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BREAD AND PASRTY LESSON NO. 1 Teacher Leah Fe Castillo.

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PREPARE AND PRODUCE BAKERY PRODUCTS

EXPECTED OUTCOMES; At the end of this Lesson, you should be able to;

LO1. prepare bakery products LO2. Decorate and present bakery product LO3. Store bakery products

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MEASURMENT OF DRY AND LIQUID INGREDENTS

DRY INGREDINTS

FLOUR Sift the flour to remove lumps Level off the cup with a straight-edged utensils or spatula For fractions of a cup, use the lines indicating ¼ 1/3 and ½ of the standard measuring cup,.

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SUGAR White sugar need sifting only if lumpy. Proceed as in the measurement of flour Brown sugar is, if lumpy, press through a coarse sieve to crush the lumps. Pack into measuring cup just enough to hold its shape. Level off.

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Baking powder, soda, salt and Spices *Fill measuring spoon with the desired ingredients. Level off with a spatula or any straight-edged utensils. SHORTENING *Whit the use of measuring cup have shortening at room temperature. Pack firmly into the measuring cup, taking care not to have air pockets. Level of with spatula. Use standard measuring spoon for less than ¼ cup shortening.

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1 cup butter = 1 cup margarine

Liquid Ingredients

1 oz baking chocolate (unsweetened) = 1 square 1 oz sweetened chocolate = ¼ cup cocoa 1 ¼ to 2 tsp shortening 8 – 10 pcs graham crackers = 1 cup graham crumbs 4 oz bread = 3 cups soft crumbs 1 cup milk = ½ cup evaporated milk ½ cup water 1 cup cake flour = 1 cup all-purpose flour – 2T cornstarch ( both sifted before measuring) 1 tbs cornstacrh = 2 tbs flour 1 cup sour milk = 1 cup evaporated milk+ 1 T vinegar or lemon juice 1cup whipping cream = ¾ cup whole milk + ¼ cup butter 1 whole egg = 2 egg yolks 1 cup molasses = 1 cup honey

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FLOUR Major ingredients in baking Flour is a finely ground meal obtained by grans and milling cereal grains or other root crops. Flour is most commonly made from wheat and when the word ‘flour’ is used without qualification, it usually implies wheat flour. However, flour also can be made from many other grasses and non-grain plants, such as corn, rice, potatoes, and other foods. Wheat contains protein. When mixed with water, these proteins form as gluten. The more protein a flour has, the stronger the gluten strength.

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TYPES OF FLOUR * Hard flour or bread flour is high in gluten, with 12-14% protein content, and has strongest gluten strength. Bread flour has 12-14% protein content and is made from hard wheat flour. The high gluten content causes the bread to rise and gives its shape and structure. All purpose flour has 10-11% protein content and is made from a blend of hard and soft wheat flours, also called the general purpose flour or family flour.

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Soft flour is usually made into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten content, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour. Cake flour has 7-9% protein content and is made from soft wheat flour. It is good for making cakes and cookies where a tender and delicate texture is desired.

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5 IMPORTANT AND USES OF FLOUR Provides structure, texture and color to baked products Provides nutritive value to baked products Used as thickening agent Used as binder of food Used as stiffening agent in laundry

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SUGAR

TYPES OF SUGAR

Granulated sugar or white sugar – also known as table sugar or as refined sugar. Confectioner's sugar or powdered sugar- granulated sugar that has been pulverized. Brown sugar- contains caramel, mineral matter and moisture. It also contains a small amount of molasses. It comes in three colors.

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EFFECTS OF SUGAR IN BAKING

* Increases dough development *Makes the color of the crust richer * improves the nutritive value, flavor and aroma of the product * Makes the bread more tender *Increase the volume of the loaf *Serves as food for the yeast *Contributes to moisture content of baked products, increasing its storing quality *Acts as creaming agent

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EGGS

Eggs are considered a complete protein, containing all the essential amino acids humans use to build other proteins needed by the body. Both the yolk and the egg white contain protein, so whole eggs or their separated components may be used to set liquids.

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USES OF EGGS IN BAKING

* Eggs provide leavening ; add color , texture, flavor and richness to the batter; and act as stabilizer in mixture that inherently wants to separate its into two parts like oil and water. Eggs are to thickening agent. Egg are washes are brushed on many baked goods to create a golden shiny top. Egg whites are used to make meringues.

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SHORTENING OIL - made from fat plant products such as corn, cottonseeds, soy beans, peanuts and other sources, as a rule , you can substitute oil for melted shortening. Corn oil and vegetables oil are commonly used in baking. BUTTER - made from fatty milk proteins. When we used butter in baking it contributes flavors and tenderness. MARGARINE - made from hydrogenated vegetables oil. It contains 80-85 percent fat, 10-15 percent of water and 5 percent of salt.

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LARD – made of fat from pork. Some people prefer lard to other fats for making pie crust and biscuits because it gives a flakier texture. Cocoa butter- the ivory colored natural fat of the cocoa beans extracted during the manufacturing of chocolate and cocoa powder, it gives chocolate its creamy, smooth, melt-in-your mouth texture .

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USES OF SORTHENING IN BAKING Makes bread products tender and improve flavor. Assist in gas retention giving better volume and crust. Prevent the cohesion of gluten Improve aroma, color and texture of baked products. Improve the shelf life of baked products because of its moisture.

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LEAVENING AGENT LEAVENING AGENT ARE GASESE THAT CAUSEVTHE DOUGH TO RISE. IN THE PRESENCE OF MOISTURE, HEAT, AND OTHERS, THE LEAVENING AGENT REACT TO PRODUCE GAS ( OFFTEN CARBON DIOXIDE) THAT BECOMES TRAPPED AS A BUBBLES WITHIN THE DOUGH. WHEN A DOUGH OR BATTER IS BAKED, IT ‘’ SET’’ AND THE HOLES LEFT BY THE GAS BUBBLES REMAIN. THIS IS WHAT GIVES BREAD, CAKES, AND OTHER BAKED GOODS TO RISE AND INCREASE IN VOLUME.

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Classification of Leavening Agents Chemical leaveners . – are chemical mixtures of compounds that release gases, usually carbon dioxide. Chemical leaveners are used in quick breads and cakes, as well as cookies. Examples of chemical leaveners is Baking Soda- otherwise known as bicarbonate of soda, or sodium bicarbonate. It is a chemical salt with divers practical uses. It is a powerful leavener that readily reacts as soon as it comes in contact with batter or dough.

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Biological Leaveners . Yeast is a living organism, neither plat nor animal. Yeast belong to a separate kindom in taxonomy, the fungus kingdom. Leavening with yeast is a process based on fermentatio , the process of coverting sugar to alchohol and to carbon dioxide. TYPES OF YEAST Dry or granular Compressed or cake type instatnt

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LIQUID INGREDIENTS

Provides moisture to rehydrate and actives the yeast and bring together the flour and any other dry ingredients to make the dough. It also improves the formation of gluten strands during the kneading of dough.

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The following are some types of the liquid ingredients used in baking WATER- It performs vital role in baking making ingredient rehydrated. The right amount of water helps dissolve all other ingredients in batter and in dough to form smooth, workable mixture. In that way, water acts as a binding agent for any baked products .

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MILK and Other Dairy Products Milk and cream, like water, moisten dough and batters, unlike water, they add a slight flavor to the final baked good and increase its richness. Milk and cream also create a fuller, moisture texture in baked goods and help them brown on the surface. They also contribute to the nutritive value of baked goods.

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TYPES OF MILK IN BAKING *Fresh milk or whole milk *Evaporated milk *Condensed milk *Powder milk USES OF MILK IN BAKING *Enhances texture and increase softness of baked goods *Acts as a strengthener when mixed with flour, because it helps in the formation of gluten, which gives a baked item structure. *Provides moisture and tenderness to baked goods, enhance flavor , extend the shelf life of the cake

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TO BE CONTINUE…..