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INFRASTRUCRURE OF INTERNET

LECTURER NAME: MADAM NORLIDA NAME: NUR AISHAH BINTI AMAT KHAMIS ID: 59106119292

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DEFINITION

Internet infrastructure is the physical hardware, transmission media, and software used to interconnect computers and users on the Internet. Internet infrastructure is responsible for hosting, storing, processing, and serving the information that makes up websites, applications, and content.

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An ADSL modem, one of the ways to connect to the Internet.

The home of the internet infrastructure is the data center, a secure building housing computer equipment and network connectivity devices. It is staffed by a full-time team of operators and equipped with enough power to run and cool the equipment. It also has systems to regulate climate, suppress fires, and prevent unauthorized access.

The internet infrastructure is an array of remote hardware and software working to send and receive information to various systems. Every instance of a page loading on a computer ’ s web browser, a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed streaming into a reader, or a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) call being made represents this complex internet infrastructure. Its basic components include data centers, networks, servers, storage devices, and server applications. The hardware may be localized in specific countries, but the network infrastructures spans international boundaries to make the internet a worldwide phenomenon available in any region that has a functioning localized network.

The internet infrastructure is an array of remote hardware and software working to send and receive information to various systems. Every instance of a page loading on a computer ’ s web browser, a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed streaming into a reader, or a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) call being made represents this complex internet infrastructure. Its basic components include data centers, networks, servers, storage devices, and server applications. The hardware may be localized in specific countries, but the network infrastructures spans international boundaries to make the internet a worldwide phenomenon available in any region that has a functioning localized network.

WHAT IS INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE?

THE COMPONENT OF INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE

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Fourth component of the internet infrastructure is storage devices. Storage capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB) or terabytes (TB). Storage devices may be local, meaning on the hard drives of the servers themselves, or they may be remote, connected to one server or many by means of a network. The fifth component of the internet infrastructure is the operating software for the servers, or the server applications. In order to function, a server must have an operating system like Linux or Windows, a web server application such as Apache or Microsoft IIS, and a database, for example MySQL or Oracle. Once a server is equipped with this software, the user can install any other subsidiary web applications on it that are needed. All of the components work together to form the internet infrastructure, which transmits information worldwide.

A network of processors and storage devices within a data center is the second component of the internet infrastructure. Measured in megabits per second ( mbps ), the network allows data to be transferred between processors and storage devices in the data center and to other data centers. The ultimate goal is for the information to reach the computer or device of the end-user. The third component, servers, are high-end computers resembling a desktop PC, but with much greater storage and processing capacity. Servers are measured in units of processing power and RAM storage capability, and must be connected to a power supply, or several power supplies, as well as to the network and an installed operating system. A server can consist of a single computer, a pool of computers, or even a cluster of pools.

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THE CONNECTION WERE MADE VIA: 1. Local Area Network 2. Paging network 3. Satellite network all using packet switch

The hardware may be localized in specific countries, but the network infrastructure spans international boundaries to make the internet a worldwide phenomenon.

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A network starts with a data terminal equipment whose function is to convert any information to electrical signal and to arrange these signal in the form of packets arranged in accordance with rules established by INTERNET PROTOCOL. Similar to letters enclosed in ENVELOPES with stamp attached and dropped in the post office. NETWORK ADDRESSING: Each computer or device connected to the internet has a unique address which distinguishes it from every other computer or device. No two devices have the same address. IP version 4 (IPv4) has a 32-bit address field giving approximately 4.3 Billion unique addresses.

By 1973 to ensure an open system, Internet Protocol (IP) was developed to enable different LAN’s work together Different LAN’s were interconnected using GATEWAYS (now called ROUTER) Internet infrastructure can be said to consist of 3 major components IP ADDRESS/ DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM SERVERS/ (INTERNET PROTOCOL) SWITCHES and TRANSMISSION LINKS (NETWORK) All these are interconnected to produce a complex interconnection of computers, devices, and sub-networks.

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The world will soon run out of IP addresses when we begin to have widespread adoption of 4G or 5G services, the network of things (devices, sensors, embedded microchips e.t.c ) Virtually anything can in future be assigned an IP address and connected to the internet space. IP version 6 (IPv6) has been developed to address this future explosion of the internet. IPv6 uses 128 bit address space, this will provide us with 340 Billion Billion Billion Billion unique addresses 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 addresses

Internet infrastructure components •The Internet' Global ISPs Backbones Access by: phone line or cable Home PC (client) Local Access by: leased line or phone line Local Business e-mail or web server Business PCs (clients) Physical and network infrastructure components of the Internet

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Simply defined, the Internet is a very large network of many other computer networks. The United States Government played an important role in creating what eventually became the Internet during the 1960s. The Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded early research into packet switching technology, which computer systems use to communicate. This approach differed from the way telephone systems transmitted data. Packet switching technology led to the development of ARPANET, the Internet's predecessor.

EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE

Access Infrastructure Foundation for aQ•ssing the Internet Content Infrastructure For hosting content and exchanging traffic Digital Hub Ecosystem for developing local content and services Digital Transformation Digitalization of all economic sectors and organizations

Wide Area Networks (Internet) Routers Backbone Cables (mostly Fiber Ca mpus Routers Uofl CampusArea Network A Cloud??? Switch the e cabl Router LAN End-point Prairienet Server Prairienet Server Internet Service Providers Local Area Network (LAN) End-points Campus Fiber Optic Cables Other School Nodes Other Building Routers LANs Other Building Switches & Nodes

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THANK YOU

for lending me your ears…