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[Audio] > Nom: Affricot Dominique Savio WE are going to talk about the " Types of manual transmission and transaxles that are currently in use. After studying this chapter, the reader should be able to: 1. Define torque and explain the relationship between torque and horsepower. 2. Describe the various gear types and their effect. on speed, torque and direction of rotation. 3. Explain gear ratios and their effect on vehicle operation. 4. Discuss the types of manual transmissions and transaxles that are currently in use. 5. Discuss automatic transmissions and the planetary gear sets used for automatic transmissions. 6. Compare rear-wheel drive, front-wheel drive, four-wheel drive, and all-wheel drive systems. 7. Explain the characteristics of drive shafts and drive axle assemblies.

>Nom: Affricot Dominique Savio WE are going to talk about the “Types of manual transmission and transaxles that are currently in use. After studying this chapter, the reader should be able to: 1. Define torque and explain the relationship between torque and horsepower. 2. Describe the various gear types and their effect. on speed, torque and direction of rotation. 3. Explain gear ratios and their effect on vehicle operation. 4. Discuss the types of manual transmissions and transaxles that are currently in use. 5. Discuss automatic transmissions and the planetary gear sets used for automatic transmissions. 6. Compare rear-wheel drive, front-wheel drive, four-wheel drive, and all-wheel drive systems. 7. Explain the characteristics of drive shafts and drive axle assemblies.

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[Audio] > 1-Let define first transmission what does it do? It's purpose etc. A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of power. Often the term 5-speed transmission refers simply to the gearbox, that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. Why we need transmission in automobile, Then? fig 1 Single stage gear reducer The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Engines typically operate over a range of 600 to about 7000 rpm (though this varies, and is typically less for diesel engines), while the car's wheels rotate between 0 RPM and around 1800 RPM. Furthermore, the engine provides its highest torque and power outputs unevenly across the rev range resulting in a torque band and a power band. Often the greatest torque is required when the vehicle is moving from rest or traveling slowly, while maximum power is needed at high speed. Therefore, a system is required that transforms the engine's output so that it can supply high torque at low speeds, but also operate at highway speeds with the motor still operating within its limits. Transmissions perform this transformation. What is the purpose and function of gears in a transmission?

>1-Let define first transmission what does it do? It’s purpose etc. A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of power. Often the term 5-speed transmission refers simply to the gearbox, that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. Why we need transmission in automobile, Then? fig 1 Single stage gear reducer The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Engines typically operate over a range of 600 to about 7000 rpm (though this varies, and is typically less for diesel engines), while the car's wheels rotate between 0 RPM and around 1800 RPM. Furthermore, the engine provides its highest torque and power outputs unevenly across the rev range resulting in a torque band and a power band. Often the greatest torque is required when the vehicle is moving from rest or traveling slowly, while maximum power is needed at high speed. Therefore, a system is required that transforms the engine's output so that it can supply high torque at low speeds, but also operate at highway speeds with the motor still operating within its limits. Transmissions perform this transformation. What is the purpose and function of gears in a transmission?

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[Audio] PURPOSE AND FUNCTION The purpose and function of gears in a transmission include the following: - Low/first gear must provide enough torque to get the vehicle moving. - High gear should provide an engine speed for fuel-efficient operation at highway speeds. - The intermediate ratios should be spaced to provide adequate acceleration while minimizing the potential of overrevving the engine before the shift or lugging the engine after the shift. MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS PURPOSE AND FUNCTION A manual transmission, also called a standard transmission, is constructed with a group of paths through which power can flow with each path used being a different gear ratio. Synchronizer assemblies or sliding gears and the shift linkage are used to control or engage the power paths.

PURPOSE AND FUNCTION

The purpose and function of gears in a transmission include the following:

- Low/first gear must provide enough torque to get the

vehicle moving.

- High gear should provide an engine speed for fuel-efficient

operation at highway speeds.

- The intermediate ratios should be spaced to provide

adequate acceleration while minimizing the potential of

overrevving the engine before the shift or lugging the

engine after the shift.

MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS

PURPOSE AND FUNCTION

A manual transmission, also called a standard transmission, is constructed with a

group of paths through which power can flow with each path used being a different gear ratio. Synchronizer assemblies or sliding gears and the shift linkage are used to control or engage the

power paths.

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[Audio] fig 2

fig 2

output shaft input shaft clutch housing synchronizer counter shaft

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[Audio] fig 3 N.B CLUTCH Engine power must be stopped when making a shift in a manual transmission. The clutch is used to stop the power flow to allow the transmission to be shifted. It is also used to ease the engagement of the power flow when the vehicle starts from a standstill. The slight slippage as the clutch engages allows the engine speed to stay up where it produces usable torque as the vehicle begins moving. Most vehicles use a foot-pedal-operated single-plate clutch assembly that is mounted on the engine flywheel. When the pedal is pushed down, the power flow is disengaged and when the pedal is released, power can flow from the engine to the transmission through the engaged clutch. There some clue words we must know their meaning and their purpose in a transmission. Let talk about torque and explain the relationship between torque and horsepower. TORQUE DEFINITION Torque is a rotating or twisting force that may or may not result in motion. A vehicle moves because of the torque the drive axle exerts on the wheels and tires to make

fig 3

N.B

CLUTCH Engine power must be stopped when making a shift in a manual transmission. The clutch is used to stop the power flow to allow the transmission to be shifted. It is also used to ease the engagement of the power flow when the vehicle starts from a standstill. The slight slippage as the clutch engages allows the engine speed to stay up where it produces usable torque as the vehicle begins moving. Most vehicles use a foot-pedal-operated single-plate clutch assembly that is mounted on the engine flywheel. When the pedal is pushed down, the power flow is disengaged and when the pedal is released, power can flow from the engine to the transmission through the engaged clutch.

There some clue words we must know their meaning and their purpose in a transmission. Let talk about torque and explain the relationship between torque and horsepower.

TORQUE

DEFINITION Torque is a rotating or twisting force that may or may not result in motion. A vehicle moves because of the torque the drive axle exerts on the wheels and tires to make

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[Audio] them rotate. Being a form of mechanical energy, torque cannot be created or destroyed—it is converted from one form of energy to another form of energy. N.B The unit for torque is expressed as a force times the distance ( leverage) from the object. Therefore, the official unit for torque is lb-ft (pound-feet) or Newton meters (a force times a distance). However, it is commonly expressed in ft-lb and most torque wrenches are labeled with this unit. DRIVE VS. DRIVEN GEARS The drive gear is the gear that is the source of the engine torque and rotation. The driven gear is the gear that is driven or rotated by the drive gear. Two gears meshed together are used to transmit torque and rotational motion. The driven gear can then rotate yet another gear. In this case, the second gear becomes the drive gear, and the third gear is the driven gear. Exp fig 1 TORQUE MULTIPLICATION The gear teeth are cut proportional to the diameter of the gear. If one of two mating gears were twice as large as the other, it would have twice as many teeth. For example, if the smaller gear has 10 teeth, a gear twice as large will have 20 teeth. If the teeth of these gears are intermeshed, 10 teeth of each gear will come into contact when the smaller gear rotates one revolution. This will require one revolution of the small gear and one-half revolution of the larger gear. It will take two revolutions of the small gear to produce one revolution of the larger gear. This is a gear ratio of 2: 1, assuming that the small gear is the drive gear. To determine a gear ratio, divide the driven gear by the driving gear. GEARS ARE LEVERS Torque is increased because of the length of the gear lever, as measured from the center of the gear. Think of each tooth as a lever, with the fulcrum being the center of the gear. The lever lengths of the two gears can provide leverage much like that of a simple lever. Physics does not allow energy to become lost in a gear set, other than what is lost as heat in overcoming friction. Therefore, whatever power that comes in one shaft, goes out through another.

them rotate. Being a form of mechanical energy, torque cannot be created or destroyed—it is converted from one form of energy to another form of energy.

N.B

The unit for torque is expressed as a force times the distance (leverage) from the object. Therefore, the official unit for torque is lb-ft (pound-feet) or Newton meters (a force times a distance). However, it is commonly expressed in ft-lb and most torque wrenches are labeled with this unit.

DRIVE VS. DRIVEN GEARS

The drive gear is the gear that is the source of the engine torque and rotation. The driven

gear is the gear that is driven or rotated by the drive gear. Two gears meshed together are used to transmit torque and rotational motion. The driven gear can then rotate yet another gear. In this case, the second gear becomes the drive gear, and the third gear is the driven gear.

Exp fig 1

TORQUE MULTIPLICATION The gear teeth are cut proportional to the diameter of the gear. If one of two mating gears were twice as large as the other, it would have twice as many teeth. For example, if the smaller gear has 10 teeth, a gear twice as large will have 20 teeth.

If the teeth of these gears are intermeshed, 10 teeth of each gear will come into contact when the smaller gear rotates one revolution. This will require one revolution of the small gear and one-half revolution of the larger gear. It will take two revolutions of the small gear to produce one revolution of the larger gear. This is a gear ratio of 2:1, assuming that the small gear is the drive gear. To determine a gear ratio, divide the driven gear by the driving gear.

GEARS ARE LEVERS

Torque is increased because of the length of the gear lever, as measured from the center of the gear. Think of each tooth as a lever, with the fulcrum being the center of the gear. The lever lengths of the two gears can provide leverage much like that of a simple lever. Physics does

not allow energy to become lost in a gear set, other than what is lost as heat in overcoming friction. Therefore, whatever power that comes in one shaft, goes out through another.

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[Audio] figfiff fig4 HORSEPOWER DEFINITION The term power means the rate of doing work. Power equals work divided by time. - Work is done when a certain amount of mass ( weight) is moved a certain distance by a force. Whether the object is moved in 10 seconds or 10 minutes does not make a difference in the amount of work accomplished, but it does affect the amount of power needed. - Power is expressed in units of foot-pounds per minute. One horsepower is the power required to move 550 pounds one foot in one second, or 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute (550 lb × 60 sec = 33,000 lb).

figfiff

fig4

HORSEPOWER

DEFINITION

The term power means the rate of doing work. Power equals work divided by time.

- Work is done when a certain amount of mass (weight) is moved a certain distance by a force. Whether the object is moved in 10 seconds or 10 minutes does not make a difference in the amount of work accomplished, but it does affect the amount of power needed.

- Power is expressed in units of foot-pounds per minute.

One horsepower is the power required to move 550 pounds one foot in one second, or 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute (550 lb × 60 sec = 33,000 lb).

Lever Principles Gears can be thought of as levers, the size of the gears will effect the mechanical advantage Load Gear 1 RI Lever Load Gear 2 RI If RI and R2 are the same size there is no mechanical advantage. When the gears are different sizes(R1 R2) it will effect the mechanical advantage of the gearset. For example: Mechanical advantage can be used on a robotto increase its abilityto push or lift heavier objects

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[Audio] Relation between torque and horsepower. Mathematically, horsepower equals torque multiplied by rpm. H = T x rpm/ 5252, where H is horsepower, T is pound-feet, rpm is how fast the engine is spinning, and 5252 is a constant that makes the units jibe. So, to make more power an engine needs to generate more torque, operate at higher rpm, or both. 4-What are the types of manual transmission?

Relation between torque and horsepower.

Mathematically, horsepower equals torque multiplied by rpm. H = T x rpm/5252, where H is horsepower, T is pound-feet, rpm is how fast the engine is spinning, and 5252 is a constant that makes the units jibe. So, to make more power an engine needs to generate more torque, operate at higher rpm, or both.

4-What are the types of manual transmission?

Crank Horse Power 1 Hp = 550 ft.lbf/s 550 lb t = 1 Second 550 lb 1 Feet

What's the relation between Horsepower & Torque? Know your required RPM & Torque? IJse this equation to find your HP RPM x Torque 5250 Know your required HP & RPM? Use this equation to find your Torque HP x 5250 Torque RPM Electric Motor

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[Audio] 3 different types of manual transmission include Sequential manual transmission, Unsynchronized transmission, and constant mesh gearbox. 5-An automatic transmission (sometimes abbreviated to auto or AT) is a multi-speed transmission used in motor vehicles that does not require any driver input to change gears under normal driving conditions. The most common type of automatic transmission is the hydraulic automatic, which uses a planetary gearset, hydraulic controls, and a torque converter. Other types of automatic transmissions include continuously variable transmissions ( CVT), automated manual transmissions ( AMT), and dual-clutch transmissions ( DCT). 6-Both AWD and RWD setups deliver superior performance compared to FWD vehicles, but which one you choose will depend on your own priorities. ... RWD for Efficiency: Because AWD vehicles need bulkier and heavier components, they consume more fuel than RWD models, which tend to be much lighter.

3 different types of manual transmission include Sequential manual transmission, Unsynchronized transmission, and constant mesh gearbox.

5-An automatic transmission (sometimes abbreviated to auto or AT) is a multi-speed transmission used in motor vehicles that does not require any driver input to change gears under normal driving conditions.

The most common type of automatic transmission is the hydraulic automatic, which uses a planetary gearset, hydraulic controls, and a torque converter. Other types of automatic transmissions include continuously variable transmissions (CVT), automated manual transmissions (AMT), and dual-clutch transmissions (DCT).

6-Both AWD and RWD setups deliver superior performance compared to FWD vehicles, but which one you choose will depend on your own priorities. ... RWD for Efficiency: Because AWD vehicles need bulkier and heavier components, they consume more fuel than RWD models, which tend to be much lighter.

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

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[Audio] 7-A drive axle is a split axle with universal joints ( UV joints) and a differential between the two half axles. It is a key component to a vehicle's drivetrain and refers to the axle or drive shafts of the vehicle's driving wheels. Axle Assembly - This refers to the axle shafts that are found at the front of a FWD vehicle, and at the rear of an AWD car or SUV. They do not support any vehicle weight - they just transfer power from the engine to the wheel. I n a nutshell the drive train component become more and more complex and need to be understood.,

7-A drive axle is a split axle with universal joints (UV joints) and a differential between the two half axles. It is a key component to a vehicle's drivetrain and refers to the axle or drive shafts of the vehicle's driving wheels.

Axle Assembly - This refers to the axle shafts that are found at the front of a FWD vehicle, and at the rear of an AWD car or SUV. They do not support any vehicle weight - they just transfer power from the engine to the wheel.

I n a nutshell the drive train component become more and more complex and need to be understood.,

28 (290, 21) ABS Speed Sensor and Wire Harness C) Cotter Pin 117) C Cotter Pin 110 (1,125, 81) O Snap Ring Drive Shaft 28 (290, 21) 13(130, 10) 8.0 71 h.lbf) 123 (1,250, 91) Brake Caliper Steering Knuckle with Axle Hub O Snap Ring 147 (1,500, 108) Steering Knuckle Arm Specified torque C Non-reusable part Precoated part