Science

2.3 LIVING PROCESSES IN MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS

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2.3 LIVING PROCESSES IN MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS

- Farhah , Haseena , Keertiga , Kirtinyaa - - 4 Arif -

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Multicellular organisms are organisms with more than one cell. Multicellular organisms are more complex than unicellular organisms. For example, fungi, hydra, spirogyra, animals and plants. Every cell is different in terms of size , shape , form , structure and function. Cells undergo differentiation to become specialised cells. In this process, cells change form and structure that suits its functions. All cells depends on each other to form one complex organism.

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TYPES OF HUMAN AND PLANT CELLS

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TYPES OF HUMAN CELLS

MUSCLE CELL

Arranged as multinuclear striated fibres Contract and relax to generate movement

NERVE CELL

Long and thin in shape Made up of nerves known as neurons 3 types of neurons: sensory, motor and relay neuron Send and receive bioelectrical signals to control bodily actions

WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC)

RED BLOOD CELL (RBC)

EPITHELIAL CELL

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SPERM CELL

Can change shape Functions in destroying pathogens

Doesn’t contain a nucleus Shaped as a biconcave disc Functions to optimise transportation of oxygen

Thin and flat cells Coats the surface of organs such as the digestive tract Provides protection from infection, mechanical injury and dehydration

Has a long tail and high amount of mitochondria to enable it to swim towards ovum in the Fallopian tube The head carries a set of chromosomes from the male

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TYPES OF PLANT CELLS

XYLEM CELL

Long, continuous hollow tube Vessel cells and tracheids transport water and mineral nutrients from roots to other parts of plant

GUARD CELL

Modified lower epidermal cells below the surface of leaves Bean-shaped and exist in pairs Contains chloroplasts Controls opening of stoma

PALISADE MESOPHYLL CELL

SIEVE TUBE ELEMENT

SPONGY MESOPHYLL CELL

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ROOT HAIR CELL

Cylindrical, packed tightly and arranged vertically to maximise light absorption Contains many chloroplasts

Long cylindrical tubes arranged from end to end Transports organic materials from leaves to storage organs such as fruits

Cylindrical cells, loosely arranged with lots of air space in between Allows gaseous exchange

A modified epidermal cell Has a long projection which adds surface area for absorption of water and mineral salts

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CELL ORAGANISATION IN HUMANS

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TISSUES

Group of cells that have the same structure and function and are arranged together to carry out a specific function. 4 types of tissue in humans Epithelial tissue Muscle tissue Nerve tissue Connective tissue

abstract

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Layers the outer surfaces (skin) and hollow surfaces in the body (digestive tract and respiratory tract) Undergoes structural modification to form glands for mucus secretion The epithelial tissue structure is adapted based on its function Epithelial tissues that coats the trachea have hair-like projections, known as cilia

EPITHELIAL TISSUE

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EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Epithelial tissue covers the surface of the mouth and oesophagus

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Epithelial tissue covers the surface of the lungs , body cavities and blood vessels

Covers the surface of the trachea and bronchus Cilia filters dust Goblet cells secrete mucus to trap air particles

Lines tubules , glands and kidney ducts Produces ATP so organs function properly Epithelial cells in kidneys aid in detoxification

Covers the small intestine Absorb nutrients Goblet cells are epithelial cells modified to secrete mucus Secrete digestive enzymes

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MUSCLE TISSUES

SMOOTH MUSCLE

SKELETAL MUSCLE

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CARDIAC MUSCLE

Found in the digestive tract , blood vessel , urinary tract and reproductive tract Involves in involuntary actions such as peristalsis along the alimentary tract Contracts slowly compared to skeletal muscles but can remain contracted for a longer period of time

Found in the heart wall Contracts to pump blood the whole body Contractions are under involuntary control

Found in legs and hands Attached to the skeletal frame Contracts and relaxes to generate movement in bones and limbs Under voluntary control

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Made up of nerve cells known as neurons Each neuron consist of a cell body and nerve fibre called dendrite and axon There are 3 types of neurons: sensory , motor and relay neuron Detects stimu li and sends bioelectrical signals (nerve impulses) to the muscles or glands Regulates and coordinates body actions

abstract

NERVE TISSUE

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CONNECTIVE TISSUES

BLOOD TISSUE

Blood plays an important role in regulation, transportation and protection. Made up of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets Produced in the bone marrow

FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE

These tissues form tendons and ligaments The tendon connects bones and muscles while ligaments connect bones to bones

LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

ADIPOSE TISSUE

BONE

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CARTILAGE

Links the epithelial tissue to the tissues below it Fixes the organs in their positions

Connective tissues keep fat under the skin dermis and the surface of all main organs Serves to insulate the body against heat loss

Forms the body frame Protects the internal organs Bone cells are embedded in a collagen matrix and strengthened with mineral deposits like calcium phosphate

Encloses bone tips Prevents the bone from wearing out Forms strong and flexible tissue, give structural form to ears and nose

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TISSUE ORGANISATION IN PLANTS

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PLANT TISSUE

Meristem Tissue

Permanent Tissue

Apical Meristem Tissue

Lateral Meristem Tissue

Dermal Tissue

Ground Tissue

Vascular Tissue

Parenchyma Tissue

Collenchyma Tissue

Sclerenchyma Tissue

Xylem Tissue

Phloem Tissue

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TYPES OF GROUND TISSUES

PARENCHYMA TISSUE

Functions to store starch, protein and water. Can carry out photosynthesis

COLLENCHYMA TISSUE

Functions is giving support to young, non woody stems (herbaceous plant)

SCLERENCHYMA TISSUE

Functions in providing support and mechanical strength to all mature parts of the plant

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VASCULAR TISSUES

Vascular tissues are made up of xylem tissue and phloem tissue

abstract

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VASCULAR TISSUES

XYLEM TISSUE

Functions in transporting water and mineral salts from the roots to other parts of the plant Ligneous xylem tissue wall provides support and mechanical strength to the plants

Functions in transporting organic matters such as sucrose from the leaves to all parts of the plants

PHLOEM TISSUE

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DENSITY OF CERTAIN CELL COMPONENTS AND SPECIALISED CELL FUNCTIONS

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Organelle concentration for specialised cells is dependent on the specific function of the cell . Cell function could be affected if there is a lack of the required organelles. Lack of ribosomes could affect protein synthesis resulting in interrupted production of enzymes, antibodies and hormones. Failure of the mitochondrion function or mitochondrion disjunction can cause stunted growth, weak muscles, hearing and vision problems. Tay-Sachs is a hereditary disease caused by the failure of enzymes to produce in the lysosomes. Tay-Sachs patients experience stunted growth and mental retardation . The digestive system and immune system would fail to function properly when there is a lack of lysosome which releases lysozyme in cells. In plant cells , low amount of chloroplasts would impede and slows down the photosynthesis rate of the affected plant.

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Types of cell Sperm cell Muscle cell such as flight muscle cells in insects and birds Plant meristem cell Palisade mesophyll cell Spongy mesophyll cell Pancreatic cell Goblet cell in intestinal epithelium and respiratory tract Liver cell Cell Component found in Abundance Mitochondrion Chloroplast Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Function Requires a lot of energy to swim towards the uterus and Fallopian tube to fertilise the secondary oocytes Requires a lot of energy to contract and relax to enable movement and flight Requires a lot of energy to carry out active cell division process to produce new cells Absorbs more sunlight to carry out the process of photosynthesis Increases synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes Produces mucus Metabolises carbohydrates Detoxification of drugs and poison

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