ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTHCARE     student's name institutional affiliation ethical issues in healthcare professor's name date

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ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTHCARE     student’s name institutional affiliation ethical issues in healthcare professor’s name date

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Ethical issues can be defined as standard in healthcare centers that are aimed at providing quality services to customers. Ethical standards are used in healthcare centers to ensure that patients are provided with quality care in their time of need at standard cost. According to Tom L. Beauchamp , there are four basic principles used to evaluate the benefits and difficulties of medical processes: Autonomy is used when determining a patient's desires to protect their sovereignty. The second principle is justice which ensures that patients are treated equally. The Third principle is beneficence that determines a patient's need and ensures the best services are provided. Non-maleficence is used to calculate the number of damages to avoid.

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Types of ethical issues in a healthcare center. Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders

DNR order is given by the doctor who commands healthcare workers that they should not perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if a patient seizes from breathing or if his heart rests from pumping . DNR allows the doctor to ask permission from the patient so that he can perform CPR. In 2017, a man known as Florida was rushed to the hospital since he was unconscious . In the ICU, the doctors saw his chest, which a tattoo labelled "do-not-resuscitate.” The doctors had to obey the note articulated in the tattoo since the man was unable to speak . Doctors should sometimes consider CPR since it can deteriorate the current condition for patients . However, during severe pain, CPR is necessary since it saves the life of a patient from death.

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Doctor and patient confidentiality

The confidentiality for patients should not be violated since ethical consequences may arise hence harassing the healthcare workers. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) is used to protect the confidentiality of patients. The act necessitates the physicians and doctors to guard the security and privacy of patient's medical information. Exposing medical information is unethical since it harms the patient or another person.

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Doctor and patient confidentiality cont.

Healthcare workers who tell medical records should be suspended or fired from work since they have violated patients' privacy. Posting information on social media about a particular patient is unethical and may harm the healthcare worker. HIPP laws forbid exposure of health data on social media platforms since patients end up losing their privacy.

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Malpractice and Negligence

Malpractice can be defined as wrong calculations that result in the death of many patients. Medical errors have caused numerous death in the United States of America. Physicians and nurses are responsible for the recovery of patients through the correct treatment of illness. Doctors should first diagnose patients by testing the cause of sickness to administer the best medication to the patient. Surgeons should be careful when performing surgery on sensitive parts like the brain. Negligence in hospitals can be a result of delayed diagnosis or using faulty medical equipment.

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Malpractice and Negligence cont.

Negligence can result in death since correct procedures for medication are not followed. Some diseases are difficult to diagnose; for instance, blood cancer is difficult to cure and can only be minimized by taking some medicines to boost the immunity of the cancer patient. Symptoms may be an incorrect sign of disease since some other conditions have similar symptoms and signs . Doctors should be careful to test the correct disease then provide the best medication to patients.

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Access to care

The United States of America encouraged health insurance cover wherein 2017, the number of people insured rose by 2.3 million and summed up to 294.6 million . Some Americans without healthcare insurance could face difficulties in accessing medication. World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes affordable medicines to all citizens in a country since most people have low income to cater for their treatment. World Health Organization (WHO) aims at improving healthcare services by giving free medicines to help the people who find it difficult to afford medical services. The government should provide free medication in public hospitals to help the lower class people access medical services.

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Physician-Assisted Suicide

PAS is unethical since the patient may be unaware of his or her death . Some family members may suggest PAS for their patients who are about to die to minimize the cost of medication. A state can do PAS to criminals oppose government laws. PAS should be opposed to those families who feel that a patient due financial burden pressures them. PAS is a kind of discrimination that is caused to patients in the ICU and should be opposed since God is the sole giver of life, and he is responsible for taking it back.

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In conclusion, ethical standards should be considered in health centers to enable people to access quality services from health workers . Health records should be kept secure and private to avoid risks of losing a job or being suspended. Doctors are supposed to consult their patients before performing surgery. The government and World Health Organization should provide free medication to enable people with low-income access to medication. Regulation should be set to prevent discrimination against people with low income. Physician-Assisted Suicide should be omitted in hospitals since some people in ICU can recover after some time.

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Bastani , P., Sheykhotayefeh , M., Tahernezhad , A., Hakimzadeh , S. M., & Rikhtegaran , S. (2020). Reflections on COVID-19 and the ethical issues for healthcare providers.  International Journal of Health Governance . Gur- Arie , R., Jamrozik , E., & Kingori , P. (2021). No jab, no job? Ethical issues in mandatory COVID-19 vaccination of healthcare personnel.  BMJ Global Health ,  6 (2), e004877. Montreuil, M., Martineau, J. T., & Racine, E. (2019). Exploring ethical issues related to patient engagement in healthcare: Patient, clinician and researcher’s perspectives.  Journal of bioethical inquiry ,  16 (2), 237-248.