Historical events from 1857-1947

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Historical events from 1857-1947

Name :- Neel Anil Sawale Roll No:- 41 Class:- 5 th School:- KVS Aurangabad

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India's first war of Independence

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C ause Indian  First W ar of independence

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Causes of Revolt of 1857

The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to various factors which are stated below:  ● Religious & Social Causes - Racism or racial discrimination was believed to be a major reason for the revolt of 1857 wherein Indians were exploited and were kept away from mixing with Europeans. The whites also started interfering in the religious and cultural affairs of Indians and tortured them as well.  ● Political Causes - The British expansion had led to the propagation of unjust policies that led to the loss of power of the Nawabs and Zamindars residing at various places of India. The introduction of unfair policies like the policy of Trade and Commerce, the policy of indirect subordination (subsidiary alliance), the policy of war and annexation, the policy of direct subordination (doctrine of lapse), the policy of misgovernance (through which Awadh was annexed) greatly hampered the interests of the rulers of the native states, and they one by one became victims of British expansionism. Therefore, those rulers, who lost their states to the British, were naturally against the British and took sides against them during the revolt.  ● Economic Factors -There were various reforms in the taxation and revenue system that affected the peasants’ heavily. British Government had imposed and introduced various administrative policies to expand their territory.

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List of Important Leaders associated with the revolt of 1857

Place Revolt of 1857 -Important Leaders Delhi Bahadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan Lucknow Begum Hazrat Mahal , Birjis Qadir , Ahmadullah Kanpur Nana Sahib, Rao Sahib, Tantia Tope, Azimullah Khan Jhansi Rani Laxmibai Bihar Kunwar Singh, Amar Singh Rajasthan Jaidayal Singh and Hardayal Sing Farrukhaba d Tufzal Hasan Khan Assam Kandapareshwar Singh, Maniram Dutta Baruah Orissa Surendra Shahi , Ujjwal Shahi

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Who coined the name Sepoy Mutiny?

In India, the term First War of Independence was first popularized by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1909 book The History of the War of Indian Independence.

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What was the immediate reason for the revolt of 1857?

The immediate factor was the introduction of the ‘Enfield’ rifle. It was said that the cartridge of this rifle was wrapped in the fat of cow and pig. The cartridge had to be bitten off before loading it into the gun. Thus the Hindu and Muslim soldiers were reluctant to use the ‘Enfield’ rifle

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1885 the indian national congress

On 28 December 1885, the first session of the Indian National Congress (INC) was held at Bombay and continued till 31 December. It was started by a retired British civil servant Allan Octavian Hume along with Dadabhai Naoroji and Dinshaw Wacha .

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Indian National Congress Formation

The INC was the first national movement of a political kind in India with the initial aim of getting more Indians involved in the governance of the country. Later on, its purpose upgraded to complete independence. And, post-independence, it emerged as a major political party in the country. For the first session, Hume obtained permission from the then Viceroy of India Lord Dufferin . It was initially supposed to be held in Poona but was moved to Bombay due to the outbreak of cholera in Poona. In 1883, Hume had written an open letter to Calcutta University graduates expressing his idea of having a body for educated Indians to demand more share in the government and also for a platform by which dialogue could be initiated and sustained between educated Indians and the British government. The first session was attended by 72 delegates from all the Indian provinces. There were 54 Hindus, 2 Muslims and the rest were Jain and Parsi members. The president of the first session was  Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee . Prominent attendees of the maiden session were Dadabhai Naoroji , Dinshaw Wacha , William Wedderburn , Pherozeshah Mehta, etc. In its early years, the INC was a moderate organisation and limited its means to constitutional methods and dialogue. Its demands were limited to including more Indians in the civil service and the armed forces. It never talked of independence. After a few years, the party became more radical in its demands and approach. By 1905, there was a clear rift in the party which was now divided between old moderates and the newer group, the extremists – who were so called because of their radical methodologies. The 1905 partition of Bengal saw the party transforming into a mass movement. The extremist faction was led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak . The party split openly in the  Surat session  in 1907. The congress truly became a mass party with the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi, who returned from South Africa in 1915. Gandhi introduced methods like satyagraha and civil disobedience to the independence struggle. Gandhi remained a spiritual leader for the party and his presence drew a lot of support from both the elite and the masses. More young leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, C Rajagopalachari, Subhash Chandra Bose, etc. made their presence felt. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was also a member of the party and although he joined the Muslim League in 1913, he continued to be a Congress member as well until 1920. Starting with home rule, by 1929, the demand for  poorna swaraj  was being made. The Congress was now a party that had huge mass support and was the chief political party in the Indian freedom struggle. After the  Government of India Act 1935  was passed, provincial elections were held in 1936-37 and out of the 11 provinces, the Congress formed the government in 8 of them except Sindh, Punjab and Bengal. It must be noted that the INC was not the sole Indian political force, there were other parties like the Hindu Mahasabha , the Forward Bloc, etc. After independence, the first Prime Minister of the country, Jawaharlal Nehru was from the party. In the first general elections in 1952, the Congress had a thumping victory and Nehru became the first directly elected PM of India. He was in power till his death in 1964. Other Prime Ministers from the party are Gulzarilal Nanda (acting PM), Lal Bahadur Shastri , Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, P V Narasimha Rao and Manmohan Singh. Even the non-Congress Prime Ministers like Morarji Desai, Charan Singh, V P Singh, Chandra Shekhar , Deve Gowda and I K Gujral were formerly members of the Congress.

The INC was the first national movement of a political kind in India with the initial aim of getting more Indians involved in the governance of the country. Later on, its purpose upgraded to complete independence. And, post-independence, it emerged as a major political party in the country. For the first session, Hume obtained permission from the then Viceroy of India Lord Dufferin . It was initially supposed to be held in Poona but was moved to Bombay due to the outbreak of cholera in Poona. In 1883, Hume had written an open letter to Calcutta University graduates expressing his idea of having a body for educated Indians to demand more share in the government and also for a platform by which dialogue could be initiated and sustained between educated Indians and the British government. The first session was attended by 72 delegates from all the Indian provinces. There were 54 Hindus, 2 Muslims and the rest were Jain and Parsi members. The president of the first session was  Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee . Prominent attendees of the maiden session were Dadabhai Naoroji , Dinshaw Wacha , William Wedderburn , Pherozeshah Mehta, etc. In its early years, the INC was a moderate organisation and limited its means to constitutional methods and dialogue. Its demands were limited to including more Indians in the civil service and the armed forces. It never talked of independence. After a few years, the party became more radical in its demands and approach. By 1905, there was a clear rift in the party which was now divided between old moderates and the newer group, the extremists – who were so called because of their radical methodologies. The 1905 partition of Bengal saw the party transforming into a mass movement. The extremist faction was led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak . The party split openly in the  Surat session  in 1907. The congress truly became a mass party with the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi, who returned from South Africa in 1915. Gandhi introduced methods like satyagraha and civil disobedience to the independence struggle. Gandhi remained a spiritual leader for the party and his presence drew a lot of support from both the elite and the masses. More young leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, C Rajagopalachari, Subhash Chandra Bose, etc. made their presence felt. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was also a member of the party and although he joined the Muslim League in 1913, he continued to be a Congress member as well until 1920. Starting with home rule, by 1929, the demand for  poorna swaraj  was being made. The Congress was now a party that had huge mass support and was the chief political party in the Indian freedom struggle. After the  Government of India Act 1935  was passed, provincial elections were held in 1936-37 and out of the 11 provinces, the Congress formed the government in 8 of them except Sindh, Punjab and Bengal. It must be noted that the INC was not the sole Indian political force, there were other parties like the Hindu Mahasabha , the Forward Bloc, etc. After independence, the first Prime Minister of the country, Jawaharlal Nehru was from the party. In the first general elections in 1952, the Congress had a thumping victory and Nehru became the first directly elected PM of India. He was in power till his death in 1964. Other Prime Ministers from the party are Gulzarilal Nanda (acting PM), Lal Bahadur Shastri , Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, P V Narasimha Rao and Manmohan Singh. Even the non-Congress Prime Ministers like Morarji Desai, Charan Singh, V P Singh, Chandra Shekhar , Deve Gowda and I K Gujral were formerly members of the Congress.

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First Phase of Indian Nationalism (1885- 1915)

This phase was dominated by moderates. This phase was initially called as the ‘Early Nationalist’ phase, however, with the rise of extremism in the closing stages of the 19th Century, this phase was described as the ‘age of moderates’. 1. Establishment of Indian National Congress (INC) : a) The INC was established in 1885, by A.O. Hume, a retired civil servant who was staying in Shimla post-retirement. b) He invited many Indian leaders regarding the Indian cause, and he laid the foundation of the ‘Indian National Union’. c) But, after the suggestion of Dadabhai Naoroji , its name was changed to ‘Indian National Congress’. The word ‘Congress’ was taken from the American Constitution.

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What was the real reason for the establishment of the Indian National Congress?

There are two broad theories behind this: a)  Mythical Theory : This suggested that it was the humanistic approach of A.O. Hume that was cited as one of the factors that led to the establishment of the INC. In fact, it was said that Hume was deeply moved by the political plight of the Indians, and he wanted to establish a political platform for Indians that could serve as the ‘voice for Indians’ so that the grievances could reach the British and the discontentment which was gradually growing between the British ruling system and the Indians could be minimized. The biographer of A.O. Hume,  William Wedderburn , who later on also became the President of the INC as well, deeply believed in the humanistic approach of A.O. Hume. b)  Realistic Theory : The extremist elements in India like Lala Lajpat Rai , Bal Gangadhar Tilak , Bipin Chandra Pal, etc. laid down the theory known as ‘Safety- valve’ theory. Lala Lajpat Rai wrote two books, ‘Unhappy India’, and ‘Punjabi’. In these two books, he explained and criticized the policy of the British regarding the establishment of the INC. According to him, it was a conspiracy of  Lord Dufferin , and  A.O. Hume,  that lead to the establishment of the INC. In the second half of the 19th Century with the growing tide of nationalism, the aggression of Indians kept on increasing against the British policies, thus the British think-tanks derived a concept by which it was said that in between the British Government in India and the Indian public, there would be a buffer organization known as the Indian National Congress (INC). Thus the INC would work as a buffer organization, or in other words, it would work as a safety-valve. The safety-valve theory got a strong momentum in the political circles of India. But, on the basis of modern analysis, the INC was a result of many a regional consciousness uniting together under the context of commonality of interests. In fact, with the beginning of the 19th Century itself, there were many cultural organizations which were established by social reformers. And cultural organizations always lead to political and social awareness. Thus, in this regard, we find that immediately after the socio-cultural movement in India (i.e. 19th-century renaissance), we find various political organizations being established like: The Landholders Society , which was established by Dwarakanath Tagore. This was also known as Zamindar Sabha . There were many other organizations like,  East India Association ,  Bengal British East India Association, Poona Sarvajanik Sabha , and the Indian League, established by Sisir Kumar Ghosh.