MODULE 03 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN and PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE

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[Audio] MODULE 03 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE Certified Construction Project Manager ( CCPM)

MODULE 03

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE

Certified Construction Project Manager (CCPM)

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[Audio] MODULE CONTENT 1. Conceptual Design and Preliminary Estimate 2. Definition 3. Project Needs 4. Design Requirement Development 5. Preparation of Concept Design 6. Pre-Design Parameters 7. Concept Design 8. Design Review and Validation 9. Risk Management in Conceptual Design 10. Risk Identification 11. Risk Assessment 12. Risk Control

MODULE CONTENT

1. Conceptual Design and Preliminary Estimate

2. Definition

3. Project Needs

4. Design Requirement Development

5. Preparation of Concept Design

6. Pre-Design Parameters

7. Concept Design

8. Design Review and Validation

9. Risk Management in Conceptual Design

10. Risk Identification

11. Risk Assessment

12. Risk Control

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.1 Definition • Conceptual design is an earliest design model either drawing or other similar means in a construction project that demonstrate the rough idea of the needs and requirement of a construction project, which will be developed to showcase a more complex and complete model. • Preliminary estimate is an amount of a cost estimate that is generated at early stage of pre-construction phase of a construction project life cycle and is to support and determine cost of construction project during the conceptual design process.

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.1 Definition

• Conceptual design is an earliest design model either drawing or other similar means in a construction project that demonstrate the rough idea of the needs and requirement of a construction project, which will be developed to showcase a more complex and complete model.

• Preliminary estimate is an amount of a cost estimate that is generated at early stage of pre-construction phase of a construction project life cycle and is to support and determine cost of construction project during the conceptual design process.

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.2 Project Needs • Project objective is as the terms implied, is the objective of a construction project being initiated by the Client. Project objective is the main general idea of what the Client desired at the end of the construction project. The project objective shall be direct and enables the Construction Project Manager and his team that reads or hears it will immediately have gross idea of what they will be managing or constructing. • Project needs will further develop and provide more detail of the construction project objective which will may describe any requirement of the construction project that may have been identified during this stage. • A project brief can also be called needs statement or scope book. Project brief shall be developed after the Client's needs are listed and identified as well as before the start of establishing a conceptual design. The design consultant shall refer to the project brief as a main document to generate the conceptual design.

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.2 Project Needs

• Project objective is as the terms implied, is the objective of a construction project being initiated by the Client. Project objective is the main general idea of what the Client desired at the end of the construction project. The project objective shall be direct and enables the Construction Project Manager and his team that reads or hears it will immediately have gross idea of what they will be managing or constructing.

• Project needs will further develop and provide more detail of the construction project objective which will may describe any requirement of the construction project that may have been identified during this stage.

• A project brief can also be called needs statement or scope book. Project brief shall be developed after the Client’s needs are listed and identified as well as before the start of establishing a conceptual design. The design consultant shall refer to the project brief as a main document to generate the conceptual design.

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE Project Brief Project Needs Project Objective Example of Needs Statement Inter-relationship of Project Brief and Needs and Objective

1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE

PROJECT OBJECTIVE To a high-wsty. custart hane free n-«hs at cost exced $1EQÜ. DELVEMBLES • A finished horre • A finished '-suated. sreet rocked. • Kitchen to rmge. oven. nd dishwæher. • gas wt. them-estat MILESTONES Permits avoved. March 2. Fomd.*im pured. March 14h 3. Dry n Franng. sheathhg. plunbng. md rnechmical inspedims May 4. ame 7B TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 1. Hal* must met buzng 2 A1 windcws and do«s must NFRC CIES 40 erergy rügs. 3 Exterior wS insul*cn must mæ 'A' of 21. 4. Cei,ng insulaton must met an •R' factr 38. 5. FW insul±cn must met 'R- futor of 25. & Gara* too lar*-size cys and cæ 20-f@t 7. SrucÜe nust pass seismic stabdty LIMITS AND EXCLUSIONS 1. The buih to he des. Of by the w•stcrr-er. 2 Owner responsble lmÉcaphg. 3 Refr«xor rs rot incåJded 4. Ar cmditoning is nd included but prewiring ineu&d- 5. Cntractv reserves he nght to untrut wt *-rviæs. O_ C.mtractv response for subccnrxted work 7- Site Monday Friday. to P.M. CUSTOMER REVEW

Project Brief

Project Needs

Project Objective

Example of Needs Statement Inter-relationship of

Project Brief and Needs and Objective

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development • In identifying the functions and requirement, the Client must have a strong technical design team that will assist the Client and Construction Project Manager in extracting the detail requirement from the Client and eventually assist in planning the development of the construction project. The technical team may consist of architect, design consultant, and town planning consultant among others appointed by the Client. • There are also some information and description from the Client that will be vital for the development of the design in construction project such as: • Client's policies • Client's preferences • Client's principle

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development

• In identifying the functions and requirement, the Client must have a strong technical design team that will assist the Client and Construction Project Manager in extracting the detail requirement from the Client and eventually assist in planning the development of the construction project. The technical team may consist of architect, design consultant, and town planning consultant among others appointed by the Client.

• There are also some information and description from the Client that will be vital for the development of the design in construction project such as: • Client’s policies • Client’s preferences • Client’s principle

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development - Continue • Variety of Design Requirement Development, according to Client's needs and demand, which are: • Workshop Exercise. • Functional Floor Area. • Circulation Space. • Operational Requirement (Functional Brief). • System Requirement. • Service Requirement. • Special Requirement.

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development - Continue

• Variety of Design Requirement Development, according to Client’s needs and demand, which are:

• Workshop Exercise.

• Functional Floor Area.

• Circulation Space.

• Operational Requirement (Functional Brief).

• System Requirement.

• Service Requirement.

• Special Requirement.

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 3. Design Requirement Development 1. Workshop Exercise • Client's requirement in developing the project brief by meeting or with question-and-answer session. These method may also be combined by conducting a workshop with the Client, Client's representative, end users, Design Consultant (if already appointed) that only focus on completing the requirement. The exercise shall be planned with all the items and questions that required the Client's clarification are listed and distributed to all attendees before the planned workshop. • At the end of the workshop, a compiled project brief can immediately be produced, and Client shall endorse the project brief document as soon as possible to avoid further major changes to the project brief. The endorsed document shall be distributed to all parties attended the workshop. The document can be further enhanced during development of conceptual design as Client may provide more information and their needs regarding the construction project, with the design is getting more and more focus and detail. However, the project brief must be frozen at the end of conceptual design so that the designer can further focus in producing more detailed design.

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 3. Design Requirement Development

1. Workshop Exercise

• Client’s requirement in developing the project brief by meeting or with question-and-answer session. These method may also be combined by conducting a workshop with the Client, Client’s

representative, end users, Design Consultant (if already appointed) that only focus on completing the requirement. The exercise shall be planned with all the items and questions that required the Client’s clarification are listed and distributed to all attendees before the planned workshop.

• At the end of the workshop, a compiled project brief can immediately be produced, and Client shall endorse the project brief document as soon as possible to avoid further major changes to the project brief. The endorsed document shall be distributed to all parties attended the workshop. The document can be further enhanced during

development of conceptual design as Client may provide more information and their needs regarding the construction project, with the design is getting more and more focus and detail. However, the project brief must be frozen at the end of conceptual design so that the designer can further focus in producing more detailed design.

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1. 3. 2 Functional Floor Area • Some of the requirement that can be detailed up are the function of each floor area in the case of construction of a building. • For example, with a government agency as the Client may requires to build a government facilities with multiple functions such as for normal administration works, research of government main function, storage area for document, functional hall for events, among others. • From the description, the design team will be able to identify that the construction project will have a government office area, research lab, large area of storage space, specific area for event hall and others. These assumptions shall be confirmed with the Client. With each of the major area, the Client and design team shall then determine a more specific requirement for the specific areas.

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1.3.2 Functional Floor Area

• Some of the requirement that can be detailed up are the function of each floor area in the case of construction of a building.

• For example, with a government agency as the Client may requires to build a government facilities with multiple functions such as for normal administration works, research of government main function, storage area for document, functional hall for

events, among others.

• From the description, the design team will be able to identify that the construction project will have a government office area, research lab, large area of storage space, specific area for event hall and others. These assumptions shall be confirmed with the Client. With each of the major area, the Client and design team shall then determine a more specific requirement for the specific areas.

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1. 3.3 Circulation Space • Circulation space is where there are movement of people in an area such as corridors, lobbies, stairs and so forth. These areas are required to be determined to ensure the size and restriction access may be introduced to these areas. • Circulation space is divided to 2 types: • Vertical circulation space - an area with vertical movement of people such as stairs, ramp, lift, ladder and among others. • Horizontal circulation space - an area with horizontal movement of people such as lobbies, corridors, car parks, among others.

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1.3.3 Circulation Space

• Circulation space is where there are movement of people in an area such as corridors, lobbies, stairs and so forth. These areas are required to be determined to ensure the size and restriction access may be introduced to these areas.

• Circulation space is divided to 2 types: • Vertical circulation space - an area with vertical

movement of people such as stairs, ramp, lift, ladder and among others.

• Horizontal circulation space - an area with horizontal movement of people such as lobbies, corridors, car parks, among others.

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1. 3. 4 Operational Requirement (Functional Brief) • At this stage, the Client may specify that based on identified open space area or circulation space, the requirement for operation shall be stated to the specified area. Some example of operational requirement are as follows: • Storage for weapon at a security restricted area • Partitioned or hot seat arrangement for office area • Reception area to received people • Meeting rooms for meetings and discussions • Multifunction room for discussion and general office activities • Reception bay for unloading goods from lorries or container • A vault to store valuables • Counters area for buying ticket • Many other operational requirement

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1.3.4 Operational Requirement (Functional Brief)

• At this stage, the Client may specify that based on identified open space area or circulation space, the requirement for operation shall be stated to the specified area. Some example of operational requirement are as follows: • Storage for weapon at a security restricted area

• Partitioned or hot seat arrangement for office area

• Reception area to received people

• Meeting rooms for meetings and discussions

• Multifunction room for discussion and general office activities

• Reception bay for unloading goods from lorries or container

• A vault to store valuables

• Counters area for buying ticket

• Many other operational requirement

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1. 3. 5 System Requirement • System requirement are requirement to fulfil some operational requirement that used system, to complete the function of the finished project such as: • Information and communication technology ( ICT) • Airport system • Railway signalling system • Automated system • Security system • Automation • A construction project system requirement can be further specified such as security system that may require used of CCTV, biometric system and card access system, among others. • These system might require specialist for each respective system to be appointed either during the earlier phase of construction or later in the construction phase, depending on the details the Client requires and capability of the already appointed Consultant.

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1.3.5 System Requirement

• System requirement are requirement to fulfil some operational requirement that used system, to complete the function of the finished project such as: • Information and communication technology (ICT)

• Airport system

• Railway signalling system

• Automated system

• Security system

• Automation

• A construction project system requirement can be further specified such as security system that may require used of CCTV, biometric system and card access system, among others.

• These system might require specialist for each respective system to be appointed either during the earlier phase of construction or later in the construction phase, depending on the details the Client requires and capability of the already appointed Consultant.

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1. 3. 6 Services Requirement • Services requirement are also requirement to fulfil operational requirement. Services usually required for every construction project as services consist of very broad range of use. For example, a building will require services such as: • Electrical and Mechanical services • Internet provider • Water reticulation • Sewerage • Irrigation Electrical services Mechanical services  High Tension  Lighting  Small power ( switch socket outlet)  Lighting protection system  Grounding / Earthing  Public address ( PA) system  Telephone system  Generator set  Uninterruptible power supply ( UPS)  Building automation system ( BAS) / building management system ( BMS)  Fire protection system  Air conditioning and mechanical ventilation ( ACMV)  Cold water and sanitary plumbing ( CWSP)  Lift and escalator  Liquefied petroleum gas ( LPG)  Air compressor

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1.3.6 Services Requirement

• Services requirement are also requirement to fulfil operational requirement. Services usually required for every construction project as services consist of very broad range of use. For example, a building will require services such as:

• Electrical and Mechanical services

• Internet provider

• Water reticulation

• Sewerage

• Irrigation

Electrical services Mechanical services

 High Tension

 Lighting

 Small power (switch socket outlet)

 Lighting protection system

 Grounding / Earthing

 Public address (PA) system

 Telephone system

 Generator set

 Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

 Building automation system (BAS) /

building management system (BMS)

 Fire protection system

 Air conditioning and mechanical

ventilation (ACMV)

 Cold water and sanitary plumbing

(CWSP)

 Lift and escalator

 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

 Air compressor

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[Audio] 1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1. 3. 7 Special Requirement • Other than the above listed requirement, the Client may have a more special requirement that might not be seen in a typical project. This special requirement may range from major to minor and may greatly affect the way the construction project will be design. The aspiration may come from the government requirement, local industry encouragement as well as Client's experience of past construction project. The Client may wish to include some special requirement as follows: • Using Industrial Building System ( IBS) method of construction. • Requirement in achieving high rating Green Building Index ( GBI). • Application of Prevention through Design ( PtD) that focus on occupational safety and health throughout the construction project from pre-construction phase ( design phase) and beyond. • Other special requirement

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1.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE 1.3 Design Requirement Development 1.3.7 Special Requirement

• Other than the above listed requirement, the Client may have a more special requirement that might not be seen in a typical project. This special requirement may range from major to minor and may greatly affect the way the construction project will be design. The aspiration may come from the government requirement, local industry

encouragement as well as Client’s experience of past construction project. The Client may wish to include some special requirement as follows: • Using Industrial Building System (IBS) method of construction.

• Requirement in achieving high rating Green Building Index (GBI).

• Application of Prevention through Design (PtD) that focus on occupational safety and health throughout the construction project from pre-construction phase (design phase) and beyond.

• Other special requirement

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[Audio] 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN 2.1 Pre-Design Parameters ▪ Before preparing an actual concept design and drawing, some parameters are required by the design Consultant for calculations and to be considered in conducting the design. Some of pre-design parameters can be acquired by the following methods, among others: ▪ Site investigation. ▪ Soil investigation. ▪ Geological and hydrological study. ▪ Mapping of existing utilities. ▪ Historical report. ▪ The Client will usually need to appoint a specialist to conduct these methods. The Client may also appoint a design Consultant and includes the works to conduct these methods in their scope of works.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN 2.1 Pre-Design Parameters

▪ Before preparing an actual concept design and drawing, some

parameters are required by the design Consultant for calculations and to be considered in conducting the design. Some of pre-design parameters can be acquired by the following methods, among others:

▪ Site investigation.

▪ Soil investigation.

▪ Geological and hydrological study.

▪ Mapping of existing utilities.

▪ Historical report.

▪ The Client will usually need to appoint a specialist to conduct these

methods. The Client may also appoint a design Consultant and includes the works to conduct these methods in their scope of works.

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[Audio] 1. Pre-Design Parameters 1. Site Investigation or Site Surveys ▪ Site surveys or site investigation is carried out in all construction project sites, prior to the start of construction work and even the design work of the said construction project. Site surveys shall be carried out by the design consultant to verify information provided by the Client and extracting more information for purpose of design and construction. ▪ The particulars which require observation and attention during the site survey may include: boulders, ▪ Location of construction site ▪ Size and zoning ▪ Access to and from the site ( ingress and egress) ▪ Natural character of the site ( contour, drainage flow, existing trees and vegetation, rock valleys and cliffs, swamp, ponds, ponding, among others) ▪ Topographical surveys ▪ Existing man-made structure ( building, walls, gates, fencing, obstruction, fire hydrant, pylon, telecom post, among others) ▪ Traffic including vehicle, human and animal movement ▪ Availability of utilities ( electricity, culverts, gas, water, sewerage, telecommunication services, among others) ▪ Physical hazards and hazardous materials ▪ Boundaries (with boundary survey, if required) 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Topographic Survey

1. Pre-Design Parameters

1. Site Investigation or Site Surveys

▪ Site surveys or site investigation is carried out in all construction project sites, prior to the start of construction work and even the design work of the said construction project. Site surveys shall be carried out by the design consultant to verify information provided by the Client and extracting more information for purpose of design and construction.

▪ The particulars which require observation and attention during the site survey may include:

boulders,

▪ Location of construction site

▪ Size and zoning

▪ Access to and from the site (ingress and egress)

▪ Natural character of the site (contour, drainage flow, existing trees and vegetation, rock valleys and cliffs, swamp, ponds, ponding, among others)

▪ Topographical surveys

▪ Existing man-made structure (building, walls, gates, fencing, obstruction, fire hydrant, pylon, telecom post, among others)

▪ Traffic including vehicle, human and animal movement

▪ Availability of utilities (electricity, culverts, gas, water, sewerage, telecommunication services, among others)

▪ Physical hazards and hazardous materials

▪ Boundaries (with boundary survey, if required)

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

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[Audio] 2.1 Pre-Design Parameters 2. 1. 2 Soil Investigation ▪ Soil investigation is an act of tests in order to receive information regarding the physical properties of soil and rocks within the construction site. An earthwork and foundation design of a construction project heavily dependent on the soil investigation. ▪ For a concept design, soil investigation will provide the design Consultant with: ▪ General subsoil profile. ▪ Preliminary layout and formation level. ▪ Preliminary soil parameters and water level. ▪ Soil investigation shall be done by a specialist on soil investigation and is ensure that all equipment and instrument used are calibrated. Some method of testing are applied such as: ▪ Sampling. ▪ Shallow boring or test pits with hand augering. ▪ Deep boring with boring or drilling machine. ▪ In-situ test such as Standard Penetration Test ( SPT), Mackintosh probe test, among others. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.1 Pre-Design Parameters 2.1.2 Soil Investigation

▪ Soil investigation is an act of tests in order to receive information regarding the physical

properties of soil and rocks within the construction site. An earthwork and foundation design of a construction project heavily dependent on the soil investigation.

▪ For a concept design, soil investigation will provide the design Consultant with:

▪ General subsoil profile. ▪ Preliminary layout and formation level. ▪ Preliminary soil parameters and water level.

▪ Soil investigation shall be done by a specialist on soil investigation and is ensure that all

equipment and instrument used are calibrated. Some method of testing are applied such as:

▪ Sampling. ▪ Shallow boring or test pits with hand augering. ▪ Deep boring with boring or drilling machine.

▪ In-situ test such as Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Mackintosh probe test, among

others.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Dril Rotatng ¯ 45

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[Audio] 2.1 Pre-Design Parameters 2. 1. 3 Hydrological Study ▪ Hydrology study is a study of the amount of water and its quality on a land surface as well as their relationship or movement of the water including underground water near the land surface. This study shall follow the guideline of Urban Stormwater Management Manual ( MSMA) as produced by Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran ( JPS) Malaysia. Latest edition of MSMA shall be referred to shall the design of drainage system or urban stormwater management is to be approved by JPS. ▪ Hydrology study shall be done with the requirement of a construction project and may consist of the following: ▪ Catchment analysis ▪ Catchment flows ▪ Rainfall analysis ▪ Hydrogeology ▪ Overland flow / runoff assessment ▪ Watercourse hydraulics ▪ Floor risk assessment ▪ Drainage impact assessment 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.1 Pre-Design Parameters 2.1.3 Hydrological Study

▪ Hydrology study is a study of the amount of water and its quality on a land surface as well as their relationship or movement of the water including underground water near the land surface. This study shall follow the guideline of Urban Stormwater Management Manual (MSMA) as produced by Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran (JPS) Malaysia. Latest edition of MSMA shall be referred to shall the design of drainage system or urban stormwater management is to be approved by JPS.

▪ Hydrology study shall be done with the requirement of a construction project and may consist of the following:

▪ Catchment analysis

▪ Catchment flows

▪ Rainfall analysis

▪ Hydrogeology

▪ Overland flow / runoff assessment

▪ Watercourse hydraulics

▪ Floor risk assessment

▪ Drainage impact assessment

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

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[Audio] 2.1 Pre-Design Parameters 2. 1. 4 Mapping of Existing Utilities ▪ During producing a conceptual design and eventually a detail design, it is most recommended to ensure that the design does not affect the existing utilities either above surface, on surface or underground. If it is inevitable to affect the utilities services, there shall be a plan for relocation of the services without or with minimum disturbance to the existing users of the utility's services. ▪ That is why a mapping of existing utilities must be done at early phase of a construction project, to avoid problems and issues in the future. Some of the utilities that might need to be paid attention to are: ▪ Electrical services (underground or overhead), usually affecting high tension ( HT) cables. ▪ Electricity transmission line. ▪ Underground drainage or underground water reticulation. ▪ Telecommunication services such as telephone cables, fibre optic cables, among others. ▪ Sewerage line ▪ Underground gas pipes either by a gas company or by Gas Malaysia. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.1 Pre-Design Parameters 2.1.4 Mapping of Existing Utilities

▪ During producing a conceptual design and eventually a detail design, it is most recommended to ensure that the design does not affect the existing utilities either above surface, on surface or underground. If it is inevitable to affect the utilities services, there shall be a plan for relocation of the services without or with minimum disturbance to the existing users of the utility's services.

▪ That is why a mapping of existing utilities must be done at early phase of a construction project, to avoid problems and issues in the future. Some of the utilities that might need to be paid attention to are:

▪ Electrical services (underground or overhead), usually affecting high tension (HT) cables.

▪ Electricity transmission line.

▪ Underground drainage or underground water reticulation.

▪ Telecommunication services such as telephone cables, fibre optic cables, among others.

▪ Sewerage line

▪ Underground gas pipes either by a gas company or by Gas Malaysia.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

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[Audio] 2.1 Pre-Design Parameters 2. 1. 5 Historical Report ▪ There are some information and data that might not be assessable by site investigation, study and utilities mapping. However, there are government agencies or utility companies that might hold the record or data that is required for the purpose of design. ▪ These records can be: ▪ Meteorological records which go back over a hundred years. Meteorological Department can also provide representative information on pattern of rainfall and temperature. ▪ Local authorities records such as JKR, PKNS, DBKL & Local Planning Authorities ( LPA). ▪ Local authorities may also have information on buildings which have been on the site previously. These buildings may include basements which, if the site is to be developed, may require demolishing or filling in. Local authorities can also advise on the existence of Tree Preservation Orders or Listed Buildings. ▪ Public rights of way and bridle paths which, if the site is to be developed, may require diverting need accurate positioning during the site reconnaissance. ▪ On land, particularly in suburban areas, there may be a covenant which restricts the type of development designated and it is not unusual to find an easement running across the site under which is a major service such as a trunk water main (belonging to JBA, SYABAS, PUAS) and over which development is not permitted. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.1 Pre-Design Parameters 2.1.5 Historical Report

▪ There are some information and data that might not be assessable by site investigation, study and utilities mapping. However, there are government agencies or utility companies that might hold the record or data that is required for the purpose of design.

▪ These records can be:

▪ Meteorological records which go back over a hundred years. Meteorological Department can also provide representative information on pattern of rainfall and temperature.

▪ Local authorities records such as JKR, PKNS, DBKL & Local Planning Authorities (LPA).

▪ Local authorities may also have information on buildings which have been on the site previously. These buildings may include basements which, if the site is to be developed, may require demolishing or filling in. Local authorities can also advise on the existence of Tree Preservation Orders or Listed Buildings.

▪ Public rights of way and bridle paths which, if the site is to be developed, may require diverting need accurate positioning during the site reconnaissance.

▪ On land, particularly in suburban areas, there may be a covenant which restricts the type of development designated and it is not unusual to find an easement running across the site under which is a major service such as a trunk water main (belonging to JBA, SYABAS, PUAS) and over which development is not permitted.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

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[Audio] 2.2 Concept Design ▪ Conceptual design in a construction project is the generation of an initial idea into a design based on the previously done feasibility, project brief and project requirement. ▪ Usually these conceptual and schematic design proposals are prepared / produce in a few alternatives or options for the client considerations and approval. Along the way, the Client will have more and more understanding of their own concept and construction project, and the Client's idea will also be evolving. The Construction Project Manager shall control the ideas evolution of the Client in producing it into a concept design. ▪ Once the concepts are approved, the next step / stage of the design process will involve the development of the designs and input from the other design Consultants and the Quantity Surveyors. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.2 Concept Design

▪ Conceptual design in a construction project is the generation of an initial idea

into a design based on the previously done feasibility, project brief and project requirement.

▪ Usually these conceptual and schematic design proposals are prepared /

produce in a few alternatives or options for the client considerations and approval. Along the way, the Client will have more and more understanding of their own concept and construction project, and the Client’s idea will also be evolving. The Construction Project Manager shall control the ideas evolution of the Client in producing it into a concept design.

▪ Once the concepts are approved, the next step / stage of the design process

will involve the development of the designs and input from the other design Consultants and the Quantity Surveyors.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

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[Audio] 2. Concept Design 1. Architectural ▪ Architectural concept design is the most sought out for by Client as it is very visual and will be the foundation and basis for all other trades in their design. The Client and Architect should agree upon on the flow of how the concept design is developed and materialized, such as from sketches, design illustrations, section and elevation drawing as well as 3dimensional form. ▪ A good concept design shall realize most of the principle that the design team including the Client, determined to be essential for the construction project. The concept design shall also have enough information in order to produce a generic estimate based on, among others: ▪ Floor area ▪ Likely construction method ▪ Access ▪ General building performance ▪ System used ▪ Façade treatment ▪ Type of use 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2. Concept Design

1. Architectural

▪ Architectural concept design is the most sought out for by Client as it is very visual and will

be the foundation and basis for all other trades in their design. The Client and Architect should agree upon on the flow of how the concept design is developed and materialized, such as from sketches, design illustrations, section and elevation drawing as well as 3- dimensional form.

▪ A good concept design shall realize most of the principle that the design team including the

Client, determined to be essential for the construction project. The concept design shall also have enough information in order to produce a generic estimate based on, among others:

▪ Floor area ▪ Likely construction method ▪ Access ▪ General building performance ▪ System used ▪ Façade treatment ▪ Type of use

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Cutaway of Expressed

Scene 23 (22m 32s)

[Audio] 2. Concept Design 1. Architectural - Continued 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN Location and Site Building Landscape Access to construction site Size ( Height, Width, Length) Description of landscape Adjoining roads, buildings and open space Orientation of Building Surrounding existing landscape and open space Boundary Building access including consideration of surrounding existing building androads Visibility Access in case of emergency Public right of way Lighting Car park / Garage Building distribution Position of trees or sun Flexibility Crime prevention

2. Concept Design

1. Architectural - Continued

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Location and Site Building Landscape

Access to construction site Size (Height, Width, Length) Description of landscape

Adjoining roads, buildings and

open space Orientation of Building Surrounding existing landscape and

open space

Boundary

Building access including

consideration of surrounding existing building androads

Visibility Access in case of emergency

Public right of way Lighting

Car park / Garage Building distribution

Position of trees or sun Flexibility

Crime prevention

Scene 24 (23m 10s)

[Audio] 2.2 Concept Design 2.2. 2 Structural ▪ From the reports during pre-concept design and architectural concept design, the Consultant (structural engineer) may come out with the foundation concept design suitable for the construction site and constructionproject. ▪ The Architect and the Consultant may also discuss on the requirement of Industrialized Building System (IBS) in the construction project. They may propose to use IBS for construction, or it may even be a requirement by the Client during early stages of project brief. ▪ The structural concept design may also include and consider, among others: ▪ Frame system ▪ Structural grid with column size ▪ Sized and spans for primary and secondary beam ▪ Special loads ▪ Floor loadings including dead and live loads ▪ Expansion joints (horizontal and vertical) ▪ Major openings ▪ Elements of wind bracing ▪ Details of edge (typical) 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.2 Concept Design 2.2.2 Structural

▪ From the reports during pre-concept design and architectural concept design, the Consultant (structural engineer) may come out with the foundation concept design suitable for the construction site and constructionproject.

▪ The Architect and the Consultant may also discuss on the requirement of Industrialized Building System (IBS) in the construction project. They may propose to use IBS for construction, or it may even be a requirement by the Client during early stages of project brief.

▪ The structural concept design may also include and consider, among others:

▪ Frame system

▪ Structural grid with column size

▪ Sized and spans for primary and secondary beam

▪ Special loads

▪ Floor loadings including dead and live loads

▪ Expansion joints (horizontal and vertical)

▪ Major openings

▪ Elements of wind bracing

▪ Details of edge (typical)

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

understandCOnstruction.com

Scene 25 (24m 26s)

[Audio] 2.2 Concept Design 2.2. 3 Services ▪ Services in a construction project is typically as follows: ▪ Electrical ▪ Mechanical ▪ Information and communication technology ( ICT) ▪ Others (as required) 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN Electrical Mechanical Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Rough maximum demand based on floor area Concept of fire protection method such as dry and wet. Concept of operation and function of the construction project Concept of power supply Concept of air conditioning and ventilation Networking with cabling and wireless concept Concept of power consumptions during operations Concept of cold water consumption and sanitary Security operations such as access card, CCTV, and etc.

2.2 Concept Design 2.2.3 Services

▪ Services in a construction project is typically as follows:

▪ Electrical

▪ Mechanical

▪ Information and communication technology (ICT)

▪ Others (as required)

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Electrical Mechanical Information and Communication

Technology (ICT)

Rough maximum demand based on

floor area

Concept of fire protection method

such as dry and wet.

Concept of operation and function

of the construction project

Concept of power supply Concept of air conditioning and

ventilation

Networking with cabling and

wireless concept

Concept of power consumptions

during operations

Concept of cold water consumption

and sanitary

Security operations such as access

card, CCTV, and etc.

Scene 26 (25m 22s)

[Audio] 2.3 Design Review and Validation ▪ Design review is to ensure: ▪ Design input aligned with design output and in this case, if a concept design is aligned with the project brief and Client's requirement. ▪ The concept design is fitting to the Client's needs. ▪ Providing the finished construction project to become operationally better for the end users and their stakeholders. ▪ Minimize change orders during construction phase. ▪ The review process may consist of the following: ▪ Based on authority requirement, guidelines and standards. ▪ List of related codes and standards, useful guidelines and best practices as well as act and regulations. ▪ Method of review ( checklist, site survey, value management, among others) ▪ Risk management ( risk identification, assessment and control) 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.3 Design Review and Validation

▪ Design review is to ensure:

▪ Design input aligned with design output and in this case, if a concept design is

aligned with the project brief and Client’s requirement.

▪ The concept design is fitting to the Client’s needs.

▪ Providing the finished construction project to become operationally better for the

end users and their stakeholders.

▪ Minimize change orders during construction phase.

▪ The review process may consist of the following:

▪ Based on authority requirement, guidelines and standards.

▪ List of related codes and standards, useful guidelines and best practices as well as

act and regulations.

▪ Method of review (checklist, site survey, value management, among others)

▪ Risk management (risk identification, assessment and control)

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 27 (26m 34s)

[Audio] 3. Design Review and Validation 1. Authority Requirement ▪ One of an important element of design review is to review if the concept design produced is accordance to the local authorities and agencies requirement, codes, standards, guidelines, act and regulation. This will allow a better chance and faster process when dealing with local authorities and agencies in obtaining their approval for development. ▪ For a better understanding of authorities' and agencies' requirement and their view, a pre-consultation with the local authorities and agencies and can be conducted by the design team during the design review process. ▪ An experience design team or Consultant may even have previous engagement with the authorities and agencies in their past construction project and may provide early input on the authorities and agencies behaviour as well as their preferences. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

3. Design Review and Validation

1. Authority Requirement

▪ One of an important element of design review is to review if the concept design

produced is accordance to the local authorities and agencies requirement, codes, standards, guidelines, act and regulation. This will allow a better chance and faster process when dealing with local authorities and agencies in obtaining their approval for development.

▪ For a better understanding of authorities’ and agencies’ requirement and their view, a

pre-consultation with the local authorities and agencies and can be conducted by the design team during the design review process.

▪ An experience design team or Consultant may even have previous engagement with

the authorities and agencies in their past construction project and may provide early input on the authorities and agencies behaviour as well as their preferences.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 28 (27m 37s)

[Audio] 2.3 Design Review and Validation 2. 3. 2 Functional Review ▪ Function review is to ensure: ▪ Design is as required function. ▪ Design is suitable for the intended function. ▪ Design covers all required function in the reviewed area. ▪ Improve the overall design with addition or removal or modification of certain element in the reviewed design area. ▪ The design team may review with support of: ▪ Value management exercise. ▪ Checklist listing all the required function and operational requirement of an area and check against the design. ▪ Checklist of the possible good practice design for the intended function. ▪ Show and connect the design of an area with other related areas that have direct and indirect connection with the reviewed area. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3.2 Functional Review

▪ Function review is to ensure:

▪ Design is as required function.

▪ Design is suitable for the intended function.

▪ Design covers all required function in the reviewed area.

▪ Improve the overall design with addition or removal or modification of certain

element in the reviewed design area.

▪ The design team may review with support of:

▪ Value management exercise.

▪ Checklist listing all the required function and operational requirement of an area

and check against the design.

▪ Checklist of the possible good practice design for the intended function.

▪ Show and connect the design of an area with other related areas that have direct

and indirect connection with the reviewed area.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 29 (28m 48s)

[Audio] 2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3. 3 Circulation Space Review ▪ Function review is to ensure: ▪ Ensure design according to authority requirement, regulation, codes, UBBL and security requirement, among others. ▪ Improve the circulation design or provide reinforcement. ▪ Discuss mode of transportation between two (2) or more circulation spaces, should the distance be far. ▪ Determine if the circulation shall go around a specific space or pass through the open space. There might have a sudden used for the open space. ▪ The design team may review with support of: ▪ Input from other consultants. For example, security consultant may provide input in terms of security such as distance requirement from a wall to an equipment should there is bombing. ▪ Discussion and reference from past construction project experience. ▪ Example of good practice and lesson learnt in existing finished project. ▪ Comparison of calculation for services with a few circulation options. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3.3 Circulation Space Review

▪ Function review is to ensure:

▪ Ensure design according to authority requirement, regulation, codes, UBBL and

security requirement, among others.

▪ Improve the circulation design or provide reinforcement. ▪ Discuss mode of transportation between two (2) or more circulation spaces,

should the distance be far.

▪ Determine if the circulation shall go around a specific space or pass through the

open space. There might have a sudden used for the open space.

▪ The design team may review with support of:

▪ Input from other consultants. For example, security consultant may provide input

in terms of security such as distance requirement from a wall to an equipment should there is bombing.

▪ Discussion and reference from past construction project experience. ▪ Example of good practice and lesson learnt in existing finished project. ▪ Comparison of calculation for services with a few circulation options.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 30 (30m 17s)

[Audio] 2.3 Design Review and Validation 2. 3. 4 Project Elemental Review ▪ Function review is to ensure: ▪ Ensure that all component for each project element are covered in the design. ▪ Check if there is any clash between the elements. ▪ Ensure the requirement for each elements are considered. For example, Electrical and ICT room should not be located below a room with water such as toilet and bathroom. ▪ Discuss the main materials and equipment that may be used for the construction project including their life cycle. ▪ The design team may review with support of: ▪ Checklist for every project element. ▪ Coordination and integration of different elements or packages of the design between design Consultants of different trades. ▪ Introduce Building Information Modelling ( BIM) as early as during conceptual design phase. ▪ Presentation of options for main materials and equipment with pros and cons. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3.4 Project Elemental Review

▪ Function review is to ensure:

▪ Ensure that all component for each project element are covered in the design. ▪ Check if there is any clash between the elements. ▪ Ensure the requirement for each elements are considered.

For example, Electrical and ICT room should not be located below a room with water such as toilet and bathroom.

▪ Discuss the main materials and equipment that may be used for the construction

project including their life cycle.

▪ The design team may review with support of:

▪ Checklist for every project element. ▪ Coordination and integration of different elements or packages of the design

between design Consultants of different trades.

▪ Introduce Building Information Modelling (BIM) as early as during conceptual

design phase.

▪ Presentation of options for main materials and equipment with pros and cons.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 31 (31m 39s)

[Audio] 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN Sample of Conceptual / Schematic Design Checklist No. Concept / Schematic Design Item Checklist YES / NO / Remarks 1. Structural system used ( concrete, steel, etc.) 1. Lateral load resisting system 1. Framing plan for all floors 1. Proposed sizes of columns, beams and slabs in major or main areas 1. Typical sections drawings 1. Drawings related to architecture No. Concept / Schematic Design Item Checklist YES / NO / Remarks Air conditioning and mechanical ventilation ( ACMV) 1. Description of ACMV system and equipment foreach functional space. 1. Cooling capacities of each functional area. 1. Proposed locations and sizes of mechanical equipment, rooms and main shafts. 1. Block layouts for major or main equipment. 1. Proposed location of louvers. 1. Life cycle cost analysis with recommendations Cold water and sanitary plumbing ( CWSP) 1. Location of required plumbingfixtures 1. Block layouts for water tank location. Fire protection system( FPS) 1. Location of main fire monitoringpanel No. Concept / Schematic Design Item Checklist YES / NO / Remarks 1. Location of major or main ICT rooms: (a) Server room (b) MDF room (c) SER room 1. Distance between network point to nearest ICT room ( SER) 1. All ICT rooms without column 1. Electrical rooms not beneath rooms or space with water services. 1. Piping with water services shall not crossing electrical rooms. 1. Separated dual duct banks for two service providers. 1. Dual power supply (if required) and proposedmethod. 2.3 Design Review and Validation 2. 3. 4 Project Elemental Review - Continue

euSAT LAT'HAN YES/ NO/ Remarks jor or YES/ NO/ Remarks (SER) water ical

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Sample of Conceptual / Schematic Design Checklist

No. Concept / Schematic Design Item Checklist YES / NO / Remarks

1. Structural system used (concrete, steel, etc.)

1. Lateral load resisting system

1. Framing plan for all floors

1. Proposed sizes of columns, beams and slabs in major or main areas

1. Typical sections drawings

1. Drawings related to architecture

No. Concept / Schematic Design Item Checklist YES / NO / Remarks

Air conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV)

1. Description of ACMV system and equipment foreach functional space.

1. Cooling capacities of each functional area.

1. Proposed locations and sizes of mechanical equipment, rooms and main shafts.

1. Block layouts for major or main equipment.

1. Proposed location of louvers.

1. Life cycle cost analysis with recommendations

Cold water and sanitary plumbing (CWSP)

1. Location of required plumbingfixtures

1. Block layouts for water tank location.

Fire protection system(FPS)

1. Location of main fire monitoringpanel

No. Concept / Schematic Design Item Checklist YES / NO / Remarks

1. Location of major or main ICT rooms: (a) Server room

(b) MDF room

(c) SER room

1. Distance between network point to nearest ICT room (SER)

1. All ICT rooms without column

1. Electrical rooms not beneath rooms or space with water services.

1. Piping with water services shall not crossing electrical rooms.

1. Separated dual duct banks for two service providers.

1. Dual power supply (if required) and proposedmethod.

2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3.4 Project Elemental Review - Continue

Scene 32 (34m 22s)

[Audio] 2.3 Design Review and Validation 2. 3. 5 Construction Safety ▪ Function review is to ensure: ▪ Take account safety and health issues arising from using selected product by designer to use in construction. ▪ Review decisions that can fundamentally affect safety such as selecting lighter materials. ▪ Review together with general principle of prevention. ▪ Comply with Factories and Machinery ( Safety, Health & Welfare) Regulations in reviewing design solutions for foreseeable hazard. ▪ General principle of prevention mentioned in OSHCIM 2017: ▪ Avoid risks ▪ Evaluate the risks which cannot be avoided ▪ Combat the risks at source ▪ Adapt the work to the individual, especially regarding the design of workplaces, the choice of work equipment and the choice of working and production methods, with a view to alleviating monotonous work, work at a predetermined work rate and to reducing their effect on health 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3.5 Construction Safety

▪ Function review is to ensure:

▪ Take account safety and health issues arising from using selected product by

designer to use in construction.

▪ Review decisions that can fundamentally affect safety such as selecting lighter

materials.

▪ Review together with general principle of prevention. ▪ Comply with Factories and Machinery (Safety, Health & Welfare) Regulations in

reviewing design solutions for foreseeable hazard.

▪ General principle of prevention mentioned in OSHCIM 2017:

▪ Avoid risks ▪ Evaluate the risks which cannot be avoided ▪ Combat the risks at source ▪ Adapt the work to the individual, especially regarding the design of workplaces,

the choice of work equipment and the choice of working and production methods, with a view to alleviating monotonous work, work at a predetermined work rate and to reducing their effect on health

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 33 (35m 38s)

[Audio] 2.3 Design Review and Validation 2. 3. 6 Constructability ▪ Some aspect to be attentive to for constructability review, among others: ▪ The concept is in line with the Client's existing policies, objective and vision. ▪ Site location – soil treatment required is not over budgeted, size of construction site, procurement of land, among others. ▪ Logistic – transport availability, site accessible by all related parties and minimize impact to surrounding land and air traffic ▪ Construction method – availability of safe, possible and efficient method of construction, contractors that might have the knowledge of the construction methods and its management ▪ Resources – construction manpower, materials and equipment availability to the contractor either locally or internationally. ▪ Construction management – can be managed by the current construction project team or future teams. ▪ Time – possibility to complete within targeted construction project period and programme ▪ Flexibility – design is flexible for changes or may generate options during implementation ▪ Interfacing – design of different element or trades must be compatible and complement each other. ▪ External factors – some unforeseen circumstances 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3.6 Constructability

▪ Some aspect to be attentive to for constructability review, among others:

▪ The concept is in line with the Client’s existing policies, objective and vision.

▪ Site location – soil treatment required is not over budgeted, size of construction site, procurement of land, among others.

▪ Logistic – transport availability, site accessible by all related parties and minimize impact to surrounding land and air traffic

▪ Construction method – availability of safe, possible and efficient method of construction, contractors that might have the knowledge of the construction methods and its management

▪ Resources – construction manpower, materials and equipment availability to the contractor either locally or internationally.

▪ Construction management – can be managed by the current construction project team or future teams.

▪ Time – possibility to complete within targeted construction project period and programme

▪ Flexibility – design is flexible for changes or may generate options during implementation

▪ Interfacing – design of different element or trades must be compatible and complement each other.

▪ External factors – some unforeseen circumstances

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 34 (37m 14s)

[Audio] 2.3 Design Review and Validation 2. 3. 7 Maintenance ▪ Some aspect to be attentive to for constructability review, among others: ▪ Permanent construction materials that might be used can withstand the ongoing operation and easier to re-construct or replace. ▪ Equipment that will be required to be installed can mutually work together with other equipment and easier to repair, maintain and replace. ▪ Life cycle of the necessary materials and equipment is long and will take longer time to be replaced and maintain. ▪ Consumables that might be used shall be minimize. ▪ Able to withstand heavy or mass excessive operation at a time as required by end user's operation. ▪ Waste that might be produced by the operation and its management. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3.7 Maintenance

▪ Some aspect to be attentive to for constructability review, among others:

▪ Permanent construction materials that might be used can withstand the ongoing

operation and easier to re-construct or replace.

▪ Equipment that will be required to be installed can mutually work together with

other equipment and easier to repair, maintain and replace.

▪ Life cycle of the necessary materials and equipment is long and will take longer

time to be replaced and maintain.

▪ Consumables that might be used shall be minimize.

▪ Able to withstand heavy or mass excessive operation at a time as required by end

user’s operation.

▪ Waste that might be produced by the operation and its management.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 35 (38m 18s)

[Audio] 2.3 Design Review and Validation 2. 3. 8 Site Visits ▪ Usually, it will provide a better understanding of the concept design and the construction project itself with an effort for a site visit at the intended construction site. ▪ At the site, there might be some existing buildings, utilities and facilities that will affect the overall design and construction of the construction project. Assessment is required for: ▪ demolishing the existing building and facilities. ▪ relocate the existing building and facilities. ▪ re-used the existing building and facilities for construction. ▪ requirement of temporary works to support construction as per design. 2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

2.3 Design Review and Validation 2.3.8 Site Visits

▪ Usually, it will provide a better understanding of the concept design and the

construction project itself with an effort for a site visit at the intended construction site.

▪ At the site, there might be some existing buildings, utilities and facilities that will

affect the overall design and construction of the construction project. Assessment is required for:

▪ demolishing the existing building and facilities.

▪ relocate the existing building and facilities.

▪ re-used the existing building and facilities for construction.

▪ requirement of temporary works to support construction as per design.

2.0 PREPARATION OF CONCEPT DESIGN

Scene 36 (39m 15s)

[Audio] 3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN • CIDB's Construction Industry Standard CIS 25:2018 ( Construction Activities Risk Assessment using Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control ( CARA-HIRARC)) defined risk as combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event with specified period or in specified circumstances and the severity of injury or damage to the health of people, property, environment or any combination of these caused by the event. In short, Risk = Likelihood x Severity • The CIS 25: 2018 listed some common construction work activities and their risk analysis, especially in terms of safety and health: • Site preparation works • Excavation work • Piling works activities • Scaffolding works • Concrete works • Structural steel work • Demolition works • Architectural work activities • Mechanical & electrical activities

3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

• CIDB’s Construction Industry Standard CIS 25:2018 (Construction Activities Risk Assessment using Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (CARA-HIRARC)) defined risk as combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event with specified period or in specified circumstances and the severity of injury or damage to the health of people, property, environment or any combination of these caused by the event. In short,

Risk = Likelihood x Severity

• The CIS 25:2018 listed some common construction work activities and their risk analysis, especially in terms of safety and health:

• Site preparation works

• Excavation work

• Piling works activities

• Scaffolding works

• Concrete works

• Structural steel work

• Demolition works

• Architectural work activities

• Mechanical & electrical activities

STANDARD INDUSTRI PEMBINAAN (CONSTRUCTION STANDARD) CIS 25:2018 (CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES RISK ASSESSMENT tCARAj Hazara Jaennncanon, Risk Analysis ana control Cemstrtx:tiem Industry Development BO&d Malaysia D B Construction Development Board Malaysia

Scene 37 (40m 16s)

[Audio] 3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN • According to OSHCIM 2017 – Guidance Notes for Client, risk management in conceptual design includes: • Identify reasonably foreseeable hazards associated with the design. • Access the risks arising from the hazards. • Eliminate or minimise the risk by designing control measures (either by using design or other means). • Re-assess the risk with the identified control measures implemented. • Monitor and review the control measures. Design /Re design Identify Hazard Communicate ReduceRisk Eliminate Hazard Create Higher Risk Safe toBuild NO NO NO YES YES YES Overview on Design Risk Management Process Flow (Adopted from OSHCIM 2017 – Guidance Notes for Client)

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3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

• According to OSHCIM 2017 – Guidance Notes for Client, risk management in conceptual design includes:

• Identify reasonably foreseeable hazards associated with the design.

• Access the risks arising from the hazards.

• Eliminate or minimise the risk by designing control measures (either by using design or other means).

• Re-assess the risk with the identified control measures implemented.

• Monitor and review the control measures.

Client Designer Construction Project Team Constructor Principal Constuctor Principal designer

Design /Re-

design

Identify Hazard

Communicate ReduceRisk

Eliminate Hazard

Create

Higher Risk

Safe toBuild

NO

NO

NO

YES

YES

YES

Overview on Design Risk Management Process Flow

(Adopted from OSHCIM 2017 – Guidance Notes for Client)

DEPARTENT SAFETY ANO æALTH MNSTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

Scene 38 (41m 11s)

[Audio] 3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 3.1 Risk Identification • Risk can be identified during: • Design brainstorming and design review • Risk analysis workshop • Systematic design process review • Some consideration in identifying risk in concept design: • Physical – such as fire, noise, ergonomics, radiation, among others. • Mechanical – such as rotating parts, moving parts, among others. • Electrical – such as current, static, leakage, load, magnetic fields, among others. • Chemical – such as reactive materials, corrosive materials, flammable materials, among others. • Biological – such as bacteria, viruses, air, among others. • Psychological – such as fatigue, stress, among others. • Workplace proximity to hazard and between hazards. • Workplace or tools suitability with works. • Not regular or non-familiar activities. • Conditions of environment.

3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 3.1 Risk Identification

• Risk can be identified during:

• Design brainstorming and design review

• Risk analysis workshop

• Systematic design process review

• Some consideration in identifying risk in concept design:

• Physical – such as fire, noise, ergonomics, radiation, among others.

• Mechanical – such as rotating parts, moving parts, among others.

• Electrical – such as current, static, leakage, load, magnetic fields, among others.

• Chemical – such as reactive materials, corrosive materials, flammable materials, among others.

• Biological – such as bacteria, viruses, air, among others.

• Psychological – such as fatigue, stress, among others.

• Workplace proximity to hazard and between hazards.

• Workplace or tools suitability with works.

• Not regular or non-familiar activities.

• Conditions of environment.

Scene 39 (42m 25s)

[Audio] 3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 3.2 Risk Assessment • CARA-HIRARC recommended the numeric 5x5 risk matrix as risk assessment and analysis method. The matrix components are as the risk definition which are: • Severity – outcome from an event such as severity of injury or health of people, or damage to property, or insult to environment, or any combination of those caused by the event. • Likelihood – an event likely to occur within specific period or in specified circumstances • Risk rating Level Severity rating Description 5 Catastrophic Death, fatal diseases or multiple major injuries. 4 Major Serious injuries or life-threatening diseases. 3 Moderate Injury or ill-health requiring medical treatment. 2 Minor Injury or ill-health requiring first-aid only. 1 Negligible Negligible injury. Level Likelihood rating Description 5 Almost certain Continual or repeating experience. 4 Frequent C o m m o n occurrence. 3 Occasional Possible or k n o wn to occur. 2 R em ot e Not likely to occur under normal circumstances. 1 Rare Not expected to occur, but still possible. Severity Likelihood Rare ( 1) Remote (2) Occasional (3) Frequent ( 4) Almost certain (5) Catastrophic (5) 5 (Med) 10 (Med) 15 (High) 20 (High) 25 (High) Major (4) 4 (Med) 8 (Med) 12 (Med) 16 (High) 20 (High) Moderate (3) 3 (Low) 6 (Med) 9 (Med) 12 (Med) 15 (High) Minor ( 2) 2 (Low) 4 (Med) 6 (Med) 8 (Med) 10 (Med) Negligible (1) 1 (Low) 2 (Low) 3 (Low) 4 (Med) 5 (Med) Riskrating Classification 15- 25 High 5-12 Medium 1-4 Low

3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 3.2 Risk Assessment • CARA-HIRARC recommended the numeric 5x5 risk matrix as risk assessment and analysis method. The matrix components are as the risk definition which are: • Severity – outcome from an event such as severity of injury or health of people, or damage to property, or insult to environment, or any combination of those caused by the event. • Likelihood – an event likely to occur within specific period or in specified circumstances • Risk rating Level Severity rating Description 5 Catastrophic Death, fatal diseases or multiple major injuries. 4 Major Serious injuries or life-threatening diseases. 3 Moderate Injury or ill-health requiring medical treatment. 2 Minor Injury or ill-health requiring first-aid only. 1 Negligible Negligible injury. Level Likelihood rating Description 5 Almost certain Continual or repeating experience. 4 Frequent C o m m o n occurrence. 3 Occasional Possible or k n o wn to occur. 2 R em ot e Not likely to occur under normal circumstances. 1 Rare Not expected to occur, but still possible. Severity Likelihood Rare (1) Remote (2) Occasional (3) Frequent (4) Almost certain (5) Catastrophic (5) 5 (Med) 10 (Med) 15 (High) 20 (High) 25 (High) Major (4) 4 (Med) 8 (Med) 12 (Med) 16 (High) 20 (High) Moderate (3) 3 (Low) 6 (Med) 9 (Med) 12 (Med) 15 (High) Minor (2) 2 (Low) 4 (Med) 6 (Med) 8 (Med) 10 (Med) Negligible (1) 1 (Low) 2 (Low) 3 (Low) 4 (Med) 5 (Med) Riskrating Classification 15-25 High 5-12 Medium 1-4 Low

Scene 40 (44m 45s)

[Audio] 3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 3.3 Risk Control Risk ratingand Classification General Control Measures High ( 15- 25) Must be reduced to at least Medium risk. Should be eliminate, substitute or isolate. Should not overly dependent to control using PPE. Medium ( 5- 12) Reduce as low as reasonably practicable Control with administrative control as well as PPE. Low ( 1- 4) No control measures required. Monitoring of risk. Risk Control Measures Eliminate Substitute Isolate Engineering controls Administrative Personal Protective Equipment

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3.0 RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 3.3 Risk Control

Risk ratingand

Classification General Control Measures

High (15-25)

- Must be reduced to at least Medium risk.

- Should be eliminate, substitute or isolate.

- Should not overly dependent to control using PPE.

Medium (5-12)

- Reduce as low as reasonably practicable

- Control with administrative control as well as PPE.

Low (1-4) No control measures required. Monitoring of risk. Risk Control Measures

Eliminate

Substitute

Personal Protective Equipment Administrative Engineering controls Isolate

Isolate

Engineering

controls

Administrative

Personal Protective Equipment

Most effective Least effective Hierarchy of Controls Elirnination S u bstitutio n Engineering Controls Ad rninistrat ive Controls Physically remove the hazard Replace the hazard Isolate people from the hazard Change the •way people work P rotect the worker vvith personal p rotective Equipment

Scene 41 (45m 32s)

[Audio] THANK YOU Recommended Reading and Reference 1. De Soto, B. G., & Adey, B. T. ( 2016). Preliminary resource-based estimates combining artificial intelligence approaches and traditional techniques. Procedia engineering, 164, 261 268. 2. French, M. J., Gravdahl, J. T., & French, M. J. ( 1985). Conceptual design for engineers. London: Design Council. 3. Thyssen, M. H., Emmitt, S., Bonke, S., & Kirk-Christoffersen, A. ( 2010). Facilitating client value creation in the conceptual design phase of construction projects: a workshop approach. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 6(1), 18- 30. 4. Al-Tabtabai, H., Alex, A. P., & Tantash, M. ( 1999). Preliminary cost estimation of highway construction using neural networks. Cost Engineering, 41( 3), 19. 5. Sharma, J. R., Najafi, M., & Qasim, S. R. ( 2013). Preliminary cost estimation models for construction, operation, and maintenance of water treatment plants. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 19( 4), 451- 464. 6. Hollar, D. A., Rasdorf, W., Liu, M., Hummer, J. E., Arocho, I., & Hsiang, S. M. ( 2012). Preliminary engineering cost estimation model for bridge projects. Journal of construction engineering and management, 139( 9), 1259- 1267. 7. Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Construction Industry ( Management) 2017 ( OSHCIM), Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH), Ministry of Human Resources. 8. Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Construction Industry (Management) 2017 (OSHCIM) – Guidance Notes for Client, Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Ministry of Human Resources. 9. Construction Industry Standard, CIS 25: 2018, Construction Activities Risk Assessment ( CARA) using HIRARC, Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB) Malaysia.

THANK YOU

Recommended Reading and Reference

1. De Soto, B. G., & Adey, B. T. (2016). Preliminary resource-based estimates combining

artificial intelligence approaches and traditional techniques. Procedia engineering, 164, 261-

268.

2. French, M. J., Gravdahl, J. T., & French, M. J. (1985). Conceptual design for engineers.

London: Design Council.

3. Thyssen, M. H., Emmitt, S., Bonke, S., & Kirk-Christoffersen, A. (2010). Facilitating client

value creation in the conceptual design phase of construction projects: a workshop approach.

Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 6(1), 18-30.

4. Al-Tabtabai, H., Alex, A. P., & Tantash, M. (1999). Preliminary cost estimation of highway

construction using neural networks. Cost Engineering, 41(3), 19.

5. Sharma, J. R., Najafi, M., & Qasim, S. R. (2013). Preliminary cost estimation models for

construction, operation, and maintenance of water treatment plants. Journal of Infrastructure

Systems, 19(4), 451-464.

6. Hollar, D. A., Rasdorf, W., Liu, M., Hummer, J. E., Arocho, I., & Hsiang, S. M. (2012).

Preliminary engineering cost estimation model for bridge projects. Journal of construction

engineering and management, 139(9), 1259-1267.

7. Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Construction Industry (Management) 2017

(OSHCIM), Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Ministry of Human

Resources.

8. Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Construction Industry (Management) 2017

(OSHCIM) – Guidance Notes for Client, Department of Occupational Safety and Health

(DOSH), Ministry of Human Resources.

9. Construction Industry Standard, CIS 25:2018, Construction Activities Risk Assessment

(CARA) using HIRARC, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB)Malaysia.