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ANTIBODY TITER TEST

NAME: THERESA TINA ANAK JOSEPH ID NUMBER: DMLT2019070030 INTAKE/SEM: 07.2019/ SEM 07

Presented by theresa tina

Date : 2021.08.20

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CONTENTS:

药品

INTRODUCTION

PRINCIPLE

EQUITMENT/ MATERIALS

THE PURPOSE OF THIS TOPIC:

CONCLUSION

RESULT

THE IMPORTANT THIS TEST

THE PROCEDURE

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INTRODUCTION AND PRINCIPLE

INTRODUCTION

An antibody titer test measures the amount of a specific type of antibodies in the blood. Antibodies are proteins created by the immune system to fight pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria.

听诊器

药品

急救包

PRINCIPLE

Rh Antibody Titration is a semi quantitative technique use to help to determine the concentration of antibodies in a serum specimen or to equate the strength of antigen expression on different red blood cell specimens.

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EQUITMENT/MATERIAL/ REAGENT

Reagents cell known to have the antigen will be reacting with titered antibody

12 X 75 mm tubes

Test tube rack

Disposable pipettes

physiology saline

serofuge

Marking pen

light aggulatination viewer

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PURPOSE

Assessing past disease exposure: The presence of antibodies can reflect previous exposure to a pathogen.

Evaluating immune function: People with some immune diseases do not properly develop antibodies after pathogen exposure or vaccine administration. This can cause recurring infections or leave them susceptible to vaccine-preventable illnesses. A titer test may be used after vaccination to see if their immune system responds properly.

Diagnosing autoimmune diseases: In some conditions, the immune system attacks the body’s own cells. The presence of certain types of antibodies can be an indication of an autoimmune problem.

Protecting healthcare workers: Medical workers may need a titer test to ensure that they have antibodies to viruses to which they have frequent exposure.

The purpose of this test is to check the levels of certain antibodies in the blood. These levels are known as antibody titers. When titers are above a certain threshold, it demonstrates that the immune system has had prior exposure to either a vaccine or pathogen.An antibody titer test can be used in several different situations:

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IMPORTANT

An antibody titer blood test is done to determine the presence (qualitative) and amount (quantitative) of antibodies in the blood. Also, the test is performed to determine if a person was infected by any pathogen in the past.

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PROCEDURE

1.Label 10 test tubes according to the serum dilution (e.g. 1:1 and 1: 2). 1 in 1 means 1 volume of serum undiluted. 1 in 2 dilutions mean one volume (100 ul) of serum in a final volume of two, or a 50% solution of serum in the diluent. 2.Deliver one volume of saline (100 ul) to all test tubes except the first (undiluted 1 in 1) tube. 3.Add an equal volume (100 ul) of serum to each of the first two tubes. (Undiluted and 1 in 2). 4.Using clean pipette, mix the contents of the 1 in 2 dilution several times and deliver one volume (100 ul) in to a next tube (1 in 4 dilutions).

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CONT.

5.Continue the same process for all dilutions, using clean pipette to mix and transfer each dilution. Remove one volume (100 ul) of diluted solution from the final tube and save it for use if further dilution is required. 6.Add 100 ul, of 5% cell suspension of “O” Positive cells to each tube and incubate at 37oC for 45 minute. 7.Wash three times with normal saline. 8. Add two drops of anti-human globulin (AHG) reagent in each tube. 9.Incubate for 5 minutes at 37oC. 10.Centrifuge at 3500 rpm for 15-30 seconds. 11.Examine the test result macroscopically grade and record the reactions in all tubes.

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RESULT:

NORMAL RESULTS: Normal values depend on the antibody being tested. If the test is being done to look for antibodies against your own body tissues, the normal value would be zero or negative. In some cases, a normal level is below a specific number. If the test is being done to see if a vaccine fully protects you against a disease, the normal result depends on the specific value for that immunization. Negative antibody tests can help rule out certain infections.Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

ABNORMAL RESULT MEAN Abnormal results depend on which antibodies are being measured.Abnormal results may be due to: Autoimmune disease Failure of a vaccine to fully protect you against a certain disease Immune deficiency Viral infections

RESULTS

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When a person is exposed to a virus, their immune system mounts a response that involves several types of cells and tissues that work to clear out an infection. Antibodies are part of that mix. They’re pieces of protein that bind to a specific part of a virus, called an antigen. This action typically neutralizes, or deactivates, a virus. After an infection is cleared, antibodies continue to exist in the blood. If a person were to be exposed to the same virus again, those antibodies would rush to the site of viral exposure and use their memory to blunt the virus from causing harm.An antibody test involves taking a person’s blood sample and seeing if they have antibodies that attach and bind to a sample of virus. If antibodies bind to the new coronavirus, for example, this shows a person had a previous infection.With a diagnostic test, a physician swabs a patient’s nose or throat and looks for viral genetic material to determine whether a person actively has a particular disease, like COVID-19.

CONCLUSION

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20 21

THANK YOU !

PRESENTED BY THERESA TINA

Date : 20 21.08.20