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WEEK 3&4

WEEK 5&6

WEEK 7 & 8

WEEK 9 & 10

WEEK 9 & 10

WEEK 13 & 14

Presented by: Angelie Marie P. Alagenio (9214)

WEEK 15 & 16

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BIOCHEMISTRY – it is the study of the chemistry of living things, this includes organic molecules and their chemical reactions. Most people consider biochemistry to by synonymous with molecular biology Other discipline that is related to Biochemistry Molecular Genetics- determines the overall makeup of an organism Molecular Biology- studies the composition, structure and interactions of cellular   molecules Pharmacology- t he discipline encompasses the sources, chemical properties, biological effects and therapeutic uses of drugs. Chemical Biology- The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems.

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CARBOHYRATES- STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS The most abundant class of bioorganic molecules on earth. Produce by the photosynthetic activity of the green plants. Also referred to as saccharides because of the sweet taste of many carbohydrates. Storehouse of chemical energy (glucose, starch, glycogen) Supportive structural components in plants and some animals (cellulose, chitin). Form part of the structural framework of DNA & RNA. Carbohydrate “markers” on cell surfaces play key roles in cell-cell recognition processes.

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WEEK 3 & 4

METABOLISM and CELL STRUCTURE Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Their Function • Nucleus: DNA replication and RNA synthesis. • Plasma membrane: Cellular boundary. • Cytoplasm: The water-based material of a eukaryotic cell . • Mitochondria: Generates most of the energy needed for cell. • Lysosome: Contain hydrolytic enzymes needed for cell rebuilding, repair and degradation . • Ribosome: Sites for protein synthesis .

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GLYCOGEN SYNTHESIS AND DEGRADATION Be familiar with how the processes of glycogenesis and glycogenolysis relate to the molecule glycogen, be familiar with the intermediate compounds associated with these two processes . GLYCOGENESIS – is the metabolic pathway by which glycogen is synthesized from glucose 6-phosphate THREE STEPS Isomerization = formation of Glucose 1-phosphate Activation = formation of UDP ( Uridine diphosphate ). Linkage to chain = Glucose to transfer to a glycogen chain . GLYCOGENOLYSIS - is the metabolic pathway which glucose 6-phosphate is produced from glycogen . This process is NOT simply the reverse of glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis) because it DOES NOT require UTP or UDP molecules TWO STEPS Phosphorolysis = formation of glucose 1-phosphate Isomerization = formation of glucose 6-phosphate

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WEEK 5 & 6

CELL MEMBRANE Important functions: They act as a mechanical support to separate the contents of a cell from its external environment. A structural support for certain proteins that serve to transport ions and nonpolar molecules across the membrane. - proteins act as gates and pumps - receptor sites



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PASSIVE TRANSPORT – in which a subs. moves across a cell membrane by diffusion from a region of higher to a lower conc. - few molecules can cross (O2, N2, urea and ethanol) - closely related to osmosis FACILITATED TRANSPORT – in which a subs. Moves across a cell membrane, with the aid of membrane proteins , from a region of higher conc. to a region of lower conc. - specific protein molecules involved (carriers or transporters). - gate ACTIVE TRANSPORT – in which a subs. Moves across a cell membrane, with the aid of membrane proteins, against a concentration gradient with the expenditure of cellular energy. - pumps : require energy in order to function.


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WEEK 7& 8

LIPID METABOLISM Digestion and Absorption of Lipids Dietary Lipids: 98% triacylglycerols (TAGs): Fats and oils Salivary enzymes (water soluble) in the mouth have no effect on lipids (TAGs) which are water insoluble. • In Stomach: most, not all, of TAGs change physically to small globules or droplets -- called chyme which floats above other material: During digestion, fats and phospholipids are emulsified and then hydrolyzed into fatty acids and glycerol. The products are synthesized into triglycerides in the intestinal mucosa and flow into the thoracic duct and then into the bloodstream. However, such substances are insoluble in water and likewise in the blood.

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WEEK 9 &10

I t is a naturally occurring, unbranched polymer in which the monomer units are amino acids. Greek word “ proteios ” , means of the first importance It is the most abundant substances in all cells (15% mass) Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (most contain sulfur) Nitrogen contents of proteins (15.4%) by mass Specialized protein (phosphorus and iron) Main protein of milk (casein) Protein of blood (iron) Typical human cell contains about 9000 different kinds of proteins Human body contains about 100,000 different proteins

Fish Seafoods Skinless, white-meat poultry Lean beef (including tenderloin, sirloin, eye of round) Skim milk or low-fat milk Skim or low-fat yogurt Fat-free or low-fat cheese Eggs.


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PROTEIN DENATURATION Cooking food kills microorganisms through protein denaturation that may cause trichinosis (ham and bacon) In surgery: Cauterization Heat-induced denaturation: to sterilize surgical instruments High body temperature: inactivation of enzymes (lethal effect) Curdy precipitate of casein. Alcohol

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WEEK 13&14

ENZYMES A re biological molecules (typically proteins) that significantly speed up the rate of virtually all of the chemical reactions that take place within cells. They are vital for life and serve a wide range of important functions in the body, such as aiding in digestion and metabolism . General Characteristics of Enzymes • Enzymes are usually proteins that act as biological catalysts. • Each cell in the human body contains thousands of different enzymes . • Enzymes cause cellular reactions to occur millions of times faster than corresponding uncatalyzed reactions.

• An enzyme speeds a reaction by lowering the activation energy, changing the reaction pathway that provides a lower energy route for conversion of substrate to product . • As catalysts enzymes are NOT consumed in the reactions.

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Six Major Classes • Enzymes are grouped into six major classes based on the types of reactions they catalyze.

Class l. Oxidcreductases i Transferases 3. Hydrolases 4. Lyases 5. 6. Ligases Reaction Catalyzed Oxidation-reductions Functional group tansfer teactms Hydrolysis reactions Reactions involving addition ofa group to a double bmd ot removal of groups to fom double Isomerization Reactions involving bond formatm coupled with A1? hydrolysis

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WEEK 15&16

NUCLEIC ACIDS Two types of Nucleic Acids: • DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid : found within cell nucleus – storage and transfer of genetic information – passed from one cell to other during cell division • RNA: Ribonucleic Acid: occurs in all parts of cell – primary function is to synthesize the proteins Types of Nucleic Acids The Swiss physiologist Friedrich Miescher (1844-1895) discovered nucleic acids in 1869 while studying the nuclei of white blood cells. The fact that they were initially found in cell nuclei and are acidic accounts for the name nucleic acid.

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It is now known that nucleic acids are found throughout a cell, not just in the nucleus. Of all biomolecules, it is only the nucleic acids that have the remarkable property of replicating itself, thus nature chose these molecules to serve as the repository and transmitter of genetic information in every cell and organism . The genome or total DNA of a cell acts like a molecular file where the program for an organism’s activities (maintenance, development, growth, reproduction, and even death) are encoded. Cells in an organism are exact replicas. Cells have information on how to make new cells. Molecules responsible for such information are nucleic acids. The nucleic acids (DNA in particular) are the “informational molecules”; into their primary structure is encoded a set of directions that ultimately governs the metabolic activities of the living cell.