Health Promotion program proposal for Homelessness in Australia

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Health Promotion program proposal for Homelessness in Australia

Assignment 1: NUR534 Shristi Thapa 345455

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What is Health Promotion Program? Who is defined to be homeless? Statistics Programs to improve health of targeted group i . e homeless people

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[Audio] Homelessness in Australia means a situation in which a person does not have a suitable accommodation for example, is living in insufficient living space such as adapted housing or tents, surviving in social housing, residing with other homes, using residence halls or other rented shelters, or living in overly crowded rooms (" HOMELESS STATISTICS – Sheltered by Grace", 2021).


Health promotion Health promotion is a method to create ability to enhance and promote people's quality of life ( Clendon & Munns , 2019 ). Who is defined to be homeless? a person does not have a suitable accommodation Example: living in insufficient living space. using residence halls or other rented shelters ("HOMELESS STATISTICS – Sheltered by Grace", 2021)

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[Audio] Over 116,000 individuals in Australia were considered homeless according to the census conducted  in 2016 among which 58%- men, 21% -25- 34 years, and 20%-ATSI Australian. About 51,000 ( 44%) lived in heavily occupied homes. More than 21,000 ( 18%) lived in aided community centers, while 8,200 ( 7%) resorted in rough sleeping sites ( ABS, 2016).


Acc. to 2016 census: 116,000 individuals were considered homeless 51,000 (44%) lived in heavily occupied homes 21,000 (18%) lived in aided community centers, 8,200 (7%) resorted in rough sleeping sites (ABS, 2016).

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Health care programs for homelessness

Specialist homelessness Services (SHS ) ("Specialist Homelessness Services", 2021) 2. The Housing First strategy 3. RDNS Homeless Persons Program (HPP ) ("Health & Homelessness", 2021)

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Health care programs for homelessness

Redcross homelessness service ("Homelessness services", 2021 ) Mental health services in Australia( Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2021)

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Factors Affecting Health Of Homeless People

There are numerous elements that impacts the health of homeless people depending on their condition. Some of them are listed below: Economic Status Health Illiteracy Health Service Accessibility Nutrition Deficiency Cultural Belief (Davies & Wood, 2018)

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Economic Status

Being a Homeless is one of the outcome of low economic status. Low income or lack of source of income has a direct impact on accessibility to health care services ( Mucci et al., 2016 ). It decrease their intake of nutritional diets as a result immune system of those individuals becomes weak which makes them prone to infectious and communicable diseases ( Volkos & Symvoulakis , 2021 ). Financial crisis can also induce stress, anxiety, depression and many other psychological illness ( Volkos & Symvoulakis , 2021).

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2. Accessibility to health services

Access to physical medical services D ifficulties reaching providers S afety of medicines and affordable health care . Feelings of being evaluated might contribute to obstacles to primary care access ( Davies & Wood, 2018 ).

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3. Health Service Illiteracy

Lack of proper knowledge about health care process and body system can result in disruption of physical and mental health of individual The only way to enhance patient safety, particularly during the epidemics and pandemics, is through patient education. Proper modifications of health-care action will significantly enhance the health impacts, not only for health workers but also for the wider population, hence enhancing the potency of the health platform which is the foundation for developing our community . ( Priya B et al., 2021)

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4. Nutritional Deficiency

Lack of a highly nutritious food will certainly have an adverse health impact on the homeless person if physical stressors arise from exposure to severe external circumstances such as exposure to harsh weather (Seale et al., 2016 ). Severe vitamin C, thiamine, and other nutrients may be insufficient in homeless individuals who consume alcohol ( Ijaz et al., 2017 ).

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5. Cultural Belief

Cultural beliefs such as fasting, being vegetarian (lack of animal protein) may result in weakened immunity of an individual (Wilson et al., 2018 ). The belief of being pure by not getting vaccinated can result in exposure to infectious microorganisms in future ( Dubé et al., 2021 ). Those convictions and health practice including organic food consumption, breast-feeding, exercise, supplementation and the restriction of contact with people in order to avoid vaccination ( Swaney & Burns, 2018 ).

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Aim of the proposal

To enhance the physical, mental and social health of homeless people around Australia

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Strategies on the basis of 5 key action of Ottawa Charter

Source: https ://

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Strategies on the basis of 5 key action of Ottawa Charter

Build healthy Public policy Mandatory Immunization of children Develop housing programs more aggressively ( Wood et al., 2016)

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2. Create Supportive Environment Create job opportunities for homeless Provide free health service Public health campaign (Goode et al., 2018)

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3. Strengthen community action psychosocial support and concerted care medical rehabilitation centers. (Van Straaten et al., 2016) 4. Develop personal skills Provide education related to healthy diet Educate people Training regarding infection control, hand hygiene, wound care ( Rutenfrans-Stupar et al., 2019)

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5. Reorient health services Provide training and education to health professionals regarding specialized treatment of homeless people ( Shulman et al., 2018 ). Revise and evaluate the existing health promotion programs for homelessness ( Jego et al., 2018 ). Effective implementation of existing programs such as stable housing, specialized homeless ( Kaur et al., 2021 ).

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Prevents future risk of infection and Chronic health condition Enhances health care outcomes Reduces financial load and expense Increases accessibility of health care services and clinical treatment

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Empowers, educates and motivates to stay informed and concerned regarding health information Create and maintains healthy relation among homeless with society Ensure safe, healthy and secured therapeutic treatment for homeless people

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The above mentioned health promotion program proposal is targeted to achieve within 5 years of timeline.

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References (2021). Retrieved 2021, from Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness, 2016 . Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2021). Retrieved 12 September 2021, from Davies, A., & Wood, L. (2018). Homeless health care: meeting the challenges of providing primary care.  Medical Journal Of Australia ,  209 (5), 230-234. Dubé , È., Ward, J., Verger, P., & MacDonald, N. (2021). Vaccine Hesitancy, Acceptance, and Anti-Vaccination: Trends and Future Prospects for Public Health.  Annual Review Of Public Health ,  42 (1), 175-191.

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Goode, J., Hoang, H., & Crocombe , L. (2018). Homeless adults' access to dental services and strategies to improve their oral health: a systematic literature review.  Australian Journal Of Primary Health ,  24 (4), 287. Health & Homelessness . (2021). Retrieved 2021, from HOMELESS STATISTICS – Sheltered by Grace . (2021). Retrieved 2021, from Homelessness services . (2021). Retrieved 2021, from

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Ijaz , S., Jackson, J., Thorley, H., Porter, K., Fleming, C., & Richards, A. et al. (2017). Nutritional deficiencies in homeless persons with problematic drinking: a systematic review.  International Journal For Equity In Health ,  16 (1). Jego , M., Abcaya , J., Ștefan , D., Calvet-Montredon , C., & Gentile, S. (2018). Improving Health Care Management in Primary Care for Homeless People: A Literature Review.  International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health ,  15 (2), 309. Kaur , H., Saad , A., Magwood , O., Alkhateeb , Q., Mathew, C., Khalaf , G., & Pottie , K. (2021). Understanding the health and housing experiences of refugees and other migrant populations experiencing homelessness or vulnerable housing: a systematic review using GRADE- CERQual .  CMAJ Open ,  9 (2), E681-E692.

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Mental health services in Australia, Specialist homelessness services - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare . Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2021). Retrieved 2021, from Mucci , N., Giorgi , G., Roncaioli , M., Fiz Perez, J., & Arcangeli , G. (2016). The correlation between stress and economic crisis: a systematic review.  Neuropsychiatric Disease And Treatment , 983. Priya B, S., Begum J, H., Priya M, Y., & Beevi , F. (2021). Health Illiteracy among General Populace on Face Mask Use: Vicious Factor during Pandemics.  Indian Journal Of Pharmacy Practice ,  14 (1), 60-61.

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Rutenfrans-Stupar , M., Van Der Plas , B., Den Haan , R., Regenmortel , T., & Schalk , R. (2019). How is participation related to well-being of homeless people? An explorative qualitative study in a Dutch homeless shelter facility.  Journal Of Social Distress And The Homeless ,  28 (1), 44-55. Seale, J., Fallaize , R., & Lovegrove , J. (2016). Nutrition and the homeless: the underestimated challenge.  Nutrition Research Reviews ,  29 (2), 143-151. Shulman , C., Hudson, B., Kennedy, P., Brophy , N., & Stone, P. (2018). Evaluation of training on palliative care for staff working within a homeless hostel.  Nurse Education Today ,  71 , 135-144. Specialist Homelessness Services . Family & Community Services. (2021). Retrieved 2021, from

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Swaney , S., & Burns, S. (2018). Exploring reasons for vaccine‐hesitancy among higher‐SES parents in Perth, Western Australia.  Health Promotion Journal Of Australia ,  30 (2), 143-152. Van Straaten , B., Rodenburg , G., Van der Laan , J., Boersma , S., Wolf, J., & Van de Mheen , D. (2016). Changes in Social Exclusion Indicators and Psychological Distress Among Homeless People Over a 2.5-Year Period.  Social Indicators Research ,  135 (1), 291-311. Volkos , P., & Symvoulakis , E. (2021). Impact of financial crisis on mental health: A literature review ‘puzzling’ findings from several countries.  International Journal Of Social Psychiatry , 002076402110112. Wilson, L., Rubens- Augustson , T., Murphy, M., Jardine , C., Crowcroft , N., Hui , C., & Wilson, K. (2018). Barriers to immunization among newcomers: A systematic review.  Vaccine ,  36 (8), 1055-1062.