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Introduction to Ecology Dr. K.Shoba M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D Asst.Professor, Department of Biochemistry, D.K.M College for Women (Autonomous), Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..

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[Audio] Biosphere contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exist, including land, water and atmosphere.

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. . Atmosphere Ecosphere Hyüosphere Lithosphere Biosphere.

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[Audio] Level of Organization of an Ecosystem. . .

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[Audio] Species • Species - group of organisms so similar to another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.

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[Audio] Population • Population – same species and live in same area.

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[Audio] Community • Communities – different populations that live together in a defined area.

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[Audio] Ecosystem • Ecosystem – a collection of all organisms that live in a particular place together with their nonliving environment..

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[Audio] Biome • Biome – a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities..

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[Audio] What shapes an Ecosystem?. . . What shapes an Ecosystem?.

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[Audio] Biotic and Abiotic • Biotic and Abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which an organism lives..

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[Audio] Biotic Factors • Living Factors that influence an ecosystem • Plant life • Animal life.

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[Audio] Abiotic Factors • Physical, non-living factors that influence an ecosystem • Examples temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, nutrients, sunlight.

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[Audio] Other factors that affect an Ecosystem • The area where an organism lives is called its habitat. • Habitats provide populations of wildlife with food, water, shelter and space. • A niche is the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions. It is an organisms' occupation..

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. . Niche • Each species occupies a niche in the community. A niche is the role the species plays, and includes the type of food it eats, where it lives, where it reproduces, and its relationships with other species. 12 Feeas jn me rn«e Svuce tree May at me tim ot branch« near the top ot the tre in the lower pan O' the at the baws ot the brvrhes.

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[Audio] Cycles that affect Ecosystems. . . Cycles that affect Ecosystems.

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[Audio] Water Cycle. . . Water Cycle. Condensation tttt 'Transpiration The Watev Cycle (The Hydrologjc cycle) Precipitation Surface Runoff Condensat ion (Clouds farm) tttt Evaporation Accumulation.

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[Audio] Definitions • Evaporation – process of becoming a vapor; liquid to a gas • Condensation – state of matter from gas to liquid; reverse of vaporization • Precipitation – the amount of water that falls to earth as snow, sleet, hail, rain, mist • Transpiration – loss of water from a plant through its leaves • Runoff – the flow of water, from snow and rain • Infiltration – process by which water on the ground enters soil.

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[Audio] Carbon Cycle. . . Carbon Cycle. Combustion gives off CO Animals eat plan 'g which contain carbon Green plants absorb CO Animals respire and gives off CO matter qives off C.

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[Audio] CO2 Cycle Description • Plants release O2 into atmosphere as a waste product • Animals release CO2 into atmosphere as a waste product • Factories and cars release CO2 into atmosphere through combustion. • Plants use CO2 during photosynthesis and animals use O2 for respiration..

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[Audio] Energy Flow • Every organism needs energy to power life's processes • The flow of energy through an ecosystem is one of the most important factors that determines the ability to sustain life.

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. . Sun 44 Plants Energy Flow Primary consumer Se dary Energy flow Consumer Decomposers.

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[Audio] Autotrophs • Captures energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food. • Other names are producers or plants. • Are essential for the flow of energy through the biosphere • Produce food through Photosynthesis.

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. Phototö.vu SUN GREEN PIANT Chain Chloroplast* LIGHT Reduced Carl»n Compounds Herbivores Carnivores Chemosynthetic Food Chain Carnivores Bacteria SULFIDE Reduced Carbon Compounds Hydrothermal Vent SULFIDE.

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[Audio] Examples ofAutotrophs. . . Examples ofAutotrophs.

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[Audio] Heterotrophs • Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply. • Consumer is another name • Types of Consumers • Herbivores • Carnivores • Omnivores • Decomposers • Detritivores.

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[Audio] Examples of Consumers. . . Examples of Consumers.

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[Audio] Decomposers • Breaks down dead/ decay matter • Bacteria and fungi are examples of decomposers • Detritivores feed on plant/ animal remains • Millipedes and earthworms are detritivores.

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[Audio] Parasites A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from or at the expense of its host. Example – Tick, Flea, Tapeworm.

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[Audio] Energy Flow Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from the sun to autotrophs ( producers) and then to heterotrophs ( consumers)..

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[Audio] Food Chains • A food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten..

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[Audio] Food Web • A network of complex feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem.

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[Audio] Energy Pyramid • Trophic level is each step in a food chain/ web • A diagram that shows the amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain/web • Only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is passed to organisms in the next trophic level..

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[Audio] • Ecological Succession a series of predictable changes in an environment.

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[Audio] Succession • Primary Succession – succession that occurs on the surface where no soil exists • Pioneer Species first species to populate the area • Examples- lichen and moss.

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[Audio] Examples of Pioneer Species • Lichen. . .

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. Primary Succession (no life already existed here) Bare rock Mosses and lichens grow and form soil when they die TIME Soil develops and then grasses and small plants grow Soil thickens and smaller shrubs grow Trees start to grow.

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[Audio] Succession • Secondary Succession – following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil. • Example- land cleared and plowed for farming • Example – Fires set by lightning.

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. . Secondary Succession Fire Pioneer Species Annual plants 0 years 1-2 years 2006 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Grasses and perennials 3-4 years Intermediate Species Grasses,shrubs, pines, young oak and hickory 5-150 years Climax Community fature oakGd hickory forest 150+ years.