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[Audio] 1 Activity No.: 1 FAMILIARIZATION OF COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT Experiment Title Introduction: The reason a chemical laboratory is safer than the average home is that laboratories and their contents have been carefully designed for safe operation. Safe practices may become routine to a welltrained chemical technician but they must always be applied consciously and regularly. The laboratory will be provided with equipment designed to help prevent accident from occurring. It is also necessary for you to be familiar with the proper names and uses of common laboratory apparatus and equipment. Objectives: 1. To sketch the common laboratory apparatus and equipment 2. To be familiar with the uses of the common laboratory apparatus and equipment Procedure: Job 1. Sketch the apparatus or equipment on the space provided. 1. BEAKER Use: dissolve, mix, heat liquids and carry out chemical reaction on a large scale. 2. BUNSEN BURNER Use: a source of heat. 3. BURETTE ( BURET) Use: employed for delivering liquid reagents. (With stopcock for controlling outflow of liquids.) 4. CAPILLARY TUBE Use: a. to determine the melting point of organic compounds b. to determine the surface tension of liquids. 5. CLAMP Use: supports laboratory apparatus during experiments. Kinds: a. BURET CLAMP – holds the buret in place during titration. b. UTILITY CLAMP – attaches the iron ring and other clamps to the iron stand. 6. CLAY TRIANGLE Use: supports crucibles when heating over a gas burner flame. 7. CRUCIBLE WITH COVER Use: serves as vessel to ignite substances at high temperature since it can withstand much higher temperature than glass. The cover is used to prevent loss of materials. 8. CRUCIBLE TONGS Use: handles hot crucibles and evaporating dishes. 9. DESICCATOR Use: keeps an object dry and protected from dust prior to weighing. 10. EVAPORATING OR CRYSTALLIZING DISH Use: serves as vessel to evaporate water from a solution and to obtain the solid material which remains.

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Activity No.: 1

FAMILIARIZATION OF COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT

Experiment Title

Introduction: The reason a chemical laboratory is safer than the average home is that laboratories and their

contents have been carefully designed for safe operation. Safe practices may become routine to a well- trained chemical technician but they must always be applied consciously and regularly. The laboratory will be provided with equipment designed to help prevent accident from

occurring. It is also necessary for you to be familiar with the proper names and uses of common laboratory apparatus and equipment. Objectives:

1. To sketch the common laboratory apparatus and equipment 2. To be familiar with the uses of the common laboratory apparatus and equipment

Procedure: Job 1. Sketch the apparatus or equipment on the space provided.

1. BEAKER

Use: dissolve, mix, heat liquids and carry out chemical reaction on a large scale.

2. BUNSEN BURNER

Use: a source of heat.

3. BURETTE (BURET)

Use: employed for delivering liquid reagents. (With stopcock for controlling outflow of liquids.)

4. CAPILLARY TUBE

Use: a. to determine the melting point of organic compounds b. to determine the surface tension of liquids.

5. CLAMP

Use: supports laboratory apparatus during experiments. Kinds:

a. BURET CLAMP – holds the buret in place during titration. b. UTILITY CLAMP – attaches the iron ring and other clamps to the iron stand.

6. CLAY TRIANGLE

Use: supports crucibles when heating over a gas burner flame.

7. CRUCIBLE WITH COVER

Use: serves as vessel to ignite substances at high temperature since it can withstand much higher temperature than glass. The cover is used to prevent loss of materials.

8. CRUCIBLE TONGS

Use: handles hot crucibles and evaporating dishes.

9. DESICCATOR

Use: keeps an object dry and protected from dust prior to weighing.

10. EVAPORATING OR CRYSTALLIZING DISH

Use: serves as vessel to evaporate water from a solution and to obtain the solid material which remains.

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[Audio] 2 11. FLASK Use/ Kinds: a. DISTILLING FLASK – round bottom flask with short or long side neck used for general reactions in distillation. b. ERLENMEYER FLASK - plain or graduated open flask for general reactions. c. FLORENCE FLASK – flat bottom round shaped usually used as wash bottles. d. VOLUMETRIC FLASK – is a flat bottomed and pear shaped with a long neck having a ring around it to indicate the point to which the flask must be filled to its rated volume at a given temperature. 12. FUNNEL Use: a. supports filter paper b. facilitates the introduction of liquids into narrow-necked glass wares to avoid spilling. 13. REAGENT BOTTLE Use: a. stores chemical reagents and samples b. dispenses small volume of liquids. 14. GRADUATED CYLINDER Use: measures out required volumes of liquids. 15. MORTAR AND PESTLE Use: grinds solids to powder 16. PIPET Use/ Kind a. TRANSFERRING PIPETTE – a glass tube with a bulb in the center and a ring mark above the bulb to indicate the volume of liquid. It is use to deliver exact volume of liquids from one vessel to another. b. MEASURING PIPETTE – a long glass tube, marked off over most of its length, it is use to measure volume of liquid accurately. 17. PIPET BULB Use: suctions liquids from reagent bottles 18. RING STAND AND IRON RING Use: mounts apparatus during experiments 19. ROD, GLASS OR STIRRING Use: stirs and mixes solutions in a container 20. SPATULA OR MEASURING SPOON Use: removes quantities of solids from reagent bottles or other containers 22. SPOTTING PLATE Use: for spot tests 23. STOPPER ( RUBBER & CORK) Use: covers reagent bottles and test tubes 24. TEST TUBE Use: a. to mix, dissolve, and hold liquids or solids b. collect gases in place of gas collection bottles 25. TEST TUBE BRUSH Use: clean test tubes. 26. TEST TUBE HOLDER Use: holds test tubes safely during heating

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11. FLASK

Use/Kinds: a. DISTILLING FLASK – round bottom flask with short or long side neck used for general

reactions in distillation.

b. ERLENMEYER FLASK - plain or graduated open flask for general reactions. c. FLORENCE FLASK – flat bottom round shaped usually used as wash bottles. d. VOLUMETRIC FLASK – is a flat bottomed and pear shaped with a long neck having a

ring around it to indicate the point to which the flask must be filled to its rated volume at a given temperature.

12. FUNNEL

Use: a. supports filter paper b. facilitates the introduction of liquids into narrow-necked glass wares to

avoid spilling.

13. REAGENT BOTTLE

Use: a. stores chemical reagents and samples

b. dispenses small volume of liquids.

14. GRADUATED CYLINDER

Use: measures out required volumes of liquids.

15. MORTAR AND PESTLE

Use: grinds solids to powder

16. PIPET

Use/Kind a. TRANSFERRING PIPETTE – a glass tube with a bulb in the center and a ring mark above the bulb to indicate the volume of liquid. It is use to deliver exact volume of

liquids from one vessel to another. b. MEASURING PIPETTE – a long glass tube, marked off over most of its length, it is use to measure volume of liquid accurately.

17. PIPET BULB

Use: suctions liquids from reagent bottles

18. RING STAND AND IRON RING

Use: mounts apparatus during experiments

19. ROD, GLASS OR STIRRING

Use: stirs and mixes solutions in a container

20. SPATULA OR MEASURING SPOON

Use: removes quantities of solids from reagent bottles or other containers

22. SPOTTING PLATE Use: for spot tests

23. STOPPER (RUBBER & CORK)

Use: covers reagent bottles and test tubes

24. TEST TUBE Use: a. to mix, dissolve, and hold liquids or solids b. collect gases in place of gas collection bottles

25. TEST TUBE BRUSH Use: clean test tubes.

26. TEST TUBE HOLDER Use: holds test tubes safely during heating

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[Audio] 3 27. TEST TUBE RACK Use: supports test tubes during experiments 28. THERMOMETER Use: measures temperature. 29. TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE Use: measures the mass of substances. 30. WATER or STEAM BATH Use: as container for hot or cold water bath. 31. WASH BOTTLE Uses: a. delivers into another container a small amount of distilled water b. washes precipitates 32. WATCH GLASS Uses: a. a vessel to evaporate liquids or cover other glassware b. a vessel to hold solid reagents during weighing 33. WIRE GAUZE Use: protects glass wares while being heated.

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27. TEST TUBE RACK Use: supports test tubes during experiments 28. THERMOMETER

Use: measures temperature.

29. TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE

Use: measures the mass of substances.

30. WATER or STEAM BATH Use: as container for hot or cold water bath.

31. WASH BOTTLE

Uses: a. delivers into another container a small amount of distilled water

b. washes precipitates

32. WATCH GLASS

Uses: a. a vessel to evaporate liquids or cover other glassware b. a vessel to hold solid reagents during weighing

33. WIRE GAUZE

Use: protects glass wares while being heated.

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[Audio] 4 Activity No.: 1 FAMILIARIZATION OF COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT Experiment Title Job 1. Sketch the apparatus or equipment on the space provided. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5a. 5b. 6. 7. 8.

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Activity No.: 1

FAMILIARIZATION OF COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT

Experiment Title

Job 1. Sketch the apparatus or equipment on the space provided.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5a.

5b.

6.

7.

8.

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[Audio] 5 9. 10 11-a 11b 11c 11d. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16a. 16b.

5

9.

10 11-a

11b

11c 11d.

12.

13. 14.

15.

16a. 16b.

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[Audio] 6 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

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17. 18. 19.

20. 21.

22.

23. 24. 25.

26.

27. 28.

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[Audio] 7 29 30. 31. 32. 33.

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29

30.

31.

32. 33.

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[Audio] 8 Activity No.: 2 COMMON LABORATORY MANIPULATION AND OPERATIONS Experiment Title Introduction: The aim of the experiment is to introduce to the students the common laboratory manipulations and operation and let them perform measurement of mass of a substance with the use of a triple beam balance and measurement of volume of liquids with the use of a graduated cylinder. They will also learn how to prepare solutions using the substances they have measured, and other laboratory operations such as precipitation, filtration, decantation and evaporation. Objectives: 1. To be familiar with the parts and operation of the triple beam balance 2. To measure the volume of liquids properly 3. To demonstrate the laboratory techniques and skills involved in common laboratory operations Materials: Funnel Test tube Wire gauze Test tube rack Glass rod Beaker, 50mL Watch glass Erlenmeyer flask, 250 mL Evaporating dish Graduated cylinder, 10 mL Filter paper Triple beam balance Sodium carbonate/ sulfate Crucible tong Barium chloride Electric stove Spatula Procedure: Job 1. Measurement of Mass a. Weigh about 0.4 gram of barium chloride on a watch glass. b. Weigh about 0.4 gram of sodium sulfate/carbonate on another watch glass. c. Set aside the weighed reagents for Job 3. Job 2. Measurement of Volume liquids a. Measure 10 ml distilled water using the graduated cylinder and transfer it to a clean test tube. Set aside b. Repeat letter a and transfer to another test tube. Job 3. Preparation of Solutions a. Dissolve the weighed barium chloride in the first test tube containing water. b. Dissolve the weighed sodium sulfate/carbonate in the second test tube containing water Job 4. Precipitation a. Mix the prepared barium chloride solution with the prepared sodium sulfate/carbonate in a beaker. Describe the result. Job 5. Filtration a. Separate the precipitate from the filtrate by carefully pouring the mixture with a glass rod into the filter paper. Record your observations.

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Activity No.: 2

COMMON LABORATORY MANIPULATION AND OPERATIONS

Experiment Title

Introduction: The aim of the experiment is to introduce to the students the common laboratory manipulations

and operation and let them perform measurement of mass of a substance with the use of a triple beam balance and measurement of volume of liquids with the use of a graduated cylinder. They will also learn how to prepare solutions using the substances they have measured, and

other laboratory operations such as precipitation, filtration, decantation and evaporation. Objectives:

1. To be familiar with the parts and operation of the triple beam balance 2. To measure the volume of liquids properly 3. To demonstrate the laboratory techniques and skills involved in common laboratory

operations

Materials:

Funnel Test tube

Wire gauze Test tube rack

Glass rod Beaker, 50mL

Watch glass Erlenmeyer flask, 250 mL

Evaporating dish Graduated cylinder, 10 mL

Filter paper

Triple beam balance Sodium carbonate/sulfate

Crucible tong Barium chloride

Electric stove

Spatula

Procedure: Job 1. Measurement of Mass

a. Weigh about 0.4 gram of barium chloride on a watch glass. b. Weigh about 0.4 gram of sodium sulfate/carbonate on another watch glass. c. Set aside the weighed reagents for Job 3.

Job 2. Measurement of Volume liquids

a. Measure 10 ml distilled water using the graduated cylinder and transfer it to a clean test tube. Set

aside

b. Repeat letter a and transfer to another test tube.

Job 3. Preparation of Solutions

a. Dissolve the weighed barium chloride in the first test tube containing water. b. Dissolve the weighed sodium sulfate/carbonate in the second test tube containing water

Job 4. Precipitation

a. Mix the prepared barium chloride solution with the prepared sodium sulfate/carbonate in a beaker.

Describe the result.

Job 5. Filtration

a. Separate the precipitate from the filtrate by carefully pouring the mixture with a glass rod into the

filter paper. Record your observations.

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[Audio] 9 Job 6. Decantation a. Transfer the precipitate into a test tube with the aid of 10 mL water. Let it stand for several minutes to allow the precipitate to settle to the bottom. b. Carefully pour off or decant the supernatant liquid. c. Can this decantation be used to separate the precipitate from the liquid in this particular case? Explain why. Job 7. Evaporation a. Transfer the filtrate to an evaporating dish and heat the dish carefully until crystals begin to appear. b. Cover with watch glass and allow the contents to cool. c. Describe the color and taste of the crystals formed.

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Job 6. Decantation

a. Transfer the precipitate into a test tube with the aid of 10 mL water. Let it stand for several

minutes to allow the precipitate to settle to the bottom.

b. Carefully pour off or decant the supernatant liquid. c. Can this decantation be used to separate the precipitate from the liquid in this particular case?

Explain why.

Job 7. Evaporation

a. Transfer the filtrate to an evaporating dish and heat the dish carefully until crystals begin to

appear.

b. Cover with watch glass and allow the contents to cool. c. Describe the color and taste of the crystals formed.

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[Audio] 10 Activity No.: 2 COMMON LABORATORY MANIPULATION AND OPERATIONS Experiment Title Job 1. Draw and label the parts of the triple beam balance. Job No. Observations 3 4 5 6 7 Conclusion:

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Activity No.: 2

COMMON LABORATORY MANIPULATION AND OPERATIONS

Experiment Title

Job 1. Draw and label the parts of the triple beam balance.

Job No.

Observations

3

4

5

6

7

Conclusion:

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[Audio] 11 Activity No.: 3 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES Experiment Title Introduction: As with the properties of a substance, the changes that substances undergo can be classified as either physical or chemical. During physical change a substance changes its physical appearance but not its composition, while in a chemical change a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance. The aim of this experiment is to let the student identify the changes that occur in every job and to differentiate between physical change and chemical change. Objectives: 1. To observe some chemical and physical changes of different substances 2. To differentiate chemical change from physical change Materials: Wire gauze I2 crystals Vinegar Evaporating dish Strip of copper Safety match Crucible tong 6N HNO3 NaHCO3 Watch glass NaCl crystals Sand Beaker Glass rod 0.1M Pb (C2H3O2)2 Test tubes Test tube rack 0.1M KI Test tube holder Graduated cylinder Propanol Triple beam balance Sugar crystals CuSO4.5H2O Procedure: 1.Place a small amount of iodine ( I2) crystal in a beaker and cover it with a watch glass containing ice cubes. Hold the beaker with a crucible tong and place it on top of a copper bath of boiling water. 2. Heat a small amount of NaCl in a test tube for two (2) minutes. 3. Heat strongly for three ( 3) minutes a small amount of sugar in an evaporating dish. 4. Heat a few grains of sand in a test tube for two ( 2) minutes. 5. Heat a few crystals of copper (II) sulfate in a test tube for three (3) minutes. 6. Place a strip of copper in the test tube containing 2ml of 6N HNO3. Set aside for ten ( 10) minutes. Observe. 7. Mix 2 mL of 0.1M Pb(C2H3O2)2 and 2 mL of 0.1M KI in the test tube. 8. Place 1 mL of propanol in an evaporating dish. Ignite it carefully with a lighted matchstick. 9. Place 5 drops of propanol in a watch glass. Set aside for ten (10) minutes. 10. Place 1.0 gram of sodium bicarbonate in a 50 mL beaker and add 5 mL of vinegar.

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Activity No.: 3

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

Experiment Title

Introduction: As with the properties of a substance, the changes that substances undergo can be classified as

either physical or chemical. During physical change a substance changes its physical appearance but not its composition, while in a chemical change a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance. The aim of this experiment is to let the student identify the changes that occur in every job and

to differentiate between physical change and chemical change.

Objectives:

1. To observe some chemical and physical changes of different substances 2. To differentiate chemical change from physical change

Materials: Wire gauze I2 crystals Vinegar

Evaporating dish Strip of copper Safety match

Crucible tong 6N HNO3 NaHCO3

Watch glass NaCl crystals Sand

Beaker Glass rod 0.1M Pb (C2H3O2)2

Test tubes Test tube rack 0.1M KI

Test tube holder Graduated cylinder Propanol

Triple beam balance Sugar crystals CuSO4.5H2O

Procedure:

1.Place a small amount of iodine (I2) crystal in a beaker and cover it with a watch glass containing

ice cubes. Hold the beaker with a crucible tong and place it on top of a copper bath of boiling water.

2. Heat a small amount of NaCl in a test tube for two (2) minutes.

3. Heat strongly for three (3) minutes a small amount of sugar in an evaporating dish.

4. Heat a few grains of sand in a test tube for two (2) minutes. 5. Heat a few crystals of copper (II) sulfate in a test tube for three (3) minutes.

6. Place a strip of copper in the test tube containing 2ml of 6N HNO3. Set aside for ten (10)

minutes. Observe.

7. Mix 2 mL of 0.1M Pb(C2H3O2)2 and 2 mL of 0.1M KI in the test tube.

8. Place 1 mL of propanol in an evaporating dish. Ignite it carefully with a lighted matchstick.

9. Place 5 drops of propanol in a watch glass. Set aside for ten (10) minutes. 10. Place 1.0 gram of sodium bicarbonate in a 50 mL beaker and add 5 mL of vinegar.

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[Audio] 12 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 3 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES Experiment Title Job no. Observations Type of Change 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Questions: 1. Differentiate chemical change from physical change.

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DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Activity No.: 3

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

Experiment Title

Job no. Observations Type of Change

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Questions:

1. Differentiate chemical change from physical change.

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[Audio] 13 2. Give two (2) examples for each of the following: Type of Change In the body In industry In the atmosphere Chemical change Physical change CONCLUSION:

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2. Give two (2) examples for each of the following:

Type of Change In the body In industry In the atmosphere

Chemical change

Physical change

CONCLUSION:

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[Audio] 14 Activity No.: 4 INVESTIGATION OF PERIODIC TRENDS Experiment Title Introduction: The periodic table is still the most significant tool for organizing and remembering chemical facts. The periodic nature of the table arises from the repeating patterns in the electron configurations of elements. Elements in the same column of the table contain the same number of electrons in their valence orbitals which leads to similarities in the properties of these elements In this experiment the students will explore how some important properties of elements change as they move across a row or down the column of the periodic table. In many cases the trend with in the row or column allow them to make predictions about the physical and chemical properties of the elements. Objectives: 1. To observe periodic trends experimentally 2. To identify trends in the relative solubility of compounds of Group II elements Materials: Test tubes Sulfur 1M Na2CO3 Test tube rack CaO 1M KOH Watch glass Mg ribbon 0.1M Ca(NO3)2 Glass rod Na3BO3 0.1M Sr(NO3)2 Graduated cylinder NaClO3 0.1M MgSO4 Glass tubing 0.1 M Pb(NO3)2 1M NaCl Cork stoppers Procedure: A. Acid-Base Property of Elements in Different Periods Job 1. Oxide of Calcium 1. Place approximately 10 mg of CaO in the test tube. 2. Add drop wise 1 mL (about 20 drops) of water. Stir the solution. 3. Test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper. Job 2. Oxide of Boron 1. Place about 10 mg of Na3BO3 in the test tube. 2. Add drop wise 1 mL water. Stir the solution. 3. Test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper Job 3. Oxide of Sulfur 1. Put enough amount of sulfur at the tip of the glass tubing. 2. Ignite the sulfur and immediately trap the resulting gas inside the test tube with a stopper. 3. Add 1 mL of water and test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper. Job 4. Oxide of Chlorine 1. Place approximately 10 mg of NaClO4 in the test tube. 2. Add drop wise 1 mL (about 20 drops) of water. Stir the solution. 3. Test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper.

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Activity No.: 4

INVESTIGATION OF PERIODIC TRENDS

Experiment Title

Introduction: The periodic table is still the most significant tool for organizing and remembering chemical

facts. The periodic nature of the table arises from the repeating patterns in the electron configurations of elements. Elements in the same column of the table contain the same number of electrons in their valence orbitals which leads to similarities in the properties of these elements In this experiment the students will explore how some important properties of elements change

as they move across a row or down the column of the periodic table. In many cases the trend with in the row or column allow them to make predictions about the physical and chemical properties of the elements. Objectives:

1. To observe periodic trends experimentally 2. To identify trends in the relative solubility of compounds of Group II elements

Materials: Test tubes Sulfur 1M Na2CO3

Test tube rack CaO 1M KOH

Watch glass Mg ribbon 0.1M Ca(NO3)2

Glass rod Na3BO3 0.1M Sr(NO3)2

Graduated cylinder NaClO3 0.1M MgSO4

Glass tubing 0.1 M Pb(NO3)2 1M NaCl

Cork stoppers

Procedure: A. Acid-Base Property of Elements in Different Periods Job 1. Oxide of Calcium

1. Place approximately 10 mg of CaO in the test tube. 2. Add drop wise 1 mL (about 20 drops) of water. Stir the solution. 3. Test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper.

Job 2. Oxide of Boron

1. Place about 10 mg of Na3BO3 in the test tube. 2. Add drop wise 1 mL water. Stir the solution. 3. Test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper

Job 3. Oxide of Sulfur

1. Put enough amount of sulfur at the tip of the glass tubing. 2. Ignite the sulfur and immediately trap the resulting gas inside the test tube with a stopper. 3. Add 1 mL of water and test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper.

Job 4. Oxide of Chlorine

1. Place approximately 10 mg of NaClO4 in the test tube. 2. Add drop wise 1 mL (about 20 drops) of water. Stir the solution. 3. Test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper.

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[Audio] 15 Job 5. Oxide of Magnesium 1. Ignite a piece of Magnesium ribbon. 2. Collect the ashes and place in a test tube. 3. Add drop wise 1 mL of water and stir the solution. 4. Test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper. B. Solubility Within A Family 1. Mark off four (4) test tubes with identification numbers (1-4). 2. Add 1 mL of 0.1M Ca(NO3)2 to the first test tube, 1 mL of Sr(NO3)2 to the second, 1 mL of 0.1M MgSO4 to the third and 1 mL of 0.1M Pb(NO3) 2. 2. Add 1 mL of 1M KOH to each test tube. Shake each test tube gently and wait about thirty ( 30) seconds. Note the color of all the precipitates. Record your observation. 3. Wash the test tubes carefully and rinse them with distilled water. 4. Repeat # 1-4 using 1M NaCl and 1M Na2CO3 instead of 1M KOH. CAUTION: DO NOT USE FINGER AS STOPPER.

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Job 5. Oxide of Magnesium 1. Ignite a piece of Magnesium ribbon. 2. Collect the ashes and place in a test tube.

3. Add drop wise 1 mL of water and stir the solution. 4. Test the resulting solution with red and blue litmus paper.

B. Solubility Within A Family

1. Mark off four (4) test tubes with identification numbers (1-4).

2. Add 1 mL of 0.1M Ca(NO3)2 to the first test tube, 1 mL of Sr(NO3)2 to the second, 1 mL of 0.1M

MgSO4 to the third and 1 mL of 0.1M Pb(NO3)2.

2. Add 1 mL of 1M KOH to each test tube. Shake each test tube gently and wait about thirty (30)

seconds. Note the color of all the precipitates. Record your observation.

3. Wash the test tubes carefully and rinse them with distilled water.

4. Repeat # 1-4 using 1M NaCl and 1M Na2CO3 instead of 1M KOH.

CAUTION: DO NOT USE FINGER AS STOPPER.

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[Audio] 16 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 4 INVESTIGATION OF PERIODIC TRENDS Experiment Title A. Acid- Base Property of Elements in Different Periods Reaction with Red Litmus Paper Reaction with Blue Litmus Paper Type of Oxide I. Oxide of Calcium II. Oxide of Boron III. Oxide of Sulfur IV. Oxide of Chlorine V. Oxide of Magnesium B. Solubility Within A Family Potassium hydroxide KOH Sodium chloride NaCl Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 Calcium nitrate Ca( NO3) 2 Strontium nitrate Sr(NO3)2 Magnesium sulfate MgSO4 Lead (II) nitrate Pb (NO3)2 CONCLUSION:

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DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Activity No.: 4

INVESTIGATION OF PERIODIC TRENDS

Experiment Title

A. Acid- Base Property of Elements in Different Periods Reaction with Red

Litmus Paper

Reaction with Blue

Litmus Paper Type of Oxide

I. Oxide of Calcium

II. Oxide of Boron

III. Oxide of Sulfur

IV. Oxide of Chlorine

V. Oxide of

Magnesium

B. Solubility Within A Family Potassium hydroxide

KOH

Sodium chloride

NaCl

Sodium carbonate

Na2CO3

Calcium nitrate

Ca(NO3)2

Strontium nitrate

Sr(NO3)2

Magnesium sulfate

MgSO4

Lead (II) nitrate

Pb (NO3)2

CONCLUSION:

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[Audio] 17 Labwork Instruction Sheet Activity No.: 5 NAMING & WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA Laboratory Activity Title Introduction: To obtain information about a particular substance, you must know its chemical formula and name. The names and formulas of compounds are essential vocabulary in chemistry. The system used in naming substances is called chemical nomenclature. There are more than 19 million known chemical substances. Naming them all would be a hopelessly complicated task, for most substances , however we rely on a systematic set of rules that lead to an informative and unique name for each substance, a name based on the composition of the substance. In this activity we consider the basic rules for naming inorganic compounds which are divided into two categories: binary compounds and ternary compounds which include molecular compounds, salts and acids. We will also learn how to write the formula of compounds following the steps in formula writing. Objective: 1. To be able to write the formula of compounds 2. To give the name of compounds Procedure: Job 1. Formula Writing: Using the steps given below, write the formula of the compounds in your data recovery sheet. Steps in Formula Writing 1. Write the chemical symbols of the elements or radicals involved in the formula of the compound. 2. Indicate the oxidation state of the elements or radicals involved. 3. Arrange the elements or radicals such that the element or radical with positive oxidation state is written first and the element or radical with negative oxidation state is written last. 4. Cross multiply the oxidation states such that the oxidation state of the element or radical with positive oxidation state becomes the subscript of the negative element and the oxidation state of the element or radical with negative oxidation state becomes the subscript of the positive element. Neglect the sign or charge of the oxidation state of the element or radical in the subscript. 5. Remove or eliminate the oxidation states of the element or radical in the superscripts. 6. Reduce the subscripts to the lowest whole number possible. If the subscript is one disregard it. If the radical is taken more than once, enclosed it in parenthesis or brackets. 7. Write the final chemical formula. Job 2. Naming of compounds: follow the rules given below and name the compounds in your data recovery sheet. Rules in naming of compounds A. Binary Compounds 1. Binary salts Binary salts are named by giving the name of the positive ion first followed by the name of the negative ion with the suffix " ide".

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Labwork Instruction Sheet

Activity No.: 5

NAMING & WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

Laboratory Activity Title

Introduction: To obtain information about a particular substance, you must know its chemical formula and

name. The names and formulas of compounds are essential vocabulary in chemistry. The system used in naming substances is called chemical nomenclature. There are more than 19 million known chemical substances. Naming them all would be a

hopelessly complicated task, for most substances , however we rely on a systematic set of rules that lead to an informative and unique name for each substance, a name based on the composition of the substance. In this activity we consider the basic rules for naming inorganic compounds which are divided

into two categories: binary compounds and ternary compounds which include molecular compounds, salts and acids. We will also learn how to write the formula of compounds following the steps in formula writing. Objective: 1. To be able to write the formula of compounds

2. To give the name of compounds

Procedure: Job 1. Formula Writing: Using the steps given below, write the formula of the compounds in your data

recovery sheet.

Steps in Formula Writing 1. Write the chemical symbols of the elements or radicals involved in the formula of the

compound.

2. Indicate the oxidation state of the elements or radicals involved.

3. Arrange the elements or radicals such that the element or radical with positive oxidation state is

written first and the element or radical with negative oxidation state is written last.

4. Cross multiply the oxidation states such that the oxidation state of the element or radical with

positive oxidation state becomes the subscript of the negative element and the oxidation state of the element or radical with negative oxidation state becomes the subscript of the positive element. Neglect the sign or charge of the oxidation state of the element or radical in the subscript.

5. Remove or eliminate the oxidation states of the element or radical in the superscripts.

6. Reduce the subscripts to the lowest whole number possible. If the subscript is one disregard it.

If the radical is taken more than once, enclosed it in parenthesis or brackets.

7. Write the final chemical formula.

Job 2. Naming of compounds: follow the rules given below and name the compounds in your data

recovery sheet.

Rules in naming of compounds A. Binary Compounds

1. Binary salts

Binary salts are named by giving the name of the positive ion first followed by the name of the negative ion with the suffix “ide”.

Scene 18 (31m 6s)

[Audio] 18 2. Binary molecular compounds These compounds are named by using the Greek prefixes " mono", " di", " tri", " tetr", " penta", etc. to indicate the number of atoms of each of the element. When the prefix ends in a or o and the name of the second element begins with a vowel ( e.g. oxide ), the prefix a or o is often dropped. The prefix mono is never used with the first element. If both elements are in the same group in the periodic table, the element having the higher atomic number is named first. 3. Binary acids Binary acids are named by adding the prefix hydro to the name of the acid-forming element and changing the ending to –ic followed by the word acid. B. Ternary Compounds 1. Ternary salts are named by giving the name of the positive ion or radical followed by the name of the negative ion or radical. 2. Ternary acids ( Oxyacids ) (a) Oxyacids are acids containing H, O and the acid-forming element. They are named by adding the suffixes – ic or – ous to the name of the acid forming element followed by the word acid. The suffix –ic is used to indicate the higher oxidation state of the element; the suffix –ous is used to denote the lower oxidation state of the element. (b) When there are more than two oxyacids of the same element, the acid wherein the non-metal exhibits a lower valence than ous acid uses the prefix hypo and the suffix ous. (c) The acid wherein the non-metal exhibits a higher valence than the ic acid acids used the prefix per and the suffix ic. 3. Ternary Bases or alkalies Bases or alkalies are compounds containing the hydroxide (OH-) ion. They are named by giving the name of the positive ion followed by the word hydroxide.

18

2. Binary molecular compounds

These compounds are named by using the Greek prefixes “mono”, “di”, “tri”, “tetr”, “penta”, etc. to indicate the number of atoms of each of the element. When the prefix ends in a or o and the name of the second element begins with a vowel ( e.g. oxide ), the prefix a or o is often dropped. The prefix mono is never used with the first element. If both elements are in the same group in the periodic table, the element having the higher atomic number is named first.

3. Binary acids

Binary acids are named by adding the prefix hydro to the name of the acid-forming element and changing the ending to –ic followed by the word acid.

B. Ternary Compounds

1. Ternary salts are named by giving the name of the positive ion or radical followed by

the name of the negative ion or radical.

2. Ternary acids ( Oxyacids )

(a) Oxyacids are acids containing H, O and the acid-forming element. They are named by adding the suffixes –ic or –ous to the name of the acid forming element followed by the word acid. The suffix –ic is used to indicate the higher oxidation state of the element; the suffix –ous is used to denote the lower oxidation state of the element.

(b) When there are more than two oxyacids of the same element, the acid wherein the non-metal exhibits a lower valence than ous acid uses the prefix hypo and the suffix ous.

(c) The acid wherein the non-metal exhibits a higher valence than the

ic acid acids used the prefix per and the suffix ic.

3. Ternary Bases or alkalies Bases or alkalies are compounds containing the hydroxide (OH-) ion. They are named by

giving the name of the positive ion followed by the word hydroxide.

Scene 19 (33m 25s)

[Audio] 19 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 5 NAMING & WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA Laboratory Activity Title I. Write the formula of the following compounds: 1. strontium bromide _________________ 2. lithium carbonate _________________ 3. cobaltic chromate _________________ 4. manganic nitride _________________ 5. sodium fluoride _________________ 6. beryllium iodate _________________ 7. carbon disulfide _________________ 8. bromic acid _________________ 9. dinitrogen trioxide _________________ 10. aluminum perchlorate _________________ 11. zinc stannate _________________ 12. copper ( I) sulfide _________________ 13. hydrofluoric acid _________________ 14. potassium tetraborate _________________ 15. oxalic acid _________________ 16. arsenic ( III) oxide _________________ 17. ammonium hydroxide _________________ 18. mercurous chloride _________________ 19. hydrogen peroxide _________________ 20. silver phosphate _________________

19

DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Activity No.: 5

NAMING & WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

Laboratory Activity Title

I. Write the formula of the following compounds:

1. strontium bromide _________________

2. lithium carbonate _________________

3. cobaltic chromate _________________

4. manganic nitride _________________

5. sodium fluoride _________________

6. beryllium iodate _________________

7. carbon disulfide _________________

8. bromic acid _________________

9. dinitrogen trioxide _________________

10. aluminum perchlorate _________________

11. zinc stannate _________________

12. copper (I) sulfide _________________

13. hydrofluoric acid _________________

14. potassium tetraborate _________________

15. oxalic acid _________________

16. arsenic (III) oxide _________________

17. ammonium hydroxide _________________

18. mercurous chloride _________________

19. hydrogen peroxide _________________

20. silver phosphate _________________

Scene 20 (35m 48s)

[Audio] 20 II. Give the names of the following compounds: 1. Cr(NO2)3 __________________________________ 2. Na4P2O7 ________________________________________ 3. LiClO2 __________________________________ 4. K3PO3 __________________________________ 5. Hg2S __________________________________ 6. Sn3( BO3) 2 __________________________________ 7. FeCO3 _______________________________________ 8. HIO3(aq) __________________________________ 9. SnI2 __________________________________ 10. Cd(OH)2 __________________________________ 11. HClO4(aq) __________________________________ 12. P2I4 __________________________________ 13. PbCO3 __________________________________ 14. Ag3N __________________________________ 15. BaMnO4 __________________________________ 16. AlPO4 __________________________________ 17. K4SiO4 __________________________________ 18. Cl2O7 __________________________________ 19. CaC2 __________________________________ 20. Ni(NO2) 4 __________________________________

20

II. Give the names of the following compounds:

1. Cr(NO2)3 __________________________________

2. Na4P2O7 ________________________________________

3. LiClO2 __________________________________

4. K3PO3 __________________________________

5. Hg2S __________________________________

6. Sn3(BO3)2 __________________________________

7. FeCO3 _______________________________________

8. HIO3(aq) __________________________________

9. SnI2 __________________________________

10. Cd(OH)2 __________________________________

11. HClO4(aq) __________________________________

12. P2I4 __________________________________

13. PbCO3 __________________________________

14. Ag3N __________________________________

15. BaMnO4 __________________________________

16. AlPO4 __________________________________

17. K4SiO4 __________________________________

18. Cl2O7 __________________________________

19. CaC2 __________________________________

20. Ni(NO2)4 __________________________________

Scene 21 (39m 10s)

[Audio] 21 Labwork Instruction Sheet Activity No.: 6 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Experiment Title Introduction: Chemical reactions are represented in a concise way by chemical equations. Ex. N2 + 3 H2 2NH3 The chemical formulas to the left of the arrow represent the reactants while the formulas to the right of the arrow represent the product. The numbers in front of the formulas are coefficient which indicate the relative number of molecules of each kind of substance involved in the reaction. In this experiment we begin to explore some important aspects of chemical change. Our focus will be on the use of chemical formulas to represent reactions and the information we can obtain in a balanced equation and also in identifying the types of chemical reactions. Objectives: 1. To be familiar with the different types of chemical reactions 2. To develop skills in writing equations for chemical reactions Materials: Test tubes Copper strips Test tube rack 0.1M Zinc sulfate solution Crucible w/o cover 0.1M Copper (II) sulfate solution Graduated cylinder 0.1M Lead Nitrate Watch glass 0.1M Calcium chloride Stirring rod 0.1M Potassium Chromate Crucible tong 0.1M Sodium Sulfate Triple beam balance Calcium Carbonate, powdered Electric stove Magnesium ribbon Cork stopper Iron nails or wire # 20 Wash bottle Wire gauze Procedure: Job 1. a) Place 2 mL of 0.1M zinc sulfate solution into one test tube and 2 mL of 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution into another test tube. b) Add a strip of magnesium into each of the tubes and observe results. c) Repeat the above procedure using fresh portions of the same two solutions but substitute iron wire in place of the magnesium strips. Note results. Job 2. a) Place 2 mL of 0.1M Lead (II) nitrate solution into a test tube and 2 mL of 0.1M Calcium chloride solution into another tube. Add 2 mL of 0.1M potassium chromate solution to each of the test tubes. Compare results. Write the chemical equation for the reaction. b) Repeat the above procedure using 0.1M sodium sulfate in place of potassium chromate. Record your observations.

21

Labwork Instruction Sheet

Activity No.: 6

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Experiment Title

Introduction: Chemical reactions are represented in a concise way by chemical equations.

Ex. N2 + 3 H2 2NH3

The chemical formulas to the left of the arrow represent the reactants while the formulas to the

right of the arrow represent the product. The numbers in front of the formulas are coefficient

which indicate the relative number of molecules of each kind of substance involved in the reaction. In this experiment we begin to explore some important aspects of chemical change. Our focus

will be on the use of chemical formulas to represent reactions and the information we can obtain in a balanced equation and also in identifying the types of chemical reactions. Objectives:

1. To be familiar with the different types of chemical reactions 2. To develop skills in writing equations for chemical reactions

Materials:

Test tubes Copper strips

Test tube rack 0.1M Zinc sulfate solution

Crucible w/o cover 0.1M Copper (II) sulfate solution

Graduated cylinder 0.1M Lead Nitrate

Watch glass 0.1M Calcium chloride

Stirring rod 0.1M Potassium Chromate

Crucible tong 0.1M Sodium Sulfate

Triple beam balance Calcium Carbonate, powdered

Electric stove Magnesium ribbon

Cork stopper Iron nails or wire #20

Wash bottle

Wire gauze

Procedure: Job 1.

a) Place 2 mL of 0.1M zinc sulfate solution into one test tube and 2 mL of 0.1M copper (II) sulfate

solution into another test tube.

b) Add a strip of magnesium into each of the tubes and observe results.

c) Repeat the above procedure using fresh portions of the same two solutions but substitute iron wire

in place of the magnesium strips. Note results.

Job 2.

a) Place 2 mL of 0.1M Lead (II) nitrate solution into a test tube and 2 mL of 0.1M Calcium chloride

solution into another tube. Add 2 mL of 0.1M potassium chromate solution to each of the test

tubes. Compare results. Write the chemical equation for the reaction.

b) Repeat the above procedure using 0.1M sodium sulfate in place of potassium chromate. Record

your observations.

Scene 22 (42m 47s)

[Audio] 22 Job 3. a) Ignite a piece of magnesium ribbon and place inside a test tube. Stopper the test tube. b) Record your observations. Write the equation for the reaction. c) Add 10 mL water into the test tube and test the solution with red and blue litmus paper. Record your observations and write the equation for the reaction. Job 4. a) Heat approximately 1 gram of Calcium carbonate in an open crucible for about twenty ( 20) minutes. Allow to cool. b) Place a small amount of the powder in the palm of your hand and add a drop of water. Note any temperature effect. c) Transfer a small amount of the heated calcium carbonate into a test tube. d) Add 2 mL of water and shake the test tube for a few minutes. Test with red and blue litmus paper. Record your observations.

22

Job 3.

a) Ignite a piece of magnesium ribbon and place inside a test tube. Stopper the test tube.

b) Record your observations. Write the equation for the reaction.

c) Add 10 mL water into the test tube and test the solution with red and blue litmus paper. Record

your observations and write the equation for the reaction.

Job 4.

a) Heat approximately 1 gram of Calcium carbonate in an open crucible for about twenty (20)

minutes. Allow to cool.

b) Place a small amount of the powder in the palm of your hand and add a drop of water. Note any

temperature effect.

c) Transfer a small amount of the heated calcium carbonate into a test tube.

d) Add 2 mL of water and shake the test tube for a few minutes. Test with red and blue litmus

paper. Record your observations.

Scene 23 (43m 58s)

[Audio] 23 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 6 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Experiment Title Job 1: Magnesium Iron Zinc sulfate Chemical Equation Type of Chemical Reaction Copper (II) sulfate Chemical Equation Type of Chemical Reaction Job 2: Potassium chromate Sodium sulfate Lead (II) nitrate Chemical Equation Type of Chemical Reaction Calcium chloride Chemical Equation Type of Chemical Reaction

23

DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Activity No.: 6

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Experiment Title

Job 1:

Magnesium Iron

Zinc sulfate

Chemical Equation

Type of Chemical Reaction

Copper (II) sulfate

Chemical Equation

Type of Chemical Reaction

Job 2:

Potassium chromate Sodium sulfate

Lead (II) nitrate

Chemical Equation

Type of Chemical Reaction

Calcium chloride

Chemical Equation

Type of Chemical Reaction

Scene 24 (44m 57s)

[Audio] 24 Job 3: Observations Chemical Equation Type of Chemical Reaction a. b. Job 4: Observations Chemical Equation Type of Chemical Reaction a. b. CONCLUSION:

24

Job 3:

Observations

Chemical Equation

Type of Chemical

Reaction

a.

b.

Job 4:

Observations

Chemical Equation

Type of Chemical

Reaction

a.

b.

CONCLUSION:

Scene 25 (45m 30s)

[Audio] 25 Labwork Instruction Sheet Activity No.: 7 PROPERTIES OF GASES Experiment Title Introduction: In many ways gases are the most easily understood form of matter. Even though different gaseous substances may have very different properties, they behave quite similarly as far as their physical properties are concerned. Among the most readily measured properties of a gas are its temperature, volume and pressure. In this experiment the students will observe the effect of varying temperature to the pressure of the gas. They will also determine the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gases. Objectives: 1. To predict the effect of varying temperature to the pressure of the gas 2. To show the relationship between temperature and volume of gas Materials: Empty soda can Crushed ice Crucible tong Rock salt Electric stove String Copper bath Measuring tape Graduated cylinder, 25 mL Felt-tip pen Water bath/ beaker Stopwatch Thermometer, ( - 10OC- 100OC) Procedure: Job 1. The Collapsing Can a) Add 15 mL water to the empty soda can. b) Heat the can and allow the water to boil until steam can be seen coming out of the can. c) Using a crucible tong grasp the can, quickly turn it upside down and dip it into a copper bath containing crushed ice. Observe the result. Job 2. Boiling and Freezing a Balloon a) Prepare your hot and cold-water baths. Fill one beaker 2/3 full of water. Place on the stove and bring the water to a boil. b) Fill another beaker 2/3 full with a mixture of cold water and ice in equal proportions. c) Add salt to the ice-water mixture to lower the freezing point until the temperature is below 0OC. d) Blow up the balloon and tie securely. Make sure the balloon fits into the beakers. e) With a measuring tape, measure the circumference of the balloon by tracing it on the surface of the balloon with your pen. f) Calculate the volume (V = 4/3* r3) of the balloon. Record the volume (in cm3), then check the air temperature (in OC) of the room and record it next to the volume. g) Place the balloon in the ice water bath for 2- 3 minutes, until you can observe a change in size. Note the time elapsed since the balloon is placed in the water bath. Determine the size of the balloon using the measuring tape.

25

Labwork Instruction Sheet

Activity No.: 7

PROPERTIES OF GASES

Experiment Title

Introduction: In many ways gases are the most easily understood form of matter. Even though different

gaseous substances may have very different properties, they behave quite similarly as far as their physical properties are concerned. Among the most readily measured properties of a gas are its temperature, volume and pressure. In this experiment the students will observe the effect of varying temperature to the pressure of

the gas. They will also determine the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gases. Objectives:

1. To predict the effect of varying temperature to the pressure of the gas 2. To show the relationship between temperature and volume of gas

Materials: Empty soda can Crushed ice

Crucible tong Rock salt

Electric stove String

Copper bath Measuring tape

Graduated cylinder, 25 mL Felt-tip pen

Water bath/beaker Stopwatch

Thermometer, (-10OC- 100OC)

Procedure: Job 1. The Collapsing Can

a) Add 15 mL water to the empty soda can.

b) Heat the can and allow the water to boil until steam can be seen coming out of the can.

c) Using a crucible tong grasp the can, quickly turn it upside down and dip it into a copper bath

containing crushed ice. Observe the result.

Job 2. Boiling and Freezing a Balloon

a) Prepare your hot and cold-water baths. Fill one beaker 2/3 full of water. Place on the stove and

bring the water to a boil.

b) Fill another beaker 2/3 full with a mixture of cold water and ice in equal proportions.

c) Add salt to the ice-water mixture to lower the freezing point until the temperature is below 0OC. d) Blow up the balloon and tie securely. Make sure the balloon fits into the beakers.

e) With a measuring tape, measure the circumference of the balloon by tracing it on the surface of

the balloon with your pen.

f) Calculate the volume (V = 4/3*r3) of the balloon. Record the volume (in cm3), then check the

air temperature (in OC) of the room and record it next to the volume.

g) Place the balloon in the ice water bath for 2-3 minutes, until you can observe a change in size.

Note the time elapsed since the balloon is placed in the water bath. Determine the size of the balloon using the measuring tape.

Scene 26 (48m 58s)

[Audio] 26 h) Using a crucible tong, hold the balloon just above the boiling water for the same amount of time it was immersed in ice water. Measure its circumference with the help of another person who will continue to hold the balloon over the steam. i) Record the temperature of the steam and calculate the volume (in cm3) of air in the balloon. Record the volume and temperature on the data recovery sheet.

26

h) Using a crucible tong, hold the balloon just above the boiling water for the same amount of time

it was immersed in ice water. Measure its circumference with the help of another person who will continue to hold the balloon over the steam.

i) Record the temperature of the steam and calculate the volume (in cm3) of air in the balloon.

Record the volume and temperature on the data recovery sheet.

Scene 27 (49m 28s)

[Audio] 27 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 7 PROPERTIES OF GASES Experiment Title Job 1. Temperature and Pressure Relationship 1. Discuss what happens to the can. Explain your observation. 2. Infer from the result the pressure of air inside and outside the can. 3. Describe what happens to the volume of the gas when a. it is heated. Explain your answer. b. it is cooled. Explain your answer.

27

DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Activity No.: 7

PROPERTIES OF GASES

Experiment Title

Job 1. Temperature and Pressure Relationship

1. Discuss what happens to the can. Explain your observation.

2. Infer from the result the pressure of air inside and outside the can.

3. Describe what happens to the volume of the gas when

a. it is heated. Explain your answer.

b. it is cooled. Explain your answer.

Scene 28 (50m 18s)

[Audio] 28 Job 2. Boiling and Freezing a Balloon Condition of Gas Actual Temp. ( OC) Circumference of balloon (cm) Volume of balloon (cm3) Volume of gas (cm3) Observations Below 0OC Room temperature Boiling temperature CONCLUSION:

28

Job 2. Boiling and Freezing a Balloon

Condition

of Gas

Actual Temp. (OC)

Circumfe- rence of balloon

(cm)

Volume

of

balloon (cm3)

Volume of

gas (cm3)

Observations

Below 0OC

Room

temperature

Boiling

temperature

CONCLUSION:

Scene 29 (51m 1s)

[Audio] 29 Labwork Instruction Sheet Activity No.: 8 PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS Experiment Title Introduction: A liquid is a state of matter that can flow and take the shape of its container. Liquids can be described by their properties. The properties of liquids are influenced by the intermolecular force of attraction between their molecules. In this experiment we will examine some of the properties of liquids: surface tension, surface wetting and viscosity. Objectives: 1. To reinforce the concept of surface tension and relate it to surface wetting 2. To determine the surface tension of water and alcohol using Capillary rise method Materials: Evaporating dish Liquid samples: Blade Water Capillary tube Alcohol Wax paper Oil Procedure: Job 1. Surface Tension of Water 1. Fill the evaporating dish with water. 2. Carefully place a blade on the surface of the water. 3. Did the blade float on the surface of the water? Record your observation. Job 2. Observation of Surface Wetting of Alcohol, Water and Oil 1. Lay a piece of wax paper flat on the surface of the table. 2. Using a dropper, place a drop of water on one side of the wax paper. 3. Do the same for alcohol and oil. Make sure a different dropper is used for each of the liquid sample to avoid contamination. 4. Observe and record the appearance of the drops of liquid samples on the wax paper. Job 3. Determination of the Surface Tension of Water and Alcohol by capillary rise method 1. Place water in the evaporating dish and carefully dip a capillary tube on the surface of the water. Observe the rise of the water. 2. When there is no more movement, pull out the tube and measure the height of water in centimeter. 3. Calculate the surface tension of water. Show calculations. Job 4. Viscosity of Liquids 1. Obtain 3 liquid samples; water, alcohol and oil. 2. Observe the color and texture of each liquid. 3. Pour each of the liquid in a separate beaker and observe its viscosity.

29

Labwork Instruction Sheet

Activity No.: 8

PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS

Experiment Title

Introduction: A liquid is a state of matter that can flow and take the shape of its container. Liquids can be

described by their properties. The properties of liquids are influenced by the intermolecular force of attraction between their molecules. In this experiment we will examine some of the properties of liquids: surface tension, surface

wetting and viscosity. Objectives: 1. To reinforce the concept of surface tension and relate it to surface wetting 2. To determine the surface tension of water and alcohol using Capillary rise method Materials: Evaporating dish Liquid samples:

Blade Water

Capillary tube Alcohol

Wax paper Oil

Procedure: Job 1. Surface Tension of Water

1. Fill the evaporating dish with water. 2. Carefully place a blade on the surface of the water. 3. Did the blade float on the surface of the water? Record your observation.

Job 2. Observation of Surface Wetting of Alcohol, Water and Oil

1. Lay a piece of wax paper flat on the surface of the table. 2. Using a dropper, place a drop of water on one side of the wax paper. 3. Do the same for alcohol and oil. Make sure a different dropper is used for each of the liquid

sample to avoid contamination.

4. Observe and record the appearance of the drops of liquid samples on the wax paper.

Job 3. Determination of the Surface Tension of Water and Alcohol by capillary rise method

1. Place water in the evaporating dish and carefully dip a capillary tube on the surface of the

water. Observe the rise of the water.

2. When there is no more movement, pull out the tube and measure the height of water in

centimeter.

3. Calculate the surface tension of water. Show calculations.

Job 4. Viscosity of Liquids 1. Obtain 3 liquid samples; water, alcohol and oil.

2. Observe the color and texture of each liquid.

3. Pour each of the liquid in a separate beaker and observe its viscosity.

Scene 30 (54m 24s)

[Audio] 30 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No. 8 PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS Experiment Title Observations: Job 1. Surface Tension of water Job 2. Surface Wetting of liquids Job 3 Determination of Surface tension by Capillary Rise Method Surface Tension, ST = ½ hdgr Where: h = height of liquid d = density of liquid g = acceleration due to gravity r = radius of the tube Test Liquid Height, h, of liquid, (cm) Density, d, of liquid (g/cm3) Acceleration, g, of gravity (cm/s2) Radius, r, of the tube ( cm) Water Alcohol Calculations:

30

DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Activity No. 8

PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS

Experiment Title

Observations: Job 1. Surface Tension of water Job 2. Surface Wetting of liquids Job 3 Determination of Surface tension by Capillary Rise Method Surface Tension, ST = ½ hdgr

Where: h = height of liquid

d = density of liquid

g = acceleration due to gravity

r = radius of the tube

Test Liquid Height, h, of liquid, (cm)

Density, d, of liquid (g/cm3)

Acceleration, g, of

gravity (cm/s2)

Radius, r, of the tube ( cm)

Water

Alcohol

Calculations:

Scene 31 (55m 37s)

[Audio] 31 Job 4: Viscosity of Liquids Liquid Describe the color Describe the Texture Describe the Viscosity Water Alcohol Oil Questions: 1. What makes water and alcohol rise in the capillary tube? 2. Based on your observations, what is the relationship between surface tension and surface wetting? CONCLUSION:

31

Job 4: Viscosity of Liquids

Liquid Describe the color Describe the Texture Describe the Viscosity

Water

Alcohol

Oil

Questions:

1. What makes water and alcohol rise in the capillary tube?

2. Based on your observations, what is the relationship between surface tension and surface

wetting?

CONCLUSION:

Scene 32 (56m 18s)

[Audio] 32 Labwork Instruction Sheet Activity No.: 9 SOLID STRUCTURES Experiment Title Introduction: The properties of solids relate to their structure and bonding. Solids can be either crystalline or amorphous. In a crystalline solid the atoms, ions or molecules are arranged regularly while in amorphous solid, the particles have no orderly structure. In this activity the student will differentiate crystalline solids from amorphous solids. They will also be able to identify the basic structure of crystalline solids. Objectives: 1. To identify the six fundamental crystal structure arrangement of solids 2. To reinforce the concept of crystal arrangements through preparation of models Materials: Cartolina Masking tape Pair of scissors Compass Metric Ruler Protractor Pencil Procedure: Preparation of a set of crystals system from cartolina paper. Job 1. Cubic a. With 2.5 inches as the side, draw six adjacent squares on the cartolina. b. Cut the figure drawn on a cartolina along solid lines. Fold along solid lines to form a cube. Job 2. Tetragonal a. With 1.5 inches as the width and 2.5 as the length, draw a series of four adjacent rectangles connected along the length. b. To rectangle #2 add two adjacent squares with the side equal to the width of rectangle #2.

32

Labwork Instruction Sheet

Activity No.: 9

SOLID STRUCTURES

Experiment Title

Introduction: The properties of solids relate to their structure and bonding. Solids can be either crystalline or

amorphous. In a crystalline solid the atoms, ions or molecules are arranged regularly while in amorphous solid, the particles have no orderly structure. In this activity the student will differentiate crystalline solids from amorphous solids. They will

also be able to identify the basic structure of crystalline solids. Objectives:

1. To identify the six fundamental crystal structure arrangement of solids 2. To reinforce the concept of crystal arrangements through preparation of models

Materials: Cartolina Masking tape

Pair of scissors Compass

Metric Ruler Protractor

Pencil

Procedure: Preparation of a set of crystals system from cartolina paper. Job 1. Cubic

a. With 2.5 inches as the side, draw six adjacent squares on the cartolina.

b. Cut the figure drawn on a cartolina along solid lines. Fold along solid lines to form a

cube.

Job 2. Tetragonal

a. With 1.5 inches as the width and 2.5 as the length, draw a series of four adjacent rectangles

connected along the length.

b. To rectangle #2 add two adjacent squares with the side equal to the width of rectangle #2.

Scene 33 (58m 28s)

[Audio] 33 c. Cut the figure drawn along solid lines. d. Fold along dotted lines to form a tetragonal structure. Job 3. Orthorhombic a. Using the following dimensions, draw four adjacent rectangles connected along the length. Rectangle 1 & 3: length = 3.0 inches width = 1.0 inch Rectangle 2 & 4: length = 3.0 inches width = 2.0 inches b. To rectangle #2 draw two adjacent rectangles with the length equal to the width of rectangle #2 and the width equal to the width of rectangle number 1…. See the fig. below. c. Cut the figure drawn along solid lines. d. Fold along dotted lines to form the orthorhombic structure. Job 4. Hexagonal a. Draw a square with the side equal to 9.0 inches. b. Divide the width of this square into three equal parts. Divide the length of the central part into six equal divisions. See figure below. c. Using the distance AB as the radius locate point X by striking intersecting area from points A & B. Repeat the method in locating point Y. d. Using the distance AB as the radius, draw a circle using X as the center. e. Using the distance AB as the side, inscribe a hexagon in the circle starting at point A. f. Repeat procedure d to e in constructing a hexagon around point Y, g. Cut out the resulting hexagons leaving sides AB and A'B' attached to division 2. h. Cut the central part ( II) along solid lines. Refer to the above figure. i. Fold along dotted lines to form a hexagonal structure.

33

c. Cut the figure drawn along solid lines.

d. Fold along dotted lines to form a tetragonal structure.

Job 3. Orthorhombic

a. Using the following dimensions, draw four adjacent rectangles connected along the length.

Rectangle 1 & 3: length = 3.0 inches width = 1.0 inch

Rectangle 2 & 4: length = 3.0 inches width = 2.0 inches

b. To rectangle #2 draw two adjacent rectangles with the length equal to the width of rectangle

#2 and the width equal to the width of rectangle number 1…. See the fig. below.

c. Cut the figure drawn along solid lines.

d. Fold along dotted lines to form the orthorhombic structure.

Job 4. Hexagonal a. Draw a square with the side equal to 9.0 inches.

b. Divide the width of this square into three equal parts. Divide the length of the central

part into six equal divisions. See figure below.

c. Using the distance AB as the radius locate point X by striking intersecting area from

points A & B. Repeat the method in locating point Y.

d. Using the distance AB as the radius, draw a circle using X as the center.

e. Using the distance AB as the side, inscribe a hexagon in the circle starting at point A.

f. Repeat procedure d to e in constructing a hexagon around point Y,

g. Cut out the resulting hexagons leaving sides AB and A’B’ attached to division 2.

h. Cut the central part (II) along solid lines. Refer to the above figure.

i. Fold along dotted lines to form a hexagonal structure.

Scene 34 (1h 0m 59s)

[Audio] 34 Job 5. Monoclinic a. Using the following dimensions, draw four adjacent rectangles connected along the width. Rectangles 1 & 3 length = 3.0 inches ; width = 2.0 inches Rectangles 2 & 4 length = 4.0 inches ; width = 2.0 inches b. Fold along each width and connect both ends. c. Draw and cut pair of parallelograms as shown below. d. To form the monoclinic structure, fit and attach parallelogram to the structure formed in procedure a. Job 6. Triclinic a. Draw and cut the following parallelogram: 1. Two pieces of parallelogram A. 2. Two pieces of parallelogram B. 3. Two pieces of parallelogram C. b. Connect parallelogram A and B alternately along equal sides. c. To form the triclinic structure, fit and connect each parallelogram C to the structure made by connecting parallelogram A & B. 3" 4"

34

Job 5. Monoclinic

a. Using the following dimensions, draw four adjacent rectangles connected along the width.

Rectangles 1 & 3 length = 3.0 inches ; width = 2.0 inches Rectangles 2 & 4 length = 4.0 inches ; width = 2.0 inches b. Fold along each width and connect both ends.

c. Draw and cut pair of parallelograms as shown below.

d. To form the monoclinic structure, fit and attach parallelogram to the structure formed in

procedure a.

Job 6. Triclinic

a. Draw and cut the following parallelogram:

1. Two pieces of parallelogram A.

2. Two pieces of parallelogram B.

3. Two pieces of parallelogram C.

b. Connect parallelogram A and B alternately along equal sides.

c. To form the triclinic structure, fit and connect each parallelogram C to the structure made by

connecting parallelogram A & B.

3”

4”

Scene 35 (1h 2m 34s)

[Audio] 35 Labwork Instruction Sheet Activity No.: 10 PROPERTIES OF METALS Experiment Title Introduction: When we think of metals in everyday applications, we tend to think of iron ans aluminum, perhaps also copper or nickel. But even metals that are less abundant in nature play vital roles in modern technology. In this experiment the students will observe the physical properties of metals, they will determine the density of different metals. They will also observe the chemical properties of metals and relate them to the activity series. Objectives: 1. To be familiar with the physical and chemical properties of metals 2. To measure the density of regularly- and irregularly-shaped metals 3. To observe the reaction of metals with ions of other metals 4. To arrange metals in the order of decreasing activity Materials: Triple beam balance Strips of: Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu Graduated cylinder, 10 mL & 200mL 9M HCl Metal samples (rectangular, cylindrical, irregular) CuSO4 Test tubes ZnSO4 Mg ribbon Hg Procedure: I. Physical Property of Metals Job. 1 Measurement of the Density of Regularly-Shaped objects. A. Rectangular Solid 1. Determine the mass of the rectangular solid sample using the triple beam balance. Record the mass in grams. 2. Measure the length, width, and thickness of the sample in "cm." Calculate the volume using the formula V = L x W x H. Record the results in "cm." 3. Calculate the density of the sample using the formula D = M/ V. B. Cylindrical Solids 1.Repeat procedure " A. #1" using cylindrical solid structure of rectangular solid. 2. Measure the diameter and height of the sample in "cm." Calculate the volume using the formula V = πD2H/4 (where " D" is the diameter and " H" is the height). 3. Calculate the density as in procedure " A. #3." Job 2. Measurement of the Density of Irregularly-Shaped metals. a. Measure the mass of the irregular metal sample using the triple beam balance. b. Place 150ml of water in a graduated cylinder. Put the weighed sample in the water. Record the increase in volume of the liquid. c. Calculate the volume occupied by the metal by subtracting the original volume from the final volume. V of sample = Vf – Vo d. Calculate the density of the metal using the formula D = M/V.

35

Labwork Instruction Sheet

Activity No.: 10

PROPERTIES OF METALS

Experiment Title

Introduction: When we think of metals in everyday applications, we tend to think of iron ans aluminum,

perhaps also copper or nickel. But even metals that are less abundant in nature play vital roles in modern technology. In this experiment the students will observe the physical properties of metals, they will

determine the density of different metals. They will also observe the chemical properties of metals and relate them to the activity series. Objectives:

1. To be familiar with the physical and chemical properties of metals 2. To measure the density of regularly- and irregularly-shaped metals 3. To observe the reaction of metals with ions of other metals 4. To arrange metals in the order of decreasing activity

Materials: Triple beam balance Strips of: Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu

Graduated cylinder, 10 mL & 200mL 9M HCl

Metal samples (rectangular, cylindrical, irregular) CuSO4

Test tubes ZnSO4

Mg ribbon Hg

Procedure: I. Physical Property of Metals

Job. 1 Measurement of the Density of Regularly-Shaped objects.

A. Rectangular Solid

1. Determine the mass of the rectangular solid sample using the triple beam balance. Record

the mass in grams.

2. Measure the length, width, and thickness of the sample in “cm.” Calculate the volume using

the formula V = L x W x H. Record the results in “cm.”

3. Calculate the density of the sample using the formula D = M/V.

B. Cylindrical Solids 1.Repeat procedure “A. #1” using cylindrical solid structure of rectangular solid.

2. Measure the diameter and height of the sample in “cm.” Calculate the volume using the formula V = πD2H/4 (where “D” is the diameter and “H” is the height). 3. Calculate the density as in procedure “A. #3.”

Job 2. Measurement of the Density of Irregularly-Shaped metals.

a. Measure the mass of the irregular metal sample using the triple beam balance. b. Place 150ml of water in a graduated cylinder. Put the weighed sample in the water.

Record the increase in volume of the liquid.

c. Calculate the volume occupied by the metal by subtracting the original volume from the

final volume. V of sample = Vf – Vo

d. Calculate the density of the metal using the formula D = M/V.

Scene 36 (1h 6m 33s)

[Audio] 36 II. Chemical Property of Metals Job 1. a. Prepare 6 clean dry test tubes. Into the first test tube place a globule of mercury, magnesium to the second, copper to the third and aluminum, zinc and lead to the fourth, fifth, and sixth respectively. b. Add 2ml of 9M HCl into each test tube. Observe keenly the bubbles coming out. Notice the rate by which the bubbles are formed. The bubbles are formed by the liberation of a colorless gas. Identify it. Write the equations for the reaction. c. From the rate by which the gas is evolved, arrange the tube in decreasing order, that is, putting the fastest reaction first and the lowest last. Make a list based on this arrangement. Job 2. a. In a test tube pour 2 ml CuSO4 solution. b. Put into it a pellet of zinc. In another test tube pour 2 ml ZnSO4. c. Then drop into it a piece of magnesium ribbon. d. Repeat this operation using Cu metal instead of Mg with fresh ZnSO4 solution. Job 3. a. From your observations arrange the metals Zn, Cu, and Mg by putting the most active metal first and the least active metal last.

36

II. Chemical Property of Metals

Job 1.

a. Prepare 6 clean dry test tubes. Into the first test tube place a globule of mercury, magnesium to

the second, copper to the third and aluminum, zinc and lead to the fourth, fifth, and sixth respectively.

b. Add 2ml of 9M HCl into each test tube. Observe keenly the bubbles coming out. Notice the rate

by which the bubbles are formed. The bubbles are formed by the liberation of a colorless gas. Identify it. Write the equations for the reaction.

c. From the rate by which the gas is evolved, arrange the tube in decreasing order, that is, putting

the fastest reaction first and the lowest last. Make a list based on this arrangement.

Job 2.

a. In a test tube pour 2 ml CuSO4 solution. b. Put into it a pellet of zinc. In another test tube pour 2 ml ZnSO4. c. Then drop into it a piece of magnesium ribbon. d. Repeat this operation using Cu metal instead of Mg with fresh ZnSO4 solution.

Job 3.

a. From your observations arrange the metals Zn, Cu, and Mg by putting the most active metal

first and the least active metal last.

Scene 37 (1h 8m 23s)

[Audio] 37 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 10 PROPERTIES OF METALS Experiment Title I. Physical Property of Metals Tabulation of Data: Type of Sample Rectangular Cylindrical Irregular Mass Volume Density Calculations:

37

DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Activity No.: 10

PROPERTIES OF METALS

Experiment Title

I. Physical Property of Metals Tabulation of Data:

Type of Sample

Rectangular

Cylindrical

Irregular

Mass

Volume

Density

Calculations:

Scene 38 (1h 9m 0s)

[Audio] 38 II. Chemical Property of Metals Job 1: The colorless gas is ________________________. Observations Equations List of metals in the order of decreasing activity Job 2 & Job 3: Observations Equations List of metals in the order of decreasing activity CONCLUSION:

38

II. Chemical Property of Metals Job 1: The colorless gas is ________________________.

Observations Equations List of metals in the order of

decreasing activity

Job 2 & Job 3:

Observations Equations List of metals in the order of

decreasing activity

CONCLUSION:

Scene 39 (1h 9m 35s)

[Audio] 39 Labwork Instruction Sheet Activity No.: 11 PROPERTIES OF NON-METALS Experiment Title Introduction: One of the group of elements listed in the periodic table is the nonmetals. There are only eleven nonmetals and they are divided into four groups; the halogen family, sulfur family, nitrogen family and carbon. Nonmetals are generally gases or dull, brittle solid at room temperature with bromine as the only liquid nonmetal. In this experiment the students will observe some properties of common nometals like sulfur and carbon. Objective: To observe the physical properties of sulfur and carbon Materials: Test tubes Test tube rack Test tube holder Watch glass Funnel Beaker, 50 mL Filter paper Activated carbon Safety match Candle Graphite Charcoal Brown sugar ( NH4)2S solution Procedure: A. Property of Sulfur 1. Secure a small amount of Sulfur powder. 2. Dissolve it in a small amount of carbon disulfide ( CS2). ( Carbon disulfide is very flammable. Keep it away from the flame.) 3. Filter the solution of Sulfur and CS2 through a dry filter paper into a small beaker which should be covered to permit slow evaporation. After the liquid has evaporated, examine the nature of the residue. B. Properties of Carbon Job 1. Soot Formation a. Hold a clean test tube of cold water in the flame of a candle for a few seconds. Observe. b. Repeat the above procedure using a match flame instead of a candle flame. Observe. Job 2. Properties of Graphite A. Rub a pinch of powdered graphite between your thumb and forefinger. How does it feel? B. Rub a little of the powdered graphite on a sheet of rough paper. What is the effect of the apparent texture of the paper? C. Write with a piece of graphite on a piece of paper. Observe.

39

Labwork Instruction Sheet

Activity No.: 11

PROPERTIES OF NON-METALS

Experiment Title

Introduction: One of the group of elements listed in the periodic table is the nonmetals. There are only eleven

nonmetals and they are divided into four groups; the halogen family, sulfur family, nitrogen family and carbon. Nonmetals are generally gases or dull, brittle solid at room temperature with bromine as the only liquid nonmetal. In this experiment the students will observe some properties of common nometals like sulfur

and carbon. Objective: To observe the physical properties of sulfur and carbon

Materials: Test tubes

Test tube rack

Test tube holder

Watch glass

Funnel

Beaker, 50 mL

Filter paper

Activated carbon Safety match Candle Graphite Charcoal Brown sugar (NH4)2S solution

Procedure: A. Property of Sulfur

1. Secure a small amount of Sulfur powder.

2. Dissolve it in a small amount of carbon disulfide (CS2). (Carbon disulfide is very flammable.

Keep it away from the flame.)

3. Filter the solution of Sulfur and CS2 through a dry filter paper into a small beaker which should

be covered to permit slow evaporation. After the liquid has evaporated, examine the nature of the residue.

B. Properties of Carbon Job 1. Soot Formation

a. Hold a clean test tube of cold water in the flame of a candle for a few seconds. Observe.

b. Repeat the above procedure using a match flame instead of a candle flame. Observe.

Job 2. Properties of Graphite

A. Rub a pinch of powdered graphite between your thumb and forefinger. How does it feel?

B. Rub a little of the powdered graphite on a sheet of rough paper. What is the effect of the

apparent texture of the paper?

C. Write with a piece of graphite on a piece of paper. Observe.

Scene 40 (1h 12m 41s)

[Audio] 40 D. Lay some small pieces of graphite and charcoal on a wire gauze and heat them strongly. Note the difference. Job 3. Properties of Charcoal a. Add about 3ml of dilute ammonium sulfide ( NH4)2S to 5g of activated charcoal. Keep an untreated sample of (NH4)2S for comparison. b. Stopper the test tubes and shake them every now and then for 10 minutes. Note any difference in the odor of the two samples ( NH4) 2S. Job 4. Decolorization of brown sugar a. Dissolve the dark brown sugar in about 30ml of hot water until the color of the solution is plainly visible. b. Keep half of this solution for a later comparison with the treated sample c. Stir the activated charcoal into the remainder of the sugar solution and boil gently for a few minutes. Then filter the sugar solution. d. Compare the colors of the two samples.

40

D. Lay some small pieces of graphite and charcoal on a wire gauze and heat them strongly.

Note the difference.

Job 3. Properties of Charcoal

a. Add about 3ml of dilute ammonium sulfide (NH4)2S to 5g of activated charcoal. Keep an

untreated sample of (NH4)2S for comparison.

b. Stopper the test tubes and shake them every now and then for 10 minutes. Note any

difference in the odor of the two samples (NH4)2S.

Job 4. Decolorization of brown sugar

a. Dissolve the dark brown sugar in about 30ml of hot water until the color of the solution is

plainly visible.

b. Keep half of this solution for a later comparison with the treated sample

c. Stir the activated charcoal into the remainder of the sugar solution and boil gently for a few

minutes. Then filter the sugar solution.

d. Compare the colors of the two samples.

Scene 41 (1h 14m 2s)

[Audio] 41 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 11 PROPERTIES OF NON-METALS Experiment Title A. Property of Sulfur a. Physical Appearance: b. Color : B. Properties of Carbon Observations: Job 1: Job 2: Job 3: Job 4: CONCLUSION:

41

DATA RECOVERY SHEET

Activity No.: 11

PROPERTIES OF NON-METALS

Experiment Title

A. Property of Sulfur

a. Physical Appearance:

b. Color :

B. Properties of Carbon

Observations:

Job 1: Job 2: Job 3: Job 4:

CONCLUSION:

Scene 42 (1h 14m 43s)

[Audio] 42 Labwork Instruction Sheet Activity No.: 12 IDENTIFICATION OF HALIDE IONS Experiment Title Introduction: The halogen family is a group of nonmetals that have the largest electron affinities among nonmetals. They are the elements of the group 7A in the periodic table. The halogens include; fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. In this experiment the students will perform qualitative tests to identify the different halogens based on their reactions with colored reagents. Objectives: 1. To perform tests on compounds containing bromide, chloride, and iodide ions 2. To determine what results are unique for each ions Materials: Test tubes 3M H2SO4 Hexane Test tube rack 0.1M AgNO3 0.1M NaCl Medicine dropper 0.1 M Fe(NO3)3 0.1M NaBr Graduated cylinder, 10 mL 0.1M KMnO4 0.1 M KI Procedure: Job 1. Reaction of Cl-, Br- and I- with AgNO3 1. Pour 1 mL each of 0.1M NaCl, 0.1 M NaBr, 0.1M KI into three separate test tubes. 2. Add 1 mL of 0.1M AgNO3 into each test tube. 3. Note any color imparted to the solutions and the formation of any precipitate. Job 2. Reaction of Cl-, Br-, and I- Ions with Fe (NO3)3 1. Place 1mL each of 0.1M NaCl, 0.1M NaBr, 0.1M KI into three separate test tubes. 2. Add 3 drops 3M H2SO4 to each of the three test tubes. 3. Add 10 drops of hexane to each test tube and shake gently. 4. Add 5 drops of 0.1M Fe (NO3) 3 solution dropwise, shaking gently each time. 5. Observe the color of the hexane layers. Note the hexane forms the upper layer. Job 3. Reaction of Cl-, Br-, and I- with KMnO4 Repeat Job 2 but this time use 3 drops of 0.1M KMnO4 instead of Fe (NO3)3 Job 4. Analysis of Unknown Solutions Identify your unknown solutions by performing Job 1, Job 2, and Job 3, but this time use your unknown samples instead of NaCl, NaBr, and KI.

42

Labwork Instruction Sheet

Activity No.: 12

IDENTIFICATION OF HALIDE IONS

Experiment Title

Introduction: The halogen family is a group of nonmetals that have the largest electron affinities among

nonmetals. They are the elements of the group 7A in the periodic table. The halogens include; fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. In this experiment the students will perform qualitative tests to identify the different halogens

based on their reactions with colored reagents. Objectives:

1. To perform tests on compounds containing bromide, chloride, and iodide ions 2. To determine what results are unique for each ions

Materials:

Test tubes 3M H2SO4 Hexane

Test tube rack 0.1M AgNO3 0.1M NaCl

Medicine dropper 0.1M Fe(NO3)3 0.1M NaBr

Graduated cylinder, 10 mL 0.1M KMnO4 0.1M KI

Procedure:

Job 1. Reaction of Cl-, Br- and I- with AgNO3

1. Pour 1 mL each of 0.1M NaCl, 0.1M NaBr, 0.1M KI into three separate test tubes. 2. Add 1 mL of 0.1M AgNO3 into each test tube. 3. Note any color imparted to the solutions and the formation of any precipitate.

Job 2. Reaction of Cl-, Br-, and I- Ions with Fe (NO3)3

1. Place 1mL each of 0.1M NaCl, 0.1M NaBr, 0.1M KI into three separate test tubes. 2. Add 3 drops 3M H2SO4 to each of the three test tubes. 3. Add 10 drops of hexane to each test tube and shake gently. 4. Add 5 drops of 0.1M Fe (NO3)3 solution dropwise, shaking gently each time. 5. Observe the color of the hexane layers. Note the hexane forms the upper layer.

Job 3. Reaction of Cl-, Br-, and I- with KMnO4 Repeat Job 2 but this time use 3 drops of 0.1M KMnO4 instead of Fe (NO3)3 Job 4. Analysis of Unknown Solutions

Identify your unknown solutions by performing Job 1, Job 2, and Job 3, but this time use your unknown samples instead of NaCl, NaBr, and KI.

Scene 43 (1h 18m 30s)

[Audio] 43 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 12 IDENTIFICATION OF BROMIDE, CHLORIDE, & IODIDE IONS Experiment Title SOLUTIONS AgNO3 H2SO4 + Hexane + Fe (NO3) 3 H2SO4 + Hexane + KMnO4 Sodium chloride NaCl Sodium bromide NaBr Potassium iodide KI SOLUTIONS AgNO3 H2SO4 + Hexane + Fe (NO3)3 H2SO4 + Hexane + KMnO4 Unknown 1 Unknown 2 Unknown 3 Ions Present:____________________________________________________________________ CONCLUSION:

43 DATA RECOVERY SHEET Activity No.: 12 IDENTIFICATION OF BROMIDE, CHLORIDE, & IODIDE IONS Experiment Title SOLUTIONS AgNO3 H2SO4 + Hexane + Fe (NO3)3 H2SO4 + Hexane + KMnO4 Sodium chloride NaCl Sodium bromide NaBr Potassium iodide KI SOLUTIONS AgNO3 H2SO4 + Hexane + Fe (NO3)3 H2SO4 + Hexane + KMnO4 Unknown 1 Unknown 2 Unknown 3 Ions Present:____________________________________________________________________ CONCLUSION:

Scene 44 (1h 19m 48s)

[Audio] 44 Appendix A Rubrics for Individual / Group Project/Activity Laboratory Experiment – As Per Detailed Laboratory Instruction Sheet NAME / GROUP NUMBER : __________________________ DATE:___________________ YEAR & SECTION : __________________________ TERM : __________________________ I. Results : 80[break]% Laboratory Report Rubric Parameter Excellent Fair Needs Improvement Poor Score 10 7 3 1 Accuracy 0 to 5% error 6 to 10% error 11 to 15% error More than 15% error Written Report No spelling nor grammar error With occasional error Many errors Incomplete sentences, tense changes, misspelling Conclusion Conclusions address and logically refute or explain the data Conclusions have little or no basis in data provided Conclusions are present but weak. Conclusions poorly addressed the data provided II. Safety...………………………………… 10% (Performed and observed in all aspects the safety requirements in the laboratory) III. Cleanliness ………………………… 10% ( Area after the activity) ______________________________ Signature over printed name INSTRUCTOR NO. BASIC WEIGHT (10 Max) EQUIVALENT 1 Wearing of Laboratory gowns 2 No accident/ breakage occurred during the term. 3 Proper use of apparatus and equipment 4 Wearing of safety goggles when required 5 Proper handling of chemicals during experiment EQUIVALENT Max (10)

44

Appendix A

Rubrics for Individual / Group Project/Activity

Laboratory Experiment – As Per Detailed Laboratory Instruction Sheet

NAME / GROUP NUMBER : __________________________ DATE:___________________

YEAR & SECTION : __________________________

TERM : __________________________

I. Results : 80%

Laboratory Report Rubric

Parameter Excellent Fair Needs

Improvement

Poor Score

10 7 3 1

Accuracy 0 to 5% error 6 to 10% error

11 to 15% error More than

15% error

Written Report

No spelling nor grammar error

With occasional error

Many errors Incomplete sentences, tense changes, misspelling

Conclusion Conclusions address and logically refute or explain the data

Conclusions have little or no basis in data provided

Conclusions are present but weak.

Conclusions poorly addressed the data provided

II. Safety...………………………………… 10% (Performed and observed in all aspects the safety requirements in the laboratory)

III. Cleanliness ………………………… 10% (Area after the activity)

______________________________ Signature over printed name INSTRUCTOR

NO. BASIC WEIGHT (10

Max) EQUIVALENT

1 Wearing of Laboratory gowns

2 No accident/breakage occurred during the term.

3 Proper use of apparatus and equipment

4 Wearing of safety goggles when required

5 Proper handling of chemicals during experiment

EQUIVALENT

Max (10)

Scene 45 (1h 22m 43s)

[Audio] 45 Appendix B: Oxidation Numbers of Common Ions I. ELEMENTS OF FIXED NEGATIVE OXIDATION NUMBER -1 -3 1. Bromide Br 1. Arsenide As 2. Chloride Cl 2. Nitride N 3. Fluoride F 3. Phosphide P 4. Hydride H 5. Iodide I -2 -4 1. Oxide O 1. Carbide ( carbon) C 2. Sulfide S II. ELEMENTS OF VARIABLE OXIDATION NUMBER 1. Antimony (III) Sb+3 17. Lead (II) Pb+2 2. Antimony (V) Sb+5 18. Lead ( IV) Pb+4 3. Arsenic ( III) As-3 19. Manganese (II) Mn+2 4. Arsenic (V) As+5 20. Manganese (IV) Mn+ 4 5. Bismuth (III) Bi+3 21. Mercury ( I) Hg2+2 6. Bismuth (V) Bi+ 5 22. Mercury (II) Hg+2 7. Chromium (II) Cr+2 23. Nickel (II) Ni+2 8. Chromium (III) Cr+3 24. Nickel (IV) Ni+4 9. Cobalt (II) Co+2 25. Nitrogen (III) N+3 10. Cobalt (III) Co+3 26. Nitrogen (V) N+5 11. Copper (I) Cu+1 27. Phosphorus (III) P+ 3 12. Copper (II) Cu+ 2 28. Phosphorus (V) P+5 13. Gold (I) Au+1 29. Platinum (II) Pt+2 14. Gold (III) Au+3 30. Platinum (IV) Pt+4 15. Iron (II) Fe+2 31. Tin (II) Sn+2 16. Iron (III) Fe+3 32. Tin (IV) Sn+4 III. ELEMENTS OF FIXED POSITIVE OXIDATION NUMBER +1 +2 1. Hydrogen H 1. Barium Ba 2. Lithium Li 2. Cadmium Cd 3. Potassium K 3. Calcium Ca 4. Silver Ag 4. Magnesium Mg 5. Sodium Na 5. Radium Ra 6. Strontium Sr 7. Zinc Zn +3 +4 1. Aluminum Al 1. Carbon C 2. Boron B 2. Silicon Si

45

Appendix B: Oxidation Numbers of Common Ions

I. ELEMENTS OF FIXED NEGATIVE OXIDATION NUMBER

-1 -3

1. Bromide Br 1. Arsenide As

2. Chloride Cl 2. Nitride N

3. Fluoride F 3. Phosphide P

4. Hydride H

5. Iodide I

-2 -4

1. Oxide O 1. Carbide (carbon) C

2. Sulfide S

II. ELEMENTS OF VARIABLE OXIDATION NUMBER 1. Antimony (III) Sb+3 17. Lead (II) Pb+2

2. Antimony (V) Sb+5 18. Lead (IV) Pb+4

3. Arsenic (III) As-3 19. Manganese (II) Mn+2

4. Arsenic (V) As+5 20. Manganese (IV) Mn+4

5. Bismuth (III) Bi+3 21. Mercury (I) Hg2+2

6. Bismuth (V) Bi+5 22. Mercury (II) Hg+2

7. Chromium (II) Cr+2 23. Nickel (II) Ni+2

8. Chromium (III) Cr+3 24. Nickel (IV) Ni+4

9. Cobalt (II) Co+2 25. Nitrogen (III) N+3

10. Cobalt (III) Co+3 26. Nitrogen (V) N+5

11. Copper (I) Cu+1 27. Phosphorus (III) P+3

12. Copper (II) Cu+2 28. Phosphorus (V) P+5

13. Gold (I) Au+1 29. Platinum (II) Pt+2

14. Gold (III) Au+3 30. Platinum (IV) Pt+4

15. Iron (II) Fe+2 31. Tin (II) Sn+2

16. Iron (III) Fe+3 32. Tin (IV) Sn+4

III. ELEMENTS OF FIXED POSITIVE OXIDATION NUMBER

+1 +2

1. Hydrogen H 1. Barium Ba

2. Lithium Li 2. Cadmium Cd

3. Potassium K 3. Calcium Ca

4. Silver Ag 4. Magnesium Mg

5. Sodium Na 5. Radium Ra

6. Strontium Sr

7. Zinc Zn

+3 +4

1. Aluminum Al 1. Carbon C

2. Boron B 2. Silicon Si

Scene 46 (1h 30m 1s)

[Audio] 46 IV. OXIDATION NUMBERS OF COMMON RADICALS +1 1. Ammonium NH4 -1 -1 1. Acetate C2H3O2 16. Hypobromite BrO 2. Aluminate Al(OH) 4 17. Hypochlorite ClO 3. Bicabonate HCO3 18 Hyphosphate H2PO2 4. Bismuthate BiO3 19. Iodite IO2 5. Bisulphate HSO4 20. Iodate IO3 6. Bisulfite HSO3 21. Metaborate BO2 7. Bromite BrO2 22. Metaphosphate PO3 8. Bromate BrO3 23. Metaarsenate AsO2 9. Chlorate ClO3 24. Nitrate NO3 10. Chlorite ClO2 25. Nitrite NO2 11. Cyanate CNO 26. Perchlorate ClO4 12. Cyanide CN 27. Periodate IO4 13. Hyrogensulphate HSO4 28. Permanganate MnO4 14. Dihydrogenphosphate H2PO4 29. Thiocyanate SCN 15. Hydroxide OH -2 -2 1. Biphosphite HPO3 10. Sulphate SO4 2. Carbonate CO3 11. Sulfite SO3 3. Chromate CrO4 12. Stannate SnO3 4. Dichromate Cr2O7 13. Stannite SnO2 5. Manganate MnO4 14. Tetraborate B4O7 6. Molybdate MoO4 15. Tetrathionate S4O6 7. Oxalate C2O4 16. Thiosulfate S2O3 8. Peroxide O2 17. Zincate ZnO2 or 9. Silicate SiO3 Zn(OH)4 -3 -4 1. Antimonate SbO4 1. Ferrocyanide Fe( CN)6 2. Antimonite SbO3 2. Pyroarsenate As2O7 3. Arsenate AsO4 3. Pyrophosphate P2O7 4. Arsenite AsO3 4. Orthosilicate SiO4 5. Borate BO3 6. Ferricyanide Fe(CN)6 7. Phosphate PO4 8. Phosphite PO3

46

IV. OXIDATION NUMBERS OF COMMON RADICALS

+1

1. Ammonium NH4

-1 -1

1. Acetate C2H3O2 16. Hypobromite BrO

2. Aluminate Al(OH)4 17. Hypochlorite ClO

3. Bicabonate HCO3 18 Hyphosphate H2PO2

4. Bismuthate BiO3 19. Iodite IO2

5. Bisulphate HSO4 20. Iodate IO3

6. Bisulfite HSO3 21. Metaborate BO2

7. Bromite BrO2 22. Metaphosphate PO3

8. Bromate BrO3 23. Metaarsenate AsO2

9. Chlorate ClO3 24. Nitrate NO3

10. Chlorite ClO2 25. Nitrite NO2

11. Cyanate CNO 26. Perchlorate ClO4

12. Cyanide CN 27. Periodate IO4

13. Hyrogensulphate HSO4 28. Permanganate MnO4

14. Dihydrogenphosphate H2PO4 29. Thiocyanate SCN

15. Hydroxide OH

-2 -2

1. Biphosphite HPO3 10. Sulphate SO4

2. Carbonate CO3 11. Sulfite SO3

3. Chromate CrO4 12. Stannate SnO3

4. Dichromate Cr2O7 13. Stannite SnO2

5. Manganate MnO4 14. Tetraborate B4O7

6. Molybdate MoO4 15. Tetrathionate S4O6

7. Oxalate C2O4 16. Thiosulfate S2O3

8. Peroxide O2 17. Zincate ZnO2 or

9. Silicate SiO3 Zn(OH)4

-3 -4

1. Antimonate SbO4 1. Ferrocyanide Fe(CN)6

2. Antimonite SbO3 2. Pyroarsenate As2O7

3. Arsenate AsO4 3. Pyrophosphate P2O7

4. Arsenite AsO3 4. Orthosilicate SiO4

5. Borate BO3

6. Ferricyanide Fe(CN)6

7. Phosphate PO4

8. Phosphite PO3

Scene 47 (1h 36m 34s)

[Audio] 47 Appendix C: The Periodic Table of Elements

47

Appendix C: The Periodic Table of Elements

He Li Be

Scene 48 (1h 36m 42s)

[Audio] 48 References Text book/s : Brown, LeMay, Burnsten, Murphy, Woodward ( 2009). Chemistry The Central Science, Prentice Hall Silberberg, Martin (2009), Principles of General Chemistry, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill ChemTeC Project Writing Team ( 1973), Modern Chemical Technology, Volume No. 18, American Chemical Society

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References

Text book/s : Brown, LeMay, Burnsten, Murphy, Woodward (2009). Chemistry The Central Science,

Prentice Hall

Silberberg, Martin (2009), Principles of General Chemistry, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill

ChemTeC Project Writing Team (1973), Modern Chemical Technology, Volume No. 1- 8, American Chemical Society