Chapter 1-Irrigation

Published on
Scene 1 (0s)

Chapter 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of a continuous and a reliable water supply in accordance with their crop water requirement throughout the crop period in order to increase the crop yield. 1.2. FUNCTIONS, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION FUNCTIONS

• Supplies moisture essential for the life of microbs

• Supplies water for germination of seeds.

• Lowers the temperature and provides suitable environment.

• Dilutes salts in soil.

• Enables application of fertilizers.

• Helps to increase level of water table.

ADVANTAGES (For crops)

• Increases food production

• Eliminates mix croping

ADVANTAGES (As a Project)

• Prosperity

• Generation of energy

• Domestic water supply

• Communications

• Employment opportunities

• Inland navigation

• Afforestation

• Fish and wild life preservation

1.3. STATUS OF IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL History

• 1923- Chandra Nahar (Canal)

• 1940- Juddha Nahar (Canal)

• 1950s- Public Sector Irrigation Development

• Many Farmer Managed Irrigation System (FMIS) rehabilitated

• 1952- Department of Irrigation (DOI) Established.

• 1960s-1970s- Many FMIS were converted into AMIS (Agency Managed Irrigation System)

• 1980s- FMIS recognized by Government.

• 1972-1980- DoI was brought under Ministry of Irrigation and Agriculture

• Till 2009- DoI was brought under newly created Ministry of water resources.

• After 2009- Ministry of Water resources was split into ministry of Irrigation and Ministry of Energy.

• 2015- DoI has been further expanded by establishing 57 Division and 16 Sub-Division offices

Scene 2 (58s)

IRRIGATION POLICY 2060

• PAST

• Food production

• Security against starvation in hills and mountains

• Increase in incomes

• PRESENT

• Means for economic development with crop diversification

• Employment opportunity

• FUTURE

• An essential component of growth, social and economic development, poverty reduction, equity and as links for national integration and unity.

• Irrigation water a tradable commodity in terms of "virtual water" particularly in the form of exported agricultural commodities.

Objectives (As per Irrigation Policy 2060)

• To provide round the year irrigation facility to the irrigation suitable land by effective utilization of the current water resources of the country.

• To develop institutional capability of Water Users for sustainable management of existing system.

• To enhance the knowledge, skill and institutional working capability of technical human resources, water users and non-governmental association/organization relating to development of irrigation sector.

Present Status of Irrigation in Nepal

0

5

10

15

20

Agricultural Land Irrigation Potential Irrigated Area

In Percentage of Land Area

Scene 3 (1m 39s)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Agricultural Land Irrigation Potential Irrigated Area

Area in hactare (in lakhs)

52%

48%

Irrigated Vs Un-irrigated Area in Percentage of Agriculture Potential

Irrigated Land

Unirrigated Land

Scene 4 (1m 50s)

78%

22%

Irrigated Vs Un-irrigated Area in Percentage

Irrigated Land

Unirrigated Land

15%

25%

31%

29%

Irrigated Area in ha

FMIS unintervened

Surface Irrigation

FMIS intervened

Groundwater

Total irrigated area 13,68,759 ha, Potential 1.76 million ha