected the popes. As a way to acknowledge Charlemagne’s power and reinforce his relationship with the church, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans .

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All these efforts has made Christianity the largest religion of the world today. It is known to every nook and corner of the world. Let  us study about  the spread of Christianity in this presentation.

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After the death of the Roman Emperor Constantine ,   the later rulers were weak and so the inner workings of the Roman   Empire began to decline starting around 200 AD. By 400 AD Rome was   struggling under the weight of its giant empire. The city of Rome finally   fell in 476 AD. Rome reached its peak of power in the 2 nd century around the year 117 AD under the rule of the great Roman emperor Trajan. The main   factors that led to the fall of the Roman Empire are : The continuous raids of the Barbarian tribes : The roman Empire had fought   against the barbarians many times on its borders. But by the 30’s, the Barbarian tribes had entered inside the kingdom. Due to which it was very tough for the Romans to defend them. Weakening of the emperor’s authority : After Christianity the Emperor was no longer seen as a god. Money wasting – the Romans wasted a lot of money on lavish parties, as well as their yearly “games”

DECLINE OR FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

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• Slave labor and price competition – Large, wealthy farm owners used slaves to work their farms,  allowing them to farm cheaply, in contrast to smaller farmers who had to pay their workmen  and could not compete price wise. Farmers had to sell their farms, leading to high  unemployment figures. .

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I n 527 CE, Justinian I came to the throne in Constantinople. He dreamed of reconquering the lands of the Western Roman Empire and ruling a single, united Roman Empire from his seat in Constantinople. The western conquests began in 533, as Justinian sent his general, Belisarius, to reclaim the former province of Africa from the Vandals, who had been in control since 429 with their capital at Carthage. Belisarius successfully defeated the Vandals and claimed Africa for Constantinople. Next, Justinian sent him to take Italy from the Ostrogoths in 535 CE. Belisarius defeated the Ostrogoths in a series of battles and reclaimed Rome. By 540 CE, most of Italy was in Justinian’s hands. He sent another army to conquer Spain. Justinian also undertook many important projects at home. Much of Constantinople was burned down early in Justinian’s reign after a series of riots called the Nika riots. The riots were put down, and Justinian set about rebuilding the city on a grander scale. His greatest accomplishment was the Hagia Sophia, the most important church of the city. The Hagia

KING JUSTINIAN

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Sophia was a staggering work of Byzantine architecture, intended to awe all who set foot in the church. It was the largest church in the world for nearly a thousand years, and for the rest of Byzantine history it was the center of Christian worship in Constantinople. Emperor Justinian’s most important contribution, perhaps, was a unified Roman legal code. Prior to his reign, Roman laws had differed from region to region, and many contradicted one another.  Justinian set up a commission of lawyers to put together a  single code, listing each law by subject so that it could be  easily referenced. This not only served as the basis for law  in the Byzantine Empire, but it was the main influence on  the Catholic Church’s development of canon law, and went  on to become the basis of law in many European countries. Justinian’s law code continues to have a major influence on public international law to this day. The impact of a more unified legal code and military conflicts was the increased ability for the Byzantine Empire to establish trade and improve their economic standing. Byzantine merchants traded not only all over the Mediterranean region, but also throughout regions to the east. These included areas around the Black Sea, the Red Sea, and the Indian Ocean.

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The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to 330 A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell in 476 A.D., the eastern half survived for 1,000 more years, spawning a rich tradition of art, literature and learning and serving as a military buffer between Europe and Asia. The Byzantine Empire finally fell in 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople during the reign of Constantine XI

Decline Of The Byzantine Empire

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Since Christians were increasingly persecuted by the state, and ostracized by their pagan neighbors for not worshipping the gods, it is difficult to understand how the religion became dominant in the Roman Empire. There are a number of factors to account for the growing popularity of Christianity in the Roman Empire, though it is hard to tell which factors were the most important. First, of course, is genuine faith and conviction. Many seem to have been genuinely attracted to Christianity’s message of salvation, forgiveness, and eternal life. At the same time, the era of the early church, especially the third century, was a time of chaos and upheaval. The same events that led some to blame Christianity for disaster may have encouraged others to accept Christianity. As plague and barbarian invasions made life short and uncertain, the promises of Christianity may have seemed particularly appealing. In addition, Christians seem to have taken better care of the sick, especially plague victims, whom others avoided out of concern for their own health. This altruism may have encouraged converts, especially among those who were successfully healed.

Spread of Christianity

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Christians also showed great generosity to the poor, who were largely overlooked by the Roman state. Many of the poor probably became very loyal to Christianity because of the support they received from Christians. Indeed, the Christian message of faith, charity, and equality before God likely appealed to the dispossessed in Roman society. The second-century pagan writer Celsus criticized Christianity for being a religion of women, slaves, and children. Women, in particular, were given status in the early church that they did not usually enjoy in ancient society, and in many regards they were treated as equals of men. Women could serve as deaconesses, and Christianity seems to have been particularly popular among women. Since women tended to do the majority of the child rearing in ancient households, the popularity of Christianity among women may have led to it being passed on to future generations. Another important factor in the spread of Christianity may have been the persecutions themselves. Christians often made spectacles of their unwillingness to worship the gods in public trials, and used these events to voice Christian doctrine. When they were sentenced to be executed, the Christians faced their deaths with fearless resolve, which may have provided an example to the populace of the power of the faith and the conviction of its adherents.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups. In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between 1096 and 1291. The bloody, violent and often ruthless conflicts propelled the status of European Christians, making them major players in the fight for land in the Middle East. Reasons for the Crusades In 1093, the Byzantine emperor asked for help. The Muslim Turks had Attacked the Holy Land of Palestine and taken over Jerusalem. People across Europe decided to support the Crusades. Some joined because Christian Pilgrims could not visit the Holy Land. Some European kings and the Church Also wanted to get rid of troublesome knights. Princes joined in, hoping to Become famous. Merchants wanted trade routes to the East.

CRUSADES

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The First Crusade reached the Byzantine Empire in 1096 and captured key Cities including Jerusalem. After their victory, the Crusaders divided the Holy Land into four states. When Muslim Turks recaptured one, a second Crusade Returned in 1147. It was defeated at Damascus, but the Crusaders kept the Other three states. When the Muslim leader Saladin captured Jerusalem in 1189, the pope called For a third Crusade, led by Richard the Lion-Hearted. Saladin and Richard Made a treaty. Muslims kept Jerusalem, but Christian pilgrims could travel There safely. When this truce failed, a fourth Crusade set off in 1202. It did Not reach Palestine, but attacked Constantinople instead. Later Crusades had Little effect.  Effects of the Crusades The Crusades caused a shift in power in Europe. The failures of the Crusades Weakened the pope’s power. The feudal system also was weakened as many Nobles did not return from the Crusades. This strengthened the position of Kings. As trade with Asia developed, towns grew, and merchants became More powerful. The Crusades led Europeans to think that all non-Christians were enemies. Christian persecution of Jews in Europe worsened.

CRUSADES

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Monastery was a building, or buildings, where people lived and worshiped, devoting their time and life to God. The people who lived in the monastery were called monks. The monastery was self-contained, meaning everything the monks needed was provided by the monastery community. They made their own clothes and grew their own food. They had no need for the outside world. This way they could be somewhat isolated and could focus on God. There were monasteries spread throughout Europe during the Middle Ages.  Why were they important?  The monks in the monasteries were some of the only people in the Middle Ages who knew how to read and write. They provided education to the rest of the world. The monks also wrote books and recorded events. If it wasn’t for these books, we would know very little about what happened during the Middle Ages.

MONASTERIES

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The impact of monasteries in Europe/ Medieval Europe was: 1. Monasteries played an important role in spreading the teaching of Lord Jesus Christ and Christianity. Christianity thus became a popular religion in Europe. 2. Monasteries provided food and shelter to the needy people. Monks and nuns taught children and treated the sick and poor. 3. Monks residing in the monasteries studied various religious and secular subjects. Monasteries in due course of time became great centres of religious and secular learning. Many subjects such as history, geography, mathematics, science and philosophy were taught here. Some of the famous monasteries developed into famous universities like Oxford and Cambridge. 4. Monasteries emerged as the centres of art and architecture. They encouraged architecture, woodcarving, mural painting, art of making stained glass, etc. 5. Monasteries had their own land and brought some barren lands under cultivation.

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CONCLUSION

I n the study of God's mission as a word-event  in an age of World Christianity , we have constructed the study of religious missions and their methods and purposes of God's narrative through the word-event in the public sphere, taking seriously about the God's narrative through the bible or the gospels. In this project, we have considered and engaged in the reality of the World Christianity in multi-cultural, indigenous and the movement of Christianity.  Throughout the years millions of people  have  died, killed, and discriminated ethnic groups for the hope of a paradise when they die.   Christianity has been very adaptable through history by changing to suit of the current beliefs, however the church’s changes to suit certain circumstances have resulted in groups of people suffering and dying. Ultimately, the church has gained an incredible following through these changes though these changes hurt about humanity overall the world . A relevance of Christian mission is elaborated as we develop the public dimension of preaching the gospels, socioeconomic justice, ecological sustainability, and the Jewish- Christian renewal and the development of societies in modern period and  studying about the time and place of an event.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

We have referred the information typed in this presentation from the following books:

EFFECTIVE HISTORY AND CIVICS- CLASS VII

The information contained in this presentation is referred from the following links:

https://www.coursehero.com/file/p3nlq7i/In-conclusion-the-rise-of-Christianity-over-time-has-had-many-flaws-and/ https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-middle-east/byzantine-empire https://www.ducksters.com/history/middle_ages_monastery.php#:~:text=A%20monastery%20was%20a%20building,the%20monastery%20were%20called%20monks.&text=This%20way%20they%20could%20be,Europe%20during%20the%20Middle%20Ages https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/crusades https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldhistory/chapter/justinian-and-theodora/

https://www.coursehero.com/file/p3nlq7i/In-conclusion-the-rise-of-Christianity-over-time-has-had-many-flaws-and/ https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-middle-east/byzantine-empire https://www.ducksters.com/history/middle_ages_monastery.php#:~:text=A%20monastery%20was%20a%20building,the%20monastery%20were%20called%20monks.&text=This%20way%20they%20could%20be,Europe%20during%20the%20Middle%20Ages https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/crusades https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldhistory/chapter/justinian-and-theodora/

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First and foremost Iwe would like to thank my TEACHERS Mrs. Kavita and Mrs. Theresa Pushpa for giving us this opportunity to do this presentation. We have got a lot of knowledge about “THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY” Secondly we would like to thank  GOD for giving us knowledge to do this presentation. We would like to congratulate each other of our team for being cooperative. We are happy with our outcome. We hope that others also like it. Thank you!!!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

Rekapalli  Navya