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[Audio] SPACES FOR CREATIVE EXPRESSION WITHIN THE PUBLIC REALM A case of Dharavi Art culture

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[Audio] DECLARATION I , Shraddha Ghuge, declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where others' ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misinterpreted or fabricated or falsified any idea/ data/ fact/ source in my submission. I understand that any violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (Signature) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ( Name of the student and roll no.) Date:.

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[Audio] APPROVAL SHEET Thesis Approval for Dissertation for B. Arch Thesis This thesis / dissertation/ project report titled ' Spaces for creative expression within the public realm: A case of Dharavi art culture', by Shraddha Ghuge is approved for the Degree of Bachelors of Architecture. Examiners: 1. _________ 2. _________.

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[Audio] ACKNOWLEDGMENT I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to those who helped, guided, and supported me along the way. To start with, I wish to thank God for this opportunity and blessing and my Family who always Supported, encouraged, and inspired me throughout this course with their never-ending faith. Thank You to my mentor Pinkish Shah, the thesis could not have been crafted without his guidance and constant encouragement Thank You my research writing guide Ginella George for helping me bring my thoughts together and form my thesis. My sincere thanks to all of the faculties, Rohan Shivkumar, Sonal Sundararajan, Hussain Indorwala, Vikram Pawar, Ankush Chandran, Mansi Bhatt, for their important inputs on my project. Thank you to all the thesis panellists for their criticism and reviews which strengthened my project. I would like to thank the rest of the faculty and the college for creating a stimulating and informative environment that fostered and strengthened my interest in this field. The information I gathered from all my interviewees helped me put together my thesis. I would like to thank them for their willingness to share their information with me. Special Thanks to all my friends, Rutuja Ghuge, Akshata Ghuge, Maitreyee amale, Mahima Chaudhary, Dhairya Doshi, Keyur Ambavane, Darshita Malaviya, Riya Banduk, Ritu Adsul. Some of you had faith in me and some of you didn't but thank you for listening to my ideas and constant encouragement to go through this semester. The journey was a lot of fun because of you. Thank you!.

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[Audio] CONTENTS ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION .. .1-2 2. LITERATURE REVIEW .. .3- 7 3. ART .. .8- 10 3.1 A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE .. .11- 12 3.2 ART AND CREATIVE EXPRESSION .. .13- 14 3.3 ART AND IDENTITY .. .15- 18 3.4 ART AND POWER .. .19- 20 3.5 ART AND CULTURE .. . 21- 22 4. MUMBAI CITY AND ART .. .23- 28 4.1 PURPOSE OF ART .. .29- 34 4.2 ART'S ROLE IN SOCIETY .. .35- 36 5. DHARAVI .. .37- 38 5.1 DHARAVI'S EVOLUTION .. .39- 40 5.2 DHARAVI'S LIVING CONDITION .. .43- 48 5.3 MAPPING OF INSTITUTES .. .49- 54 5.4 DHARAVI'S ART CULTURE .. .55- 56 5.5 SITE STUDY .. .57- 68 6. CONCLUSION .. .69 7. CASE STUDIES .. . 70- 75 8. APPENDIX .. .76 8.1 BIBLOGRAPHY .. .77- 78 8.2 LIST OF FIGURES .. .79 8.3 REFERENCES .. .80 Fig. 1.

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[Audio] Fig. 2 ABSTRACT In today's world, where society is alienated from itself, all of us are lost in performing our conventional roles in society. Currently we spend most of our time in two spaces- the home, and the workplace. There is no intermediate space where we can pause for a moment. A space for happily anticipated gatherings and for creative expression. A space for our mind, body and spirit which allows us to express ourselves and helps us rediscover our own identity. A space which is a neutral ground, free from social bias for people with shared interests to come together and practice. These spaces can be called as third places. I use art as a medium to understand these spaces. Art plays a big role in community building. It is a form of human expression and creativity. It can create spaces that are inclusive of creativity and curiosity which brings people together and engages with society. To understand its further role, this dissertation looks at studying public gathering spaces for creative expression in informal communities within the urban context of Mumbai. This further leads to realise the potential to study public gathering spaces for art practices in Dharavi slums, Mumbai - a slum with diverse communities, various art practices and unexplored talent because of lack of opportunities. Through the study, the research tries to understand, the need of spaces which enables creative expression. The impact of Spaces for creative expression in society and particularly in Dharavi. The potential of such spaces to become an opportunity for society to explore their own identity and how these stitch communities together and reconnect with who we are and with the world outside on more profound levels. ---- T he thesis enquires into the impact of Spaces for creative expression within the public realm and its role in community building and creating identities through developing spaces for communities to gather that act as a neutral ground. '' Community develops for itself a medium for selfexpression and interpretation. art either manifests, articulates, or reconfigures the style of a culture from within the world of that culture. In this sense, art is capable of revealing someone else's world and producing a shared understanding.'' 1.

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[Audio] 1. INTRODUCTION In our everyday life most of us spend time at home [first space] and work [second space]. Home is our personal space. It provides us security, identity, stability, and emotional warmth. Workplace is a social place where we create social identity and professional connections. It is our means of earning by providing services. we even end up spending most of our time at workplace. All of us are so consumed in these two spaces that there is no intermediate space inbetween where people come together to engage and express. Not professionally but personally. These spaces can be considered as Thirdplace. Thirdplace is important for civil society, democracy, civic engagement, and establishing feelings of a sense of place. ''Third places host the regular, voluntary, informal, and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work.''2 It is a space that is for everyone to express themselves creatively. Where people gather and practice, learns things together and build a community. A neutral ground which belongs to everyone regardless of their social status. Such spaces bring communities together. When communities come together, they exchange their culture, ideas, and skills. It becomes a place of diversity. It is not an art class where there are teachers who teach students and students who pay fees. It does not have a certain schedule where one can express and practice for a fixed time. It is a place by people for people. The purpose of this social space is for people to gather together to practice art, exchange ideas, engage with new people and their culture and the world outside, to relax, have a freedom of expression, focus on common issues for the betterment of the community and the humankind and work on it intuitively. When spaces which offers means and facilities for expressing creativity are not publicly shared, they become the objects of private ownership and consumption and hence these spaces can become expensive. Thirdplace can be explained as means for people to gather easily, inexpensively, regularly, and pleasurably. Most needed are those 'third places' which lend a public balance to the increased privatization of home life. The third place is remarkably similar to a good home in the psychological comfort and support that it extends. They are the heart of a community's social vitality, the grassroots of democracy. Third places are " anchors" of community life and facilitate and foster broader, more creative interaction. Why there is a need of spaces which enable creative expression? What is the impact of Thirdplace in society and particularly in dharavi? What is the potential of such spaces to become an opportunity for society to explore their own identity? How these stitch communities together and reconnect with who we are and with the world outside on more profound levels? ---- The research investigates such spaces in Dharavi slums, located in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is considered to be one of Asia's largest slums with an area of just over 2.1 square kilometres and a population of about 1 million. It was founded in 1884 during the British colonial era and grew because the expulsion of factories and residents from the peninsular city centre by the colonial government and from the migration of rural Indians into urban Mumbai. For this reason, Dharavi is currently a highly diverse settlement by religion and ethnicity. Being home to about 1 million people that come from a wide range of religions, races, and castes. The people of Dharavi live in perfect harmony, making the slum an epitome of secularism. Dharavi is an outstanding example of an informal human settlement. Dharavi represents India's tradition of adapting village form, life, and culture into a settlement solution for large cities. My personal experience in Dharavi was overwhelming in a way that while talking to people there especially the kids I felt welcomed. Kids were super enthusiastic and curious to know about what I am doing and why I am doing it. They roamed along with me everywhere and guided me through all the gullies. Where we saw a lot of art practices happening in small patches of the area. When we would visit places, it was an instant reaction in them due to curiosity to experiment and try with the material there. With the diverse communities and culture in dharavi, there are diverse range of art practices including painting, digital art, photography, idol making. There are over 200- 250 idol making workshops generating revenue. From kids to older people everyone is into it. It is also quite a prominent contributor in entertainment industry as Dharavi's art culture is evolving through a lot of people's interests in Music, hip-hop, rap, beat-boxing. People will randomly be seen dancing and rapping There are some who photograph and videograph it to upload on YouTube and other social media. Overall young generation is involved into creative practices. Since houses are small in size, all these practices happen in gullies, terraces, under the bridges or in maidans. I see these places as third places of Dharavi. They allow people to gather easily, participate inexpensively and inclusively. But are these spaces influential enough to serve their creativity? What impact do these spaces have and how can they be planned better? What role does architecture play to make these spaces an opportunity for them to present and engage with the society within and outside? 1 Fig. 1.1 2.

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[Audio] 2. LITRATURE REVIEW Literature review: Theoretical approach to understand spaces within the public realm 2.1 Understanding spaces through spatial triad The production of space - Lefebvre, H. The spatial Triad is a model created by Henri Lefebvre. This model provides a framework to recognize the three elements of producing space. These three elements of the Spatial Triad are 'spatial practices', ' representation of space' and 'representational space'. Books 1. Lefebvre, H. [ 1992]. The production of space. 2. Edward Soja. [ 1996]. Thirdspace 3. Oldenburg, R. [ 1991]. The Great Good Place. 4. William Whyte. [ 1980]. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces • Spatial practices Also described as perceived space. perceived space is a space of daily reality and urban reality. It embodies a close association. It is the social setting within which we live, influences the individual in many ways. Space keeps evolving. A spatial practice must have a certain cohesiveness. cohesion through space implies, in connection with social practice and the relating of individuals to that space. These are the spaces we inhabit and perceive. • Representation of space Also described as conceived space. It is a conceptual space. This is a book of professionals/ literate people of the society. This space is called the dominant space in the society because the mode of the production happens here. One ends up spending more time here than any other space. • Representational space Also described as lived space. This is the space of inhabitants and users. Dominated and passively experienced. These are the spaces which are Felt and experienced. The lived space concerns how human beings use the space and, most importantly, retrofit and mold the space for their own use. 2.2 Understanding Thirdspace Thirdspace- Edward Soja Soja's theory of Thirdspace sees three urban spaces: Firstspace, Secondspace and Thirdspace. Soja constructs Thirdspace from the spatial trialectics established by Henri Lefebvre in The Production of Space and Michel Foucault's concept of heterotopia. • First space- He defines Firstspace as a physical space. Firstspace is the 'real' space – the urban built form of physical buildings that can be mapped and seen. It is about the relations between society and nature and the human built environment. • Secondspace He defines second space as conceptual space. He explains how that space is conceived in the minds of the people who inhabit it. • Thirdspace Thirdspace takes this thinking further – it combines First and Second space to create what Soja describes as, 'a fully lived space, a simultaneously real-and-imagined, actualand-virtual locus of structured individuality and collective experience. Thirdspace, then, is the experience of life. 3 4 Fig.2.1- Spatial triad Thirdspace can be described as a creative recombination and extension, one that builds on a Firstspace perspective and Secondspace perspective. This is action in the real space (Firstspace) enacted through the expectations of the Secondspace. "Thirdspace as an-Other way of understanding and acting to change the spatiality of human life. In Thirdspace " everything comes together… subjectivity and objectivity, the and the concrete, the real and the imagined, the knowable and the unimaginable, the repetitive and the differential, structure and agency, mind and body, consciousness, and the unconscious, the disciplined and the transdisciplinary, everyday life and unending history."3 ----.

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[Audio] 2.3 Thirdplace in public realm The Great Good Place - Oldenburg, R. He explains the importance of informal public gathering places and how and why these places are essential to community and public life, arguing that "third places" are central to local democracy and community vitality. Third places, then, are " anchors" of community life and facilitate and foster broader, more creative interaction. Other scholars have summarized Oldenburg's view of a third place with eight characteristics. • Neutral ground Occupants of third places have little to no obligation to be there. They are not tied down to the area financially, politically, legally, or otherwise and are free to come and go as they please. • Leveler (a leveling place) Third places put no importance on an individual's status in a society. One's socioeconomic status does not matter in a third place, allowing for a sense of commonality among its occupants. There are no prerequisites or requirements that would prevent acceptance or participation in the third place. • Conversation is the main activity Playful and happy conversation is the focus of activity in third places, although it is not required to be the only activity. The tone of conversation is usually light-hearted and humorous, wit and good-natured playfulness is highly valued. • Accessibility and accommodation Third places must be open and readily accessible to those who occupy them. They must also be accommodating, meaning they provide for the wants of their inhabitants, and all occupants feel their needs have been fulfilled. • The regulars Third places harbor several regulars that help give the space its tone and help set the mood and characteristics of the area. Regulars to third places also attract newcomers, and are there to help someone new to the space feel welcome and accommodated. • A low profile Third places are characteristically wholesome. The inside of a third place is without extravagance or grandiosity and has a homely feel. Third places are never snobby or pretentious, and are accepting of all types of individuals, from various walks of life. • The mood is playful The tone of conversation in third places is never marked with tension or hostility. Instead, third places have a playful nature, where witty conversation and frivolous banter are not only common, but highly valued. • A home away from home Occupants of third places will often have the same feelings of warmth, possession, and belonging as they would in their own homes. They feel a piece of themselves is rooted in the space, and gain spiritual regeneration by spending time there. 2.4 Third Place Theory And social spaces: How Arts Organizations Might Builds Community Arts organizations play important roles in their communities beyond providing access to art itself. Arts organizations are also valued venues for human connection. "Interacting with others" as a draw for cultural participation, Culture and Community in a Time of Crisis, revealed desires for cultural organizations to help communities "stay connected" during this time. foster connections through art, but also nurture communities beyond the art. spaces that are not just glorified vestibules between the art and the outside world, but spaces where people can also stay, connect, unwind, and engage. how art organizations continue to serve communities who want to engage from a distance by designing Physical third places that make way for the connection and community people crave from the arts. 5 6 Fig. 2.2- Role of cultural organizations during pandemic crisis..

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[Audio] 2.5 Functions of third places 1. Promoting Democracy As John Dewey once put it, "The heart and final guarantee of democracy is in the free gatherings of neighbours on the street corners to discuss back and forth and converse freely with one another." 2. Neighbourhood Unity Local gathering places allow people to get to know others in the neighbourhood. Bonds are formed. People learn who can be counted on for what. Suspicion of neighbours is eliminated. 3. Multiple Friendships The only way one can have many friends and meet them often is to have a neutral ground gathering place nearby. The more friends' people have, the longer they live. 4. Generation of Social Capital People with diverse skills and interests come to know and trust one another. This has a positive effect on the economy. 5. Lower Cost of Living Third places typically bring together diverse occupations, talents, and skills. What a person needs help with is one of the first topics of conversation in the group, and if one or more members of the group can lend a helping hand, tool, or advice, they will. Most of the people one meets in a third place may be categorized a "weak ties," and in many ways they are more helpful than close friends, for example, in finding a job. 7 8 6. Development of the Individual The location of the home and the nature of the workplace keep us in regular contact with people who are similar to us. Third places bring together people of different occupations, backgrounds, socio-economic standing, and viewpoints. From these people we learn about the world we live in and how to get along better in it. 7. Intellectual Forum The issues of the day and many other matters are discussed regularly and informally, but not chaotically. Participants learn to think well before it's their turn to speak, and ill-considered typically illicit a chorus of disapproval. --- -3. ART.

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[Audio] Fig. 3.2 10 9 Fig. 3.1. . . (iliihii,. ilk'.

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[Audio] Art is the most profound expression of a culture. In the coming decade, humanity will face the challenge of finding a way to live together in a world community. As citizens of a shared society, and with the idea that we are all different, we need to respect, honour, appreciate, and embrace art and culture. Artists, intentionally or unintentionally, create art to communicate at a deeply emotional level with people within their respective cultures. In its best forms, art reaches beyond its cultural matrix and speaks directly to our common humanity. Globalization has already made cultural and economic isolationism improbable, even if it were desirable. Nevertheless, promoting multicultural understanding vigorously is perhaps the most effective thing that can be done. A universal language, such as art, is such a wonderful means of understanding different cultures, histories, and values. As human beings, we construct virtual bridges into unfamiliar cultural landscapes, and we learn, share dreams, and collaborate creatively. In a truly global society, mankind will recognize itself as an integral part of a rich and vibrant community. ---- ''Art is humanity's most essential, most universal language. It is not a frill, but a necessary part of communication.'' 4 A global society cannot only be a gathering place of goods, services, and technical information, but a place where values and visions are exchanged as well. In responding to a work of art, whether it be a painting, photograph, video, film, poem, play, or song, we find that we are inspired and changed. As we allow the messages to reach us, we evolve.The sheer degree to which we encounter and interact with art in some form every day in our lives is often overlooked. The lyrics we hear and read become our life mantras as we choose which songs are most relevant to our mood at home and on the way to work. We inspire one another constantly with images of hope, beauty, and optimism, contributing to the collective power that brings about positive reform. 3.1 A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE Fig. 3.3 12 11.

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[Audio] 3.2 ART and CREATIVE EXPRESSION The universal images that come to us in the form of pictures, symbols, words, and other art forms have the potential to further define us; never dictating how we should react, but rather provoking and cultivating our authentic intentions and feelings. A key role of art is to provide a voice to the disadvantaged, exposing the propaganda and censorship of the ruling power base in order to create social change. As a story that is based on imagination and rebirth, art has the power to alter and positively influence people's perspectives and opinions, instilling values that benefit all, regardless of our backgrounds or beliefs. ---- Fig. 3.4 14 13 In the broadest sense, art encompasses every form of creative expression, and creativity is one of the most powerful forces in the world and in our lives. Creativity offers us inspiration from both the inside and outside, offering us new paths to follow, new ways of seeing and solving problems. Creativity is rooted in the abilities to observe, discover, imagine, and be courageous. It rises up and challenges us, adding to the quality of life. A deep commitment to creativity transforms their lives into a blank page or canvas upon which their hearts are poured...and our world is better for it. At its core, grateful living promotes creativity by asking us to drop into stillness and look at the world with new eyes. It asks us to find opportunities where, at first glance, none seem to be there. The physical body is usually engaged in creative expression in some way, allowing you to develop a stronger connection between your body and mind. By bringing together the senses of fear, outrage, or even consent, your connection to your senses makes your unbounded presence felt. Our behavior and performance are innately determined by the images we are exposed to..

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[Audio] What is Identity? Identity is everything that defines you A person's identity can be simultaneously created and preserved through art. The way we perceive and express ourselves is how we identify ourselves, and each of us expresses, explores, questions our identity through our work. 3.3 ART and IDENTITY Brainstorm Connect Reflect How art helps you find your identity? Fig. 3.6 16 15 Fig. 3.5 How does art express identity? A person can display their feelings, emotions through art, analyze and explain the significance of the art, and evaluate this art form by analyzing a work of art with supporting examples and reasoning. A work of art allows the viewer to gain insight into an individual based on their identity. For artists who are inspired by their identities, the work becomes a place for exploration, expression, and connection. In modern art, identity is such a vital subject. It can be used to celebrate a person's identity, or it can be used to express and teach others what life can be like from a different perspective. It intrigues me that from looking at a piece of art, a picture, we can gain so much insight into another's daily life. We all express ourselves, whether we realize it or not. Sharing our identities is important to creating meaningful work. In the way we present our artwork, our personality shines through, enabling viewers to understand us and establishing our identity among them. ---- Individual Identity Who am I?.

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[Audio] Collective Identity- Who are we? A work of art does not only exemplify the artist's identity, but also that of the entire community that shares the artist's everyday experiences. In this way, people within the community can view the work of art and identify with it as their own experience is reflected on the canvas, lyrics, etc. The word art is therefore a double-barreled phrase. It is a creation of an artist and a creation of the artist. In addition to providing a platform for the creation of art within a community, art also helps to forge a shared identity, as members of the community see themselves reflected in the work. The creative act itself, along with its expression as the work of art, is the artist's personal development. When we look at art as having a dual purpose, it simultaneously creates and preserves both the individual artist's identity as well as the community's identity. Artists, through their art, create and preserve their identity and communities' identity. One such example is Folkmusic. Although folk music can take many forms, it is generally understood as music of the people. Bluegrass, blues, gospel, and Negro spirituals - all of these are types of folk music that come from the everyday experiences of their respective communities. Art represents and transforms the artist's everyday experience, and he can therefore look at his work and identify with it, and he can discover who he is reflected in it. A creator is most intimately connected to his work. The collective individuality of every culture leaves its indelible mark on its art, just as the individuality of its creator leaves its indelible imprint on a work of art. ---- Fig. 3.8 18 17 Fig. 3.7.

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[Audio] Historically, art has been associated with power. It was thought that individuals who made art possessed special abilities at times in history. People could envision shapes and forms and then make them real. The pictures and objects they created from dirt, ashes, and stones resembled living beings. Individuals like these were set apart - they had the power to transform and give life. In addition, the images and objects they created had power as well. In communicating with an unseen world, they exerted influence over the actions and wellbeing of humans. Consequently, both artists and their art were viewed as being magical in the sense that neither existed in the daily, common, or shared realms of existence. Both were considered supernatural and extraordinary. Often, art can be so powerful; it can evoke longlasting feelings that ignite a fire and create a swirl of enthralled feelings inside our hearts. Art can transport our experience beyond space and time in a rapidly changing world. The power of art lies in its ability to reinterpret life through a fresh lens. The world is presented in a way which alters audiences' perspectives and values towards reality. A new understanding of life and existence can be achieved through art, which can affect social change by shifting perceptions. 3.4 ART and POWER The use of art as a motivational tool We are all familiar with the feelings that can be evoked by a wonderful work of art. Art has the power to move people and opens their eyes to new perspectives. Art, whether it is in the form of painting, drama, song, poem, novel, or sculpture, can inspire people to think about life differently. Beauty and pleasure are intrinsic parts of life, and art can assist us in understanding their meaning. Imaginary meets reality in this work, revealing how the artist sees people and places. Life and existence take on a new meaning when people are motivated by it. Due to this, the individual has become aware of a feeling he may not have been attentive to before. Improves comprehension A significant and crucial responsibility of an artist, and of course, all artists have responsibilities, is to help people understand both reality and the imaginary. Realities that are represented in art may influence the audiences' perceptions and perspectives of the world. As a catalyst, art separates facts from assumptions while blending them with imagination to generate a new meaning. This encourages the audience to turn their thoughts and imaginations into something meaningful based on their interpretation of a piece of art. A stimulus sources Art engagement is not limited to introverts. One of the few zones in our culture in which societies may unite to share a single experience even if they view the entire world in drastically different ways is contemporary art. A significant factor in valuing the value of art is that people enjoy reliving moments and seeing new characters projected on canvases by artists. Additionally, art enables us to appreciate instinct, improbability, and imagination and to generate new ideas; artists seek to discover unusual approaches to resolving contemporary problems. Artistic works that address contemporary issues allow their audiences to reach a new level of intellectual maturity by responding metaphysically to them. 19 Fig. 3.9 20.

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[Audio] ''The arts have been used as a tool to enforce and express power in social relations for as long as the arts themselves have been around.'' 5 21 Fig. 3.10 3.5 ART and CULTURE Cultural expression We can learn a lot about a people or nation through art, which is an extremely significant form of creative expression. It is possible to glean information about cultural influences from other places, historical events, cultural values, and the persistence of certain traditions. This can also be accomplished through the resistance to and change of other traditions through art. Individuals use art to express their individuality, but they also use it to connect with others in the culture and express a sense of belonging. Cultural identity A community's cultural history is passed down through generations through art. By studying their cultures' art, younger generations can discover their cultural identity. It is true that one cannot reduce all of one's identity to one's culture, but it is significant. Cultural value is therefore a measure of the worth attributed to activities and aspects of society that involve these areas. Not only does it include the classical and canonical, but also informal, popular, and commercial contexts, in addition to digital and physical interactions. As soon as we expand our discussion to include non-publicly funded art forms, such as commercial, third-sector, amateur, and participatory arts, the conventional focus shifts from publicly funded to non-public. Moreover, it allows us to understand why permeability across those notional boundaries is so relevant. The goal of this approach is to cut across a difficult terrain that has been the scene of many unproductive definitional battles. 22 Every community's development is shaped by the arts. Art serves as a strong conduit through which that expression is expressed. Culture has shown to contribute in substantial ways to factors that underpin learning, such as cognitive ability, confidence, motivation, problem solving, and communication skills. As compared to claims of significant gains in standard tests, where the evidence is less persuasive, these claims are more compelling..

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[Audio] Mumbai is a vibrant mix of traditions, religions, cuisines, music, and fine arts. The city often referred to as ' The City that Never Sleeps' is one of the busiest in India. Mumbai is equally devoted to fun. The way in which the festivals are celebrated reveals this. A major draw to Mumbai is the handmade textiles, jewelry, and textile markets. Antique clocks, wooden furnishings, and paintings can also be found at markets like Chor Bazaar. The food is another reason to travel to Mumbai. Whether it's street food, local favorites, or seafood dishes, your taste buds will thank you for visiting. During the last several years, India's contemporary art scene has gained significant momentum, and Mumbai has played a leading role in this. Mumbai's galleries are fostering emerging artists' careers and enabling established masters to gain international recognition in part by embracing the city's enigmatic combination of chaos and sophistication. 4. MUMBAI CITY and ART Mumbai's Cultural Identity Jehangir Art Gallery Art Gallery Jehangir Art Gallery, one of the oldest and most prestigious art galleries in Mumbai, was established in 1952. It features periodic exhibitions by internationally acclaimed artists, as well as work by local artists and students. There are four large exhibition halls here, and outside, artists often display their work. As one of the leading centres for contemporary art in the area, the Jehangir Art Gallery organizes regular programs on art appreciation, criticism, and history, in addition to its regular exhibitions. Kala Ghoda There are many historical and cultural landmarks in the Kala Ghoda area, including the Jehangir Art Gallery and the Pavement Gallery, the Bombay Natural History Society, the David Sassoon Library and Lions Gate. However, it also refers to a statue of Prince of Wales, then King Edward VII, in black stone. Sassoon, a Jewish businessman and philanthropist, crafted the horse. In its place is the Kala Ghoda statue (literally ' black horse'), which still symbolizes its memory. Visiting the Esplanade Mansion, India's oldest cast iron building, is an essential part of any exploration of Kala Ghoda. The city has its own identity. The purpose of this study is to understand the nature of these spaces and the environment they create. Following are few places in mumbai which brings people together and enables creative expression. 1] Spaces for creative expression- Fort 2] Spaces for creative expression- Dadar 24 23 Fig. 4.1 Third places "host the regular, voluntary, informal, and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work." 6.

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[Audio] Group of people painting Live on the streetS These artists are professional, they sketch live portrait for a living. Artists displaying their artwork for sell. Streets are always crowded by readers. people jamming at the steps. people jamming at the steps. Jehangir Art Gallery Kala Ghoda Fig. 4.2- Spaces for creative expression- Fort 26 25.

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[Audio] Local artists and musicians come here to practice and record since this place is quite pleasant. Whether its to do gymnastics or dance, people find this location convenient. This is a Dadar sea front garden, Place has nice seating spaces, gathering spaces and play area. People often shoot their dance and music videos here. People Dancing/Jamming. Fig. 4.3- Spaces for creative expression- Dadar 28 27.

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[Audio] 4.1. PURPOSE of ART Fig. 4.4. Entertainment 30 29.

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[Audio] 31 Fig. 4.5- Recreation Fig. 4.6- Freedom of Expression 32.

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[Audio] Exchange of idea Fig. 4.8- Exchange of Ideas 34 33 Fig. 4.7- Therapy.

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[Audio] • Art is an expression of individuality. • It involves human engagement with ideas • All art has a purpose, be it for recreation, entertainment, or social justice. • It engages the community while telling a story • Art can influence the mind and perception in a positive way • Envision a reality that does not exist yet could or should exist • Art preserves optimism • Inspire us to reflect on our inner selves • Exposes what lies beneath the surface • Creates a voice for the voiceless • Highlights areas of divergence and issues • Connects, engages, and understands • Human spirit is an integral part of our being • An expression for something that can't be rationally explained. • Transforms tragedy into opportunity • Description of the way in which one expresses themselves 4.2 ART'S ROLE IN SOCIETY TODAY Fig. 4.9 36 35.

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[Audio] 5. DHARAVI India's Dharavi slum is Asia's largest informal settlement located right in the centre of Mumbai. As per widely publicized statistics, 60% of Mumbai's residents live in slums, which occupy 6% of the city's land. In over 60 years, it began as a fishing village in the marshes and became a million-dollar economic miracle that exports crafts and manufactured goods to places all around the world, providing food to Mumbai. In response to rural poverty, political oppression, and natural disasters, successive waves of immigrants created the area. There is no doubt it has many contrasts. A place like this is not homogeneous, but remarkably complex. The suburb of Dharavi of Mumbai is home to around one million people in an area of approximately 21 square kilometres. Fig. 5.1- Location Map 38 37 Mumbai Dharavi.

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[Audio] 5.1 DHARAVI'S EVOLUTION In the 18th century, Dharavi was a fishing island along the Mithi river, with mangroves covering its sides. Urbanization rates were high during British rule in Mumbai, resulting in housing problems and poor sanitation issues. In 1869, the Plague occurred as a consequence of this. The British government expelled all polluting industries and residents from the city. They moved to the northern part of Mumbai in search of a place to live and began to set up industries in the fishing village of Dharavi. At this time, informal businesses began to flourish in Dharavi. The Potters were the first family to start a business in Kumbha Wada, forming a separate urban area. At the edge of river Mithi, the fishing community remained a prominent industry. Mumbai has grown as a commercial and financial hub, causing many people to migrate there in search of employment opportunities. A large number of commercial flows into the city increased the value of land tremendously. They choose Dharavi because of the difficulty of affording expensive living standards. Dharavi soon became overcrowded due to lack of development policies and poor governance. The Government recognized the need to address the living conditions in informal settlements following independence and proposed a redevelopment plan for Dharavi after 1981. It is crucial that informal settlements develop simultaneously with cityscale development. Here is how Mumbai's urban form has been influenced by Dharavi. Dharavi's informal sector developed as the city grew, which developed a very strong economy that ultimately fed Mumbai's larger city Diverse social and cultural groups emerged in Dharavi, leading to the development of various economic activities. This development process and evolution of informal settlements is invisible in the present scenario due to the migration pattern of people who moved to Dharavi. Analysing history of a place and making it visible to the current planning context leads to successful redevelopment projects. It is a critical understanding of invisibility that influences how informal settlements are visible in the development of economy, society, culture, and governance systems. ---- 40 39 Fig. 5.2- Evolution Diagram.

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[Audio] Fig. 5.3- Dharavi View 41. . . . Fig.5.3- Dharavi View 41.

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[Audio] Dharavi is made up of a patchwork of rural villages, municipal chawls, high-rise buildings, independent houses built by rich merchants, transit camps, and self-help and incrementally developed structures. In areas designated as slums by the government, more than half of the homes are built from bricks, steel, and cement, by teams of professionals including masons, plumbers, electricians, and carpenters. The lack of a creative space in Dharavi is one of its notable shortcomings. Residents of Dharavi are capable of designing, manufacturing, and commercializing all sorts of products despite the tough conditions in which they live. They are able to reinvent themselves and their surroundings on a regular basis. Inspiration and creativity can be found anywhere. It is fascinating to note that Dharavi is a selfsufficient community. Dharavi is all about resourcefulness. 5.2 DHARAVI'S LIVING CONDITION Dharavi is one of the busiest and most productive areas in Mumbai. Dharavi is a massive suburb of Mumbai that has 1 million residents in an area of just over 21 square kilometres. The inhabitants of Dharavi are renowned for their 43 Fig. 5.4 5. 2. 1 Neighbourhood living condition 44 Dharavi has busiest streets. Main street is lined with small shops, vegetable traders, hardware stores, etc. Dharavi's sanitation is poor. Roads are clogged with garbage, and public toilets are in poor condition. A majority of residents of Dharavi live in shacks, some of them two-storied, with an average size of 120 square feet and housing four to ten people. The upper floors are usually rented for personal or commercial uses. Fig. 5.5 Fig. 5.6 Fig. 5.7.

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[Audio] 5.2.2 Working condition Dharavi is a small-scale industry hub that exports goods across the globe with an estimated annual turnover of $ 1 billion. Approximately 5,000 business entities are located there with 15,000 in- house singleroom factories for production. The leather industry is the most prominent in Dharavi, with the highest share of turnover. Profit margins are high, which attracts young entrepreneurs. 1. Leather industries 45 2. Pottery making units 3. Idol making Generally, this profession is performed by 'kumbhar' community. Diwali is the peak time for this profession. The area is covered with smoke from the kilns during Diwali. This business is run by individual households. The art of idol-making is passed down from generation to generation, plus many migrants travel to Mumbai to help with the labor-intensive process. It gets underway around three months before the festival starts. 46 Fig. 5.8 Fig. 5.9 Fig. 5.10 Fig. 5.11.

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[Audio] 5. 2. 3 Social life Chai Tapri becomes a prominent spot for people in the area. Every chwal has mandal which becomes a common place for people to gather.It becomes a place for meetings and play area. 47 Navratri, Ganeshostav becomes a very big social event for people. It is difficult for anyone to conduct social activities because of the lack of open space. Many of the grounds are covered with trash. 48 Fig. 5.12 Fig. 5.13 Fig. 5.14 Fig. 5.15.

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[Audio] 2 5.3 MAPPING OF INSTITUTES 49 Fig. 5.17- Location of Institutes 50 Fig. 5.16- Sector division of Dharavi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.

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[Audio] 51 1. Shri Ganesh vidya mandir • Painting classes • Rap • Hip-hop • Beat boxing 2. Dharavi art room • Painting classes • music • photography Fig. 5.18 Fig. 5.19 52 3. Ekvira Mitra Mandal • Painting classes • music • Dance 4. Siddhivinayak idol making workshop • Sculpture Fig. 5.20 Fig. 5.21.

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[Audio] 53 5. Rudra music classes • Music • Drawing and Painting classes • Photography and editing services 6. Sangam karaoke classes • • Music Fig. 5.22 Fig. 5.23 54 7. Jan shikshan sanstha • workshops 8. Jivanjyot ground 9. Kamraj ground Fig. 5.24 Fig. 5.25 Fig. 5.26.

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[Audio] The settlement of Dharavi is currently a highly diverse one by religion and ethnicity. It is home to about 1 million people of many different religions, races, and castes. This slum epitomizes secularism, making it an outstanding example of an informal human settlement. It is an example of how India has adapted the village form, life, and culture as part of its settlement solution for large cities. In Dharavi, there is an emerging art culture that is of high prominence. It's not a homogeneous complex, but rather a very complex place. It is important to highlight Dharavi's potential as the exciting and promising creative community that it is. 5.4 DHARAVI'S ART CULTURE 55 Brief history of Hiphop - India's music industry and young adults are experiencing a cultural and musical revolution in hip-hop, which can be observed in its soaring demand and impact on the country's music industry. Mumbai has been at the forefront of this new hip-hop phenomenon in India, and Dharavi has been at the center of it with its culturally vibrant hip-hop micro scene. As a working-class neighborhood made up of many neighborhoods, Dharavi's hip-hop expresses the political and personal frustrations of its residents. The hip-hop journey in Dharavi, like most things in the community, has been a collaborative effort where families, communities, and artists have worked together to turn the streets into proud performance spaces. 56 Fig. 5.27- Bonded Not Bound by Shilo Shiv Suleman Fig. 5.28- Dancing on Terraces of Dharavi buildings.

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[Audio] 5.5 SITE STUDY 57 Fig. 5.29- Potential Sites for Design programme 58 SECTOR III SECTOR III Fig. 5.30- Mapping Character spaces 1 2 3 4 5.

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[Audio] Recording music in the recording studio. Practicing at own studio. Dancing on the streets of Dharavi. 59 Building floor. Working studio on the second floor of same building as his home. His house on the 1st floor. Yogesh ,21 Rapper, Hip-hopper Fig. 5.31 60 1.

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[Audio] Kids gathering in maidan and acting. Studying at his house. Working in idol making workshop. Rudra music classes 61 Akash, 12 Theatre Playing cricket in maidan. Learning music . Fig. 5.32 62 2.

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[Audio] Dharavi art room is a small rented room of 120sq.ft, located on the 1st floor as shown in the next picture. Classes were held at the mandir before renting the room. In the past, classes were held at the bus stops as well. women without formal education found employment after photography workshop held by them. Himanshu and Aqui [ his colleague] often take students out in Mumbai to explore Dharavi art room is a colorful place in a slum, where women and children come together to forget their worries and create art. It was created by an art graduate way back in 2005. It's a place where dreams are shaped every day. Himanshu Artist, Founder of Art room Students exploring mumbai. Students exploring mumbai's art gallery. Jehangir Art Gallery, Fort Marine Drive. Jijamata Udyaan, Byculla 3 63 Fig. 5.33 64.

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[Audio] Painting Ganpati in her idol making workshop Her house. Talking with neighbors in verandah. Siddhivinayak idol making workshop Savita, 43 sculptor Shopping in Dharavi streets. Taking embroidery classes. Jan shikshan sanstha 4 65 Fig. 5.34 66.

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[Audio] Teaching Bharatnattaym dance. Shri Ganesh vidya mandir Dhanashri, 16 Dancer Dancing competitions in Dharavi. Outside her house. 5 67 Fig. 5.35 68.

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[Audio] It is important to build a creative space for people in dharavi. Building a creative space is a creative process in and of itself? It is a process that should be carefully considered, invested in, and executed to our liking. We are all different and have our own identity. All we need to do is explore and engage. It's a place where you can feel comfortable by having your creative space, but it should also inspire you, drive you, and stimulate your imagination. Artistic reflexes can be improved by creative spaces and learning through creativity is an ongoing process. People will be better prepared to develop creativity when there is a positive attitude when they enter creative arena (mentally & physically). Approach for building creative spaces As an environment that is both tangible and intangible, a creative space ought to be approached from a unique perspective. Creating a creative space for content creators involves connecting your outside world with your inside world. A simple input versus output case. Is silence necessary for you? Or can the space be managed better since the place is in a slum? Who are your influences? What drives your passion? We acquire awareness, analysis, and selfregulation from self-reflection, which enables us to detach from ourselves in order to view our environment from a birds' eye view. As a part of the whole - your creative space acts as an advocate for quantum creativity. By carving out a creative space mentally, you provide creators with opportunities, endless possibilities, and infinite innovations. Creative spaces should allow you to process, produce and perform. However, it's important not to overthink your creative process. They should allow you the creative freedom to come up with ideas on your own. This aspect of the creative process within a creative space is played out beautifully. 6. CONCLUSION Mumbai is India's financial capital and the country's largest city. It extends over 604 square kilometers and has a population of 12 million, as per the 2011 census. A significant component of creating "sustainable cities and communities" is having adequate open spaces that are accessible to the public. The amount of open space in Mumbai per person is an abysmal 1.24 square meters, followed only by Chennai, which has 0.81 square meters per person. In comparison, Delhi's open space per capita is 21.52 square meters and Bangalore's is 17.32 square meters. There are other global megacities that are larger than Mumbai as well, including London with 31,68 sq m of open space, New York City with 26,4 sq m and Tokyo with 3,96 sq m. In all, Mumbai has 15.37 square kilometre of accessible open space, providing free and fair entry to all citizens. In addition to this open space, there are also many gardens, playgrounds and recreation grounds that are poor quality and have broken infrastructure. As a result, the city has a total of 128.41 square kilometres of vacant space, which includes gymkhanas and closed playgrounds that are privately owned and operated. The development plan approach needs to be altered In the absence of an integrated approach to planning, open spaces for creative expression in the city have been negatively impacted. Spaces for creative expression should be integrated in city planning. For the case of dharavi, with all the observation it is notices that there is emerging art culture which need needs platform to showcase their talent. 69 70 7. CASE STUDIES.

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[Audio] Architect- Herzog & de Meuron Program- School gymnasium, Community center Area: 1964 m² Location-Natal, Brazil Construction year- 2012 - 2013 1. Arena do Morro Gymnasium An innovative sports center in a Brazilian favela catalyzes ideas and actions about social cohesion and civility. Mãe Luiza is not like a typical "favela" - its identity and character are influenced both by its unique natural setting and by the creativity of its residents. The region of Me Luiza sits between the protected natural zone of the dunes of Natal and commercially developed oceanfront areas. Urban study identifies the underdeveloped and missing urban activities in the neighborhood, identifies the available space within the densely built fabric, and distributes new activities in the areas potentially available for development. Initially, the project starts with the existing gymnasium structure - a concrete field framed by columns and trusses without a roof or walls. A single large roof whose shape and size are limited and defined by site boundaries is the result of its geometry extruding over the entire building area. Fig. 7.1 Fig. 7.2 71 The effect is inversed at night, when the building begins to glow like a giant lantern and reveals itself to be the activity inside. It is a permeable, fully natural conditioned building that has been transformed into an urban and natural destination and focal point for sports, leisure, and cultural events. As a result of its good acoustics, the Arena is also a place for music, dancing, and partying in addition to sports. The building's structure is simple and open, reflecting and responding to its local aesthetics and construction methods.Instead of tightly joined corrugated and aluminum panels, the roof panel's overlapping spaces allow light and air to enter while keeping rain and snow out. Specifically developed and locally manufactured concrete blocks form the curvilinear wall beneath. They have rounded edges and vertical fins arranged diagonally. Various orientations of the fins create different levels of transparency and privacy by rotating the blocks. By adding permeable and translucent membranes, both the roof and the wall will be able to let the cooling breeze from the ocean in. The bright natural daylight filters into the building, drawing the hot air out and animating it as it plays with different levels of light and shadow. Fig. 7.3 Fig. 7.4 72.

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[Audio] Maker's Asylum is India's first social creative community space. Maker's Asylum is a community makerspace that fosters innovation through hands-on learning. It is a fully-equipped workshop that lets you turn your imagination into reality while fueling frugal innovation. As everyone shares infrastructure, and ideas too, Maker's Asylum provides access to a community that is almost certain to become the early adopter of your ideas. It's a great resource for anyone looking to innovate and create. The Maker's Asylum has gathered all the tools and equipment necessary to enable you to build things, rapidly prototype and refine till you get it right - all within days - including 3D printers, laser cutters, textiles, wood and welding work, and electronics. You can become a member of the space to use all of their tools for a subsidized rate. Founder - Vaibhav Chhabra Program- Collaborative makerspace Area: 6000 sq.ft Location- Andheri , Mumbai Construction year- 2014 2. Maker's Asylum Fig. 7.5 Fig. 7.6 73 Architects- Studio Matter Program- Artistic Makers Space Area: 432 Sq.M Location-Nachinola Village, Goa Construction year- 2017- 2019 3. Thinkering Space In this collaborative learning space, the aim is to tinker the brain into compelling action and thought. The space organizes workshops, residencies, and events geared towards learning a new skill, or provoking reflection. They keep their patrons up to date with talks, performances, and are committed to providing meaningful learning experiences. The goal of Thinkering is to create immersive learning experiences for young and old alike. These workshops and events are conducted by some of the best mentors in the fields of theatre, technology, paper engineering, linguistics, woodworking, environmental management, science, art, and the art of science. A number of workshops on design thinking, woodworking, drawing, and language skills have already been held to great success. Fig. 7.7 Fig. 7.8 74.

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[Audio] Architects- Studio Zhu-Pei Program-Performing artsCenter Area- 8155 m² Location-Dali, China Construction year- 2020 4. Yangliping Performing Arts Center The Performing Arts Center's original concept grew out of the natural climate and culture of the region as well as the knowledge of survival that local people possessed. At the junction of Cang Mountain and the Erhai Lake, a flat horizontal roof looks like an earthy terrain and shelters from rain, generating a vast public space that holds various events. It also offers a perfect refuge for travelers traveling between the ancient city and Erhai Lake. People have always perceived a theater as a huge black box that is surrounded by various auxiliary functions, such as an entrance lobby, lounge, rehearsal hall, etc. Light, sound, and wind are considered enemies by the creature, which strives to isolate itself from the outside world. A major objective of the design of the Performing Arts Center in Dali is to challenge people's perception of theater and to create new theater concepts and experiences. When it comes to architectural space and form, as well as performance content and event activities, the Performing Arts Center tries to avoid external and internal distinctions, black and white, and selfintegrity. The blank space may be like the blank space in Chinese traditional art. It is expected that viewers from various eras will use their imagination to fill out the work, thus adding life to the work. Creating a full theater, combining nature, architecture, performance, and people, allowing it to realize its integrity, is a process that occurs between these elements. 75 Fig. 7.9 Fig. 7.10 76 8. APPENDIX.

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. . 8.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1. (n.d.). Retrieved from file:///e:/krvia/5th%20year/thesis/readings/creative%20thinking.pdf.(n.d.)..

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. . Fig.1 - Tumblr imaage Fig.2 - Pinterest imaage Fig. 1.1- Tumblr imaage Fig. 2.1-Spacial Triad. Source: Henri Lefebvres triad of space production. Fig. 2.2-Role of cultural organizations during pandemic crisis. Source: Culture Track. Fig. 3.1- Source: Aviparanjapestudio.com Fig. 3.2-Source: Pinterest image Fig. 3.3-Source: Pinterest image Fig. 3.4 -Source: Pinterest image Fig. 3.5-Source: Pinterest image Fig. 3.6-Source: Pinterest image Fig. 3.7-Base image Source: Pinterest image Edited by - Author Fig. 3.8 -Source: Google image Fig. 3.9 -Source: Pinterest image Fig. 3.10 -Source: Google image Fig. 4.1- Source: Google image Fig. 4.2-Source: Author Fig. 4.3-Source: Author Fig. 4.4-Base image Source: Google image Edited by - Author Fig. 4.5-Base image Source: Google image Edited by - Author Fig. 4.6-Base image Source: Google image Edited by - Author Fig. 4.7-Base image Source: Google image Edited by - Author Fig. 4.8-Base image Source: Google image Edited by - Author Fig. 4.9- Source: Google image Fig. 5.1-Base image Source: Google image, Krvia Design cell Edited by - Author Fig. 5.2- Source: Google image Fig. 5.3- Source: Google image Fig. 5.4- Source: Author Fig. 5.5-Source: Author Fig. 5.6- Source: Author Fig. 5.7- Source: Author Fig. 5.8- Source: Author Fig. 5.9- Source: Author Fig. 5.10- Source: Author Fig. 5.11- Source: Author Fig. 5.12- Source: Author Fig. 5.13- Source: Author.