THE MATHEMATICS OF ANCIENT INDIAN ARCHITECTURE - TAJ MAHAL.
1. Perfect Symmetry. The Taj Mahal emits a sense of peace and harmony which is mainly caused by the structure’s near-perfect symmetry, the main dome and surrounding minarets, and the division of the gardens by four canals that meet at a raised central lotus pond. The perfect geometry of the complex is what leaves a visitor in awe and is so perfect that one cannot find a single element out of place adding to the structure’s grandeur. The symmetry of the Taj Mahal makes a statement of absoluteness which is a mark of architectural superiority and reflects universal harmony..
2. Built with an Optical Illusion. To achieve the desired other-worldly experience, the Taj Mahal’s minarets are placed in a specific way to create an optical illusion. Because the architects and craftsmen were masters of proportions, they were able to build the monument in such a way that as soon as you enter the gate, the monument appears close and large. But as you approach it, it shrinks in size. In addition to creating the illusion of greater size, the lean of the minarets protects the main crypt in case of natural disasters like earthquakes. This way, they will always fall away from the central dome..
Four Minarets and One Central Dome. The Taj Mahal is surrounded by four minarets of equal height that lean slightly outwards to protect the tomb in case they collapse during a natural disaster. The dome of the Taj Mahal is a classic Persian dome. There are actually two main domes in the Taj Mahal including an outer dome built over an inner dome, in between the two is a large concealed empty space. The double dome technique is used for the aesthetics and appeal of the inner chamber and to retain correct proportions. When Put together, the double dome structure signifies the heavenward elevation of the soul..
The Garden. Taj Mahal’s garden leads up to the tomb instead of surrounding it. The holy rivers of India are incorporated in the design of the garden, which is divided into four quarters by four intersecting canals that meet at an elevated, central lotus pond..
Recurrence of the Number 4. The number 4 appears everywhere in the Taj Mahal because of its numerological significance. Four divides into equal parts, has several geometric representations, and is associated with logic and rigor which were characteristics sought by the Mughal builders. The perfect symmetry of the Taj is achieved through the architectural application of this number. The four canals divide the garden into four equal parts. The mausoleum is surrounded by four minarets and its main dome is surrounded by four small ones..
The form of the Taj Mahal was inspired by a Persian architectural technique called “hasht bihisht” (eight paradises). This type of structure often contains square, rectangular, or radial buildings with central domed chambers surrounded by eight elements..